Deer park (England)
In medieval and Early Modern England, a deer park was an enclosed area containing deer. It was bounded by a ditch and bank with a wooden park pale on top of the bank, or by a stone or brick wall; the ditch was on the inside increasing the effective height. Some parks had deer "leaps", where there was an external ramp and the inner ditch was constructed on a grander scale, thus allowing deer to enter the park but preventing them from leaving; some deer parks are mentioned in Anglo-Saxon Charters. After the Norman conquest of England in 1066 William the Conqueror seized existing game reserves. Deer parks flourished and proliferated under the Normans, forming a forerunner of the deer parks that became popular among England's landed gentry; the Domesday Book of 1086 records thirty-six of them. The Norman kings maintained an exclusive right to keep and hunt deer and established forest law for this purpose. In due course they allowed members of the nobility and senior clergy to maintain deer parks. At their peak at the turn of the 14th century, deer parks may have covered 2% of the land area of England.
James I was an enthusiast for hunting but it became less fashionable and popular after the Civil War. The number of deer parks declined, contemporary books documenting other more profitable uses for such an estate. During the 18th century many deer parks were landscaped, where deer became optional within larger country parks, several of which were created or enlarged from wealth from trade and colonization in the British Empire; these mostly gave way to profitable agriculture dependent on crop prices, with large parts of the workforce having been attracted elsewhere following increasing industrialization. This created pressure to sell off parts or divide such estates while rural population growth pushed up poor law rates and urban poverty led to the introduction of lump sum capital taxation such as inheritance tax and a shift in power away from the aristocracy. Deer parks are notable landscape features in their own right. However, where they have survived into the 20th century, the lack of ploughing or development has preserved other features within the park, including barrows, Roman roads and abandoned villages.
To establish a deer park a royal licence was required, known as a "licence to empark"—especially if the park was in or near a royal forest. Because of their cost and exclusivity, deer parks became status symbols. Deer were all kept within exclusive reserves with the larger ones used as aristocratic playgrounds, for hunting with deer being driven into nets, thus the ability to eat venison or give it to others was a status symbol. Many deer parks were maintained for the supply of venison, rather than hunting the deer. Small deer parks which functioned as household larders were attached to many smaller manors, such as at Umberleigh in Devon. Owners would grant to their friends or to others to whom they owed a favour, a signed warrant for a specified number of deer one only, specified as buck or doe, which the recipient would present to the park keeper who would select and kill one and hand the carcass to the grantee; the Lisle Papers dating from the 1530s contains many such letters from prospective grantees requesting such gifts from the park of Honor Grenville, the lady of the manor of Umberleigh in Devon, contains reports to her from her bailiff listing grants of venison made from her park during the past year.
Such grants acted as common features of the mediaeval social machinery. King Henry VIII appointed Sir William Denys an Esquire of the Body at some date before 5 June 1511, it was at the time of William's appointment to that position at court that the King promised him the honour of a licence to empark 500 acres of his manor of Dyrham in Gloucestershire, to say to enclose the land with a wall or hedgebank and to establish a captive herd of deer within, with exclusive hunting rights. This grant is witnessed by a charter on parchment, to, affixed a rare example of a perfect great seal of Henry VIII, now hanging in a frame beneath the main staircase of Dyrham Park, it was handed down with the deeds of the manor on the termination of the Denys era at Dyrham. The charter is of exceptional interest as it is signed as witnesses by men of the greatest importance in the state, who were at the King's side at that moment, at the Palace of Westminster; the text of the document, translated from Latin is as follows: Henry by the grace of God King of England and France and Lord of Ireland sends greetings to his archbishops, abbotts, dukes, earls, judges, reeves and all our bailiffs and faithful subjects.
Let it be known that we, motivated by our especial grace and certain knowledge of him, have granted for us and our heirs to our faithful servant William Denys, esquire of the Royal Body, to him, his heirs and assigns, the right to empark 500 acres of land, meadow and wood together with appurtenance at Le Worthy within the manor of Dereham in the county of Gloucestershire and enclose them with fences and hedges in order to make a park there. That they may have free warren in all their demesne lands within the said manor. No other person may enter this park or warren to hunt or catch anything which might belong to that park or warren without permission from William, his heirs or assigns under penalty of £10, provided that the land is not within our forest. Witnessed by: The most reverend in Christ father William Canterbury our chancellor and archbishop The reverend i
P. G. Wodehouse
Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse was an English author and one of the most read humorists of the 20th century. Born in Guildford, the third son of a British magistrate based in Hong Kong, Wodehouse spent happy teenage years at Dulwich College, to which he remained devoted all his life. After leaving school, he was employed by a bank but disliked the work and turned to writing in his spare time, his early novels were school stories, but he switched to comic fiction, creating several regular characters who became familiar to the public over the years. They include the jolly gentleman of his sagacious valet Jeeves. Most of Wodehouse's fiction is set in England, although he spent much of his life in the US and used New York and Hollywood as settings for some of his novels and short stories, he wrote a series of Broadway musical comedies during and after the First World War, together with Guy Bolton and Jerome Kern, that played an important part in the development of the American musical. He began the 1930s writing for MGM in Hollywood.
In a 1931 interview, his naïve revelations of incompetence and extravagance in the studios caused a furore. In the same decade, his literary career reached a new peak. In 1934 Wodehouse moved to France for tax reasons. After his release he made six broadcasts from German radio in Berlin to the US, which had not yet entered the war; the talks were comic and apolitical, but his broadcasting over enemy radio prompted anger and strident controversy in Britain, a threat of prosecution. Wodehouse never returned to England. From 1947 until his death he lived in the US, taking dual British-American citizenship in 1955, he was a prolific writer throughout his life, publishing more than ninety books, forty plays, two hundred short stories and other writings between 1902 and 1974. He died at the age of 93, in Southampton, New York. Wodehouse worked extensively on his books, sometimes having two or more in preparation simultaneously, he would take up to two years to write a scenario of about thirty thousand words.
After the scenario was complete he would write the story. Early in his career he would produce a novel in about three months, but he slowed in old age to around six months, he used a mixture of Edwardian slang, quotations from and allusions to numerous poets, several literary techniques to produce a prose style, compared to comic poetry and musical comedy. Some critics of Wodehouse have considered his work flippant, but among his fans are former British prime ministers and many of his fellow writers. Wodehouse was born in Guildford, the third son of Henry Ernest Wodehouse, a magistrate resident in the British colony of Hong Kong, his wife, daughter of the Rev John Bathurst Deane; the Wodehouses, who traced their ancestry back to the 13th century, belonged to a cadet branch of the family of the earls of Kimberley. Eleanor Wodehouse was of ancient aristocratic ancestry, she was visiting her sister in Guildford. The boy was baptised at the Church of St Nicolas and was named after his godfather, Pelham von Donop.
Wodehouse wrote in 1957, "If you ask me to tell you frankly if I like the name Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, I must confess that I do not.... I was named after a godfather, not a thing to show for it but a small silver mug which I lost in 1897." The first name was elided to "Plum", the name by which Wodehouse became known to family and friends. Mother and son sailed for Hong Kong, where for his first two years Wodehouse was raised by a Chinese amah, alongside his elder brothers Peveril and Armine; when he was two, the brothers were brought to England, where they were placed under the care of an English nanny in a house adjoining that of Eleanor's father and mother. The boys' parents became virtual strangers to their sons; such an arrangement was normal for middle-class families based in the colonies. The lack of parental contact, the harsh regime of some of those in loco parentis, left permanent emotional scars on many children from similar backgrounds, including the writers Thackeray, Saki and Walpole.
Wodehouse was more fortunate. His recollection was that "it went like a breeze from start to finish, with everybody I met understanding me perfectly"; the biographer Robert McCrum suggests that nonetheless Wodehouse's isolation from his parents left a psychological mark, causing him to avoid emotional engagement both in life and in his works. Another biographer, Frances Donaldson, writes, "Deprived so early, not of maternal love, but of home life and a stable background, Wodehouse consoled himself from the youngest age in an imaginary world of his own."In 1886 the brothers were sent to a dame-school in Croydon, where they spent three years. Peveril was found to have a "weak chest". In 1891 Wodehouse went on to Malvern House Preparatory School in Kent, which concentrated on preparing its pupils for entry to the Royal Navy, his father had planned a naval career for him, but the boy's eyesight was found to be too poor for it. He was unimpressed by the school's
The Gobelins Manufactory is a historic tapestry factory in Paris, France. It is located at 42 avenue des Gobelins, near Les Gobelins métro station in the 13th arrondissement of Paris, it is best known as a royal factory supplying the court of the French monarchs since Louis XIV, it is now run by the Administration générale du Mobilier national et des Manufactures nationales de tapis et tapisseries of the French Ministry of Culture. The factory is open for guided tours several afternoons per week by appointment, as well as for casual visits every day except Mondays and some specific holidays; the Galerie des Gobelins is dedicated to temporary exhibitions of tapestries from the French manufactures and furnitures from the Mobilier National, built in the gardens by Auguste Perret in 1937. The Gobelins were a family of dyers who, in the middle of the 15th century, established themselves in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, Paris, on the banks of the Bièvre. In 1602, Henry IV of France rented factory space from the Gobelins for his Flemish tapestry makers, Marc de Comans and François de la Planche, on the current location of the Gobelins Manufactory adjoining the Bièvre river.
In 1629, their sons Charles de Comans and Raphaël de la Planche took over their fathers' tapestry workshops, in 1633, Charles was the head of the Gobelins manufactory. Their partnership ended around 1650, the workshops were split into two. Tapestries from this early, Flemish period are sometimes called pre-gobelins. In 1662, the works in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, with the adjoining grounds, were purchased by Jean-Baptiste Colbert on behalf of Louis XIV and made into a general upholstery factory, in which designs both in tapestry and in all kinds of furniture were executed under the superintendence of the royal painter, Charles Le Brun, who served as director and chief designer from 1663-1690. On account of Louis XIV's financial problems, the establishment was closed in 1694, but reopened in 1697 for the manufacture of tapestry, chiefly for royal use, it rivalled the Beauvais tapestry works until the French Revolution, when work at the factory was suspended. The factory was revived during the Bourbon Restoration and, in 1826, the manufacture of carpets was added to that of tapestry.
In 1871, the building was burned down during the Paris Commune. The factory is still in operation today as a state-run institution. Today, the manufactory consists of a set of four irregular buildings dating to the seventeenth century, plus the building on the avenue des Gobelins built by Jean-Camille Formigé in 1912 after the 1871 fire, they contain Le Brun's residence and workshops that served as foundries for most of the bronze statues in the park of Versailles, as well as looms on which tapestries are woven following seventeenth century techniques. The Gobelins still produces some limited amount of tapestries for the decoration of French governmental institutions, with contemporary subjects. A branch of the manufactory was established in London in the early 18th-century in the area, now Fulham High Street. Around 1753 it appears to have been taken over by the priest and adventurer, Pierre Parisot, but closed only a few years later. List of museums in Paris Beauvais Manufactory Moravská Gobelínová Manufaktura Wolf Burchard, The Sovereign Artist: Charles Le Brun and the Image of Louis XIV, London 2016 Lacordaire, Notice historique sur les Manufactures impériales de tapisseries des Gobelins et de tapis de la Savonnerie, précédée du catalogue des tapisseries qui y sont exposées Genspach, Répertoire détaillé des tapisseries exécutées aux Gobelins, 1662–1892 Jules Guiffrey, Histoire de la tapisserie en France.
Manufacture des Gobelins Gobelins tapestries in the Collections of the Mobilier national Museums of Paris entry Paris.org entry
Earl of Bradford
Earl of Bradford is a title, created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was first created in 1694 for 2nd Baron Newport. However, all the Newport titles became extinct on the death of the fourth Earl in 1762; the Earldom was revived in 1815 for 2nd Baron Bradford. The Bridgeman family had succeeded to the Newport estates; the title of the peerage refers to the ancient hundred of Bradford in Shropshire, not, as might be assumed, to the city of Bradford, Yorkshire. The Newports were an ancient Shropshire family. One member of the family, Richard Newport, represented Shropshire and Shrewsbury in Parliament and was a supporter of King Charles I during the Civil War. In 1642 he was raised to the Peerage of England as Baron Newport, of High Ercall in the County of Shropshire, his son Francis, the second Baron, represented Shrewsbury in the Long Parliament and fought as a Royalist in the Civil War. After the Restoration he served as Lord Lieutenant of Shropshire, as Comptroller of the Household and as Treasurer of the Household.
In 1676 Newport was created Viscount Newport, of Bradford in the County of Shropshire, on 11 May 1694 he was further honoured when he was made Earl of Bradford, in the County of Shropshire. Both titles were in the Peerage of England. Lord Bradford was succeeded by the second Earl, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Shropshire. In 1681 Lord Bradford married Mary Wilbraham, daughter of Sir Thomas Wilbraham, Bt, Elizabeth Mytton. Through this marriage Weston Park in Shropshire came into the Newport family, their eldest son, the third Earl, represented Bishop's Castle and Shropshire in the House of Commons and was Lord Lieutenant of Staffordshire. He had no legitimate children and on his death the peerages passed to his younger brother, the fourth Earl; when he died in 1762 all the Newport titles became extinct. The family estates, including Weston Park, were inherited by his nephew, Sir Henry Bridgeman, 5th Baronet, of Great Lever; the Hon. Thomas Newport, younger son of the first Earl, was created Baron Torrington in 1716.
The Bridgeman family stems from Devon. One member of the family, John Bridgeman, grandson of Edward Bridgeman, served as Bishop of Chester from 1619 to 1652, his son, Orlando Bridgeman, was politician. In 1660 he was created a baronet, of Great Lever in the County of Lancaster, in the Baronetage of England, his great-grandson, the fourth Baronet, represented Shrewsbury in Parliament. In 1719 he married daughter of Richard Newport, 2nd Earl of Bradford, their son, the fifth Baronet, was a Member of Parliament for Ludlow and Wenlock for over forty years. In 1762 he succeeded through his mother to the Newport estates, including Weston Park, on the death of his uncle, the fourth Earl of Bradford. After Bridgeman's retirement from the House of Commons in 1794, the Bradford title held by his mother's family was revived when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Bradford, of Bradford in the County of Shropshire, his son, the second Baron, represented Wigan in Parliament. In 1815 the Earldom of Bradford was revived when he was created Viscount Newport, in the County of Shropshire, Earl of Bradford, in the County of Shropshire.
His grandson, the third Earl, was a Conservative politician and notably served as Lord Steward of the Household and as Master of the Horse. He was Lord Lieutenant of Shropshire, his eldest son, the fourth Earl, represented North Shropshire in Parliament as a Conservative. He was succeeded by the fifth Earl, he fought in the Boer War and in the First World War. Lord Bradford was Private Secretary to both Prime Minister Lord Salisbury and to Prime Minister Arthur Balfour and held office as a Government Whip in the House of Lords from 1919 to 1924; the present holder of the titles is his grandson, the seventh Earl, who succeeded in 1981. Another member of the Bridgeman family was the Conservative politician William Bridgeman, 1st Viscount Bridgeman, he was the son of Reverend the Hon. John Robert Orlando Bridgeman, third son of the second Earl of Bradford; the family seat is Weston Park in Staffordshire. They held Castle Bromwich Hall, a manor in Warwickshire, along with the adjoining Castle Bromwich Hall Gardens.
The Hall is now a hotel, its gardens have been restored by a Trust and are open to the public. Weston Park was held by the family until 1986. Gerald, the 6th Earl of Bradford, who had succeeded to the title in 1957, died in 1981, leaving the family with large death duties. After five years of negotiations with the Treasury, Weston Park was donated to the nation via a Foundation established in 1986. Since a G8 Summit Retreat was held at Weston Park in 1998 with the heads of State or Government present including US President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin and, since 1999, the grounds of Weston Park have been used as one of the sites of the annual dual-site Virgin sponsored V Festival. While the Family of the 7th Earl of Bradford has no remaining claim to Weston Park, much of the artwork remains held. Richard Newport, 1st Baron Newport Francis Newport, 2nd Baron Newport Francis Newport, 1st Earl of Bradford Richard Newport, 2nd Earl of Bradford Henry Newport, 3rd Earl of Bradford Thomas Newport, 4th Earl of Bradford Sir Orlando Bridgeman, 1st Baronet, son of John Bridgeman, Bishop of Chester.
Sir John Bridgeman, 2nd Baronet. Bridgema
Wolverhampton is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 249,470; the demonym for people from the city is'Wulfrunian'. Part of Staffordshire, the city grew as a market town specialising in the woollen trade. In the Industrial Revolution, it became a major centre for coal mining, steel production, lock making and the manufacture of cars and motorcycles; the economy of the city is still based on engineering, including a large aerospace industry, as well as the service sector. The city is named after Wulfrun, who founded the town from the Anglo-Saxon Wulfrūnehēantūn. Prior to the Norman Conquest, the area's name appears only as variants of Heantune or Hamtun, the prefix Wulfrun or similar appearing in 1070 and thereafter. Alternatively, the city may have earned its original name from Wulfereēantūn after the Mercian King, who tradition tells us established an abbey in 659, though no evidence of an abbey has been found; the variation Wolveren Hampton is seen in medieval records, e.g. in 1381.
A local tradition states that King Wulfhere of Mercia founded an abbey of St Mary at Wolverhampton in 659. Wolverhampton is recorded as being the site of a decisive battle between the unified Mercian Angles and West Saxons against the raiding Danes in 910, although sources are unclear as to whether the battle itself took place in Wednesfield or Tettenhall; the Mercians and West Saxons claimed a decisive victory, the field of Woden is recognised by numerous place names in Wednesfield. In 985, King Ethelred the Unready granted lands at a place referred to as Heantun to Lady Wulfrun by royal charter, hence founding the settlement. In 994, a monastery was consecrated in Wolverhampton for which Wulfrun granted land at Upper Arley in Worcestershire, Willenhall, Pelsall, Ogley Hay near Brownhills, Hilton near Wall, Kinvaston, Hilton near Wolverhampton, Featherstone; this became the site for the current St. Peter's Church. A statue of Lady Wulfrun, sculpted by Sir Charles Wheeler, can be seen on the stairs outside the church.
Wolverhampton is recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086 as being in the Hundred of Seisdon and the county of Staffordshire. The lords of the manor are listed as the canons of St Mary, with the tenant-in-chief being Samson, William the Conqueror's personal chaplain. Wolverhampton at this date is a large settlement of fifty households. In 1179, there is mention of a market held in the town, in 1204 it had come to the attention of King John that the town did not possess a Royal Charter for holding a market; this charter for a weekly market held on a Wednesday was granted on 4 February 1258 by Henry III. It is held that in the 14th and 15th centuries that Wolverhampton was one of the "staple towns" of the woollen trade, which today can be seen by the inclusion of a woolpack on the city's coat of arms, by the many small streets in the city centre, called "Fold", as well as Woolpack Street and Woolpack Alley. In 1512, Sir Stephen Jenyns, a former Lord Mayor of London and a twice Master of the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors, born in the city, founded Wolverhampton Grammar School, one of the oldest active schools in Britain.
From the 16th century onwards, Wolverhampton became home to a number of metal industries including lock and key making and iron and brass working. Wolverhampton suffered two Great Fires: the first in April 1590, the second in September 1696. Both fires started in today's Salop Street; the first fire lasted for five days and left nearly 700 people homeless, whilst the second destroyed 60 homes in the first five hours. This second fire led to the purchase of the first fire engine within the city in September 1703. On 27 January 1606, two farmers, Thomas Smart and John Holyhead of Rowley Regis, were executed on High Green, now Queen Square, for sheltering two of the Gunpowder Plotters, Robert Wintour and Stephen Littleton, who had fled to the Midlands; the pair played no part in the original plot but suffered a traitor's death of being hanged and quartered on butcher's blocks set up in the square a few days before the execution of Guy Fawkes and several other plotters in London. There is evidence that Wolverhampton may have been the location of the first working Newcomen Steam Engine in 1712.
The young Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent is known to have visited Wolverhampton in the 1830s and described it as "a large and dirty town" but one which received her "with great friendliness and pleasure". In Victorian times, Wolverhampton grew to be a wealthy town due to the huge amount of industry that occurred as a result of the abundance of coal and iron deposits in the area; the remains of this wealth can be seen in local houses such as Wightwick Manor and The Mount, Tettenhall Towers. All three are located in the western fringe of Wolverhampton, in the areas known as Wightwick and Tettenhall. Many other houses of similar stature were demolished in the 1970s. Wolverhampton gained its first parliamentary representation as part of the Reform Act 1832, when it was one of 22 large towns that were allocated two members of parliament. A local mob attacking electors who voted or intended to vote for the Tory candidate led to the 1835 Wolverhampton riot, with Dragoons called in to end the intimidation.
Wolverhampton was incorporated as a municipal borough on 15 March 1848 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1
John Constable, was an English landscape painter in the naturalistic tradition. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home – now known as "Constable Country" – which he invested with an intensity of affection. "I should paint my own places best", he wrote to his friend John Fisher in 1821, "painting is but another word for feeling". Constable's most famous paintings include Wivenhoe Park of 1816, Dedham Vale of 1802 and The Hay Wain of 1821. Although his paintings are now among the most popular and valuable in British art, he was never financially successful, he became a member of the establishment after he was elected to the Royal Academy at the age of 52. His work was embraced in France, where he sold more than in his native England and inspired the Barbizon school. John Constable was born in East Bergholt, a village on the River Stour in Suffolk, to Golding and Ann Constable, his father was a wealthy corn merchant, owner of Flatford Mill in East Bergholt and Dedham Mill in Essex.
Golding Constable owned a small ship, The Telegraph, which he moored at Mistley on the Stour estuary, used to transport corn to London. He was a cousin of Abram Newman. Although Constable was his parents' second son, his older brother was intellectually disabled and John was expected to succeed his father in the business. After a brief period at a boarding school in Lavenham, he was enrolled in a day school in Dedham. Constable worked in the corn business after leaving school, but his younger brother Abram took over the running of the mills. In his youth, Constable embarked on amateur sketching trips in the surrounding Suffolk and Essex countryside, to become the subject of a large proportion of his art; these scenes, in his own words, "made me a painter, I am grateful". He was introduced to George Beaumont, a collector, who showed him his prized Hagar and the Angel by Claude Lorrain, which inspired Constable. While visiting relatives in Middlesex, he was introduced to the professional artist John Thomas Smith, who advised him on painting but urged him to remain in his father's business rather than take up art professionally.
In 1799, Constable persuaded his father to let him pursue a career in art, Golding granted him a small allowance. Entering the Royal Academy Schools as a probationer, he attended life classes and anatomical dissections, studied and copied old masters. Among works that inspired him during this period were paintings by Thomas Gainsborough, Claude Lorrain, Peter Paul Rubens, Annibale Carracci and Jacob van Ruisdael, he read among poetry and sermons, proved a notably articulate artist. In 1802 he refused the position of drawing master at Great Marlow Military College, a move which Benjamin West counselled would mean the end of his career. In that year, Constable wrote a letter to John Dunthorne in which he spelled out his determination to become a professional landscape painter: For the last two years I have been running after pictures, seeking the truth at second hand... I have not endeavoured to represent nature with the same elevation of mind with which I set out, but have rather tried to make my performances look like the work of other men...
There is room enough for a natural painter. The great vice of the present day is an attempt to do something beyond the truth, his early style has many qualities associated with his mature work, including a freshness of light and touch, reveals the compositional influence of the old masters he had studied, notably of Claude Lorrain. Constable's usual subjects, scenes of ordinary daily life, were unfashionable in an age that looked for more romantic visions of wild landscapes and ruins, he made. By 1803, he was exhibiting paintings at the Royal Academy. In April he spent a month aboard the East Indiaman Coutts as it visited south-east ports while sailing from London to Deal before leaving for China. In 1806 Constable undertook a two-month tour of the Lake District, he told his friend and biographer, Charles Leslie, that the solitude of the mountains oppressed his spirits, Leslie wrote: His nature was peculiarly social and could not feel satisfied with scenery, however grand in itself, that did not abound in human associations.
He required villages, churches and cottages. To make ends meet, Constable took up portraiture, which he found dull, though he executed many fine portraits, he painted occasional religious pictures but, according to John Walker, "Constable's incapacity as a religious painter cannot be overstated."Constable adopted a routine of spending winter in London and painting at East Bergholt in summer. In 1811 he first visited John Fisher and his family in Salisbury, a city whose cathedral and surrounding landscape were to inspire some of his greatest paintings. From 1809, his childhood friendship with Maria Elizabeth Bicknell developed into a deep, mutual love, their marriage in 1816 when Constable was 40 was opposed by Maria's grandfather, Dr Rhudde, rector of East Bergholt. He threatened Maria with disinheritance. Maria's father, Charles Bicknell, solicitor to King George IV and the Admiralty, was reluctant to see Maria throw away her inheritance. Maria pointed out to John that a penniless marriage would detract from any chances he had of making a career in painting.
Golding and Ann Constable, while approving the match, held out no prospect of supporting the marriage until Constable was financially secure. After they died in qui
I quattro libri dell'architettura
I quattro libri dell'architettura is a treatise on architecture by the architect Andrea Palladio, written in Italian. It was first published in four volumes in 1570 in Venice, illustrated with woodcuts after the author's own drawings, it has been reprinted and translated many times in single-volume format. Book I was first published in English in 1663 in a London edition by Godfrey Richards; the first complete English language edition was published in London by the Italian-born architect Giacomo Leoni in 1715-1720. The treatise is divided into four books: The first book discusses building materials and techniques, it documents five classical orders in all their parts, as well as discussing other building elements. The second book covers the designs of private urban townhouses and country villas of the 1500s, in and around Venice all designed by Palladio himself; this includes nine palazzi, 22 villas, a series of unrealized projects. The plates of completed projects sometimes differ from the buildings as constructed.
The third book addresses matters of city planning: streets, stone street paving, bridges of both stone and wood, piazzas, with examples drawn from Roman origins alongside contemporary examples. The fourth book contains five chapters of general introduction 26 chapters, each of which describe the designs of specific Roman temples dating from antiquity, along with one contemporary church design. Palladio's selections range geographically from Rome, Spoleto, Pola and Nîmes. Illustrations of the temples include careful measurements of existing building elements, together with Palladio's own conjectural interpretations of the temple's facades where only fragments remained, as at the Temple of Trajan; the 26 temples discussed in include: Palladio founded an architectural movement which takes its name from him, Palladian architecture. I quattro libri dell'architettura contains Palladio's own designs celebrating the purity and simplicity of classical architecture; some of these ideas had got no further than the drawing board while others, for example villa plans, had been built.
The book's clarity inspired numerous other architects. Palladian architecture grew in popularity across Europe and, by the end of the 18th century, had extended as far as North America. Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States, was a keen admirer of Palladio and once referred to the book as "the Bible"; the Four Books was used to inform his own work as the architect of Monticello and the University of Virginia and architect William Buckland's at the 1774 Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis, Maryland. Palladio drew inspiration from surviving Roman buildings, Roman authors and Italian Renaissance architects. However, The Four Books of Architecture provided systematic rules and plans for buildings which were creative and unique. Palladio's villa style is based on details applied to a structural system built of bricks, he offers two types of general rules in the corpus: construction rules. Here rules of the two types are identified in sets from which subsets of identifiers and rules can be written.
Each of the nine rule-sets contains many sub-identities of components and procedures for physical construction. A rule-set such as “Walls”, that identifies five sub-rules based on wall thickness, only needs construction rules. In contrast, rules for “Frames” are based on a geometric style of curves and shape proportions; the results will yield clear identities for a shape grammar composition that can be based on physical construction and visual style. These identities are taken from a survey of built villas; these are the nine rule-sets that define identity: Walls — parametric formula Ceilings — parametric formula Stairs — parametric formula Columns — parametric object Doors — parametric formula Windows — parametric formula Frames — parametric object Roof — parametric formula Details — parametric object and formula Palladian Villas of the Veneto Palladian architecture De architectura Palladio, Andrea. The Four Books of Architecture. Intro. by Adolf K. Placzek. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-21308-0.
I quattro libri dell'architettura, ne' quali, dopo un breue trattato de' cinque ordini, & di quelli auertimenti, che sono piu necessarii nel fabricare. — downloadable pdf first edition from the Library of Congress I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura — facsimile of the book at rarebookroom.org "Complete bibliography for the 16th and 17th centuries