Lake County, Michigan
Lake County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,539; the county seat is Baldwin. The county was created by the Michigan Legislature in 1840 as Aishcum County renamed Lake County in 1843, for its many lakes, it was administered by a succession of other Michigan counties prior to the organization of county government in 1871. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 574 square miles, of which 567 square miles is land and 6.9 square miles is water. Manistee County Wexford County Osceola County Newaygo County Mason County US 10 M-37 Manistee National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 11,333 people, 4,704 households, 3,052 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 13,498 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.66% White, 11.17% Black or African American, 1.01% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.57% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races.
1.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.2% were of English ancestry, 20.0% were of German ancestry, 8.4% were of Irish ancestry, 6.1% were of Dutch ancestry according to 2010 American Community Survey estimates. 97.5% spoke English and 1.3% Spanish as their first language. There were 4,704 households out of which 23.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.40% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.10% were non-families. 29.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.79. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.90% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 22.70% from 25 to 44, 27.60% from 45 to 64, 19.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 109.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.60 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $26,622, the median income for a family was $32,086. Males had a median income of $30,124 versus $21,886 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,457. About 14.70% of families and 19.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.30% of those under age 18 and 12.00% of those age 65 or over. 24/7 Wall St. reported. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services; the county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Chief Trial Court Judge: Mark S. Wickens Prosecuting Attorney: Craig Cooper Sheriff: Richard L. Martin County Clerk/Register of Deeds: Patti Pacola County Treasurer: Brenda Kutchinski County Surveyor: Patrick Johnson Baldwin Luther Branch Chase Idlewild Irons List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Lake County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Lake County, Michigan Lake County Road Commission Website "Bibliography on Lake County".
Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 19, 2013. Lake County Website Lake County Chamber of Commerce
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Manistee County, Michigan
Manistee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,733; the county seat is Manistee. The name "Manistee" is from an Ojibwe word first applied to the principal river of the county; the derivation is not certain, but it may be from ministigweyaa, "river with islands at its mouth". See List of Michigan county name etymologies and Kaministiquia River; the county was set off in 1840 and organized in 1855. There are thirteen recognized Michigan historical markers in the county: Harriet Quimby / Childhood Home John J. Makinen Bottle House First Congregational Church, Manistee Great Fire of 1871 Holy Trinity Episcopal Church Holy Trinity Episcopal Church Rectory Kaleva, Michigan Manistee City Library Manistee Fire Hall Our Saviour's Lutheran Church Ramsdell Theatre Trinity Lutheran Church William Douglas House The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Prosecuting Attorney: Jason Haag Sheriff: John O'Hagan County Clerk: Jill Nowak County Treasurer: Russell Pomeroy Register of Deeds: Penny Pepera Drain Commissioner: Ken Hilliard County Surveyor: Patrick Bentley According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,281 square miles, of which 542 square miles is land and 738 square miles is water. Manistee County is considered to be part of Northern Michigan. Benzie County - north Grand Traverse County - northeast Wexford County - east Lake County - southeast Mason County - south Manitowoc County, Wisconsin - southwest Kewaunee County, Wisconsin - west Manistee National Forest Manistee County-Blacker Airport is three miles northeast of Manistee.
US 31 M-22 M-55 starts two miles north of Manistee, proceeds 155 miles across the Lower Peninsula to Tawas. M-115 As of the census of 2000, there were 24,527 people, 9,860 households, 6,714 families residing in the county; the population density was 45 people per square mile. There were 14,272 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.16% White, 1.63% Black or African American, 1.30% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.01% from other races, 1.55% from two or more races. 2.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.5% were of German, 16.9% Polish, 8.8% English, 8.8% American and 7.1% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.2% spoke English and 2.3% Spanish as their first language. There were 9,860 households out of which 27.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 9.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.90% were non-families.
27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.60% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 26.30% from 45 to 64, 18.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 103.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,208, the median income for a family was $41,664. Males had a median income of $33,211 versus $20,851 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,204. About 6.90% of families and 10.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.50% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over. Manistee Bear Lake Copemish Eastlake Kaleva Onekama Marilla Norwalk Pierport List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Manistee County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Manistee County, Michigan "Bibliography on Manistee County".
Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 20, 2013
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Osceola County, Michigan
Osceola County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. At the 2010 census, the population was 23,528; the county seat is Reed City. When established by the Michigan Legislature on April 1, 1840, it was named Unwattin County, after a leader of the local Ottawa people; the name was changed March 8, 1843, to Osceola, after the Seminole chief who achieved renown in Florida. The county was attached for administrative purposes to Ottawa County. In 1855, it was attached to Mason County; as the population increased, separate county government was organized in 1869, with Hersey designated as the county seat. Reed City became the official county seat in 1927; the county was developed for harvesting and processing lumber, many European Americans came to work in lumbering and the mills. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 573 square miles, of which 566 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. The county is drained by branches of the Manistee River; the surface is level.
Osceola County is part of Northern Michigan. US 10 US 131 Bus. US 10 M-61 M-66 M-115 Missaukee County Wexford County Clare County Lake County Mecosta County At the 2000 census, there were 23,197 people, 8,861 households and 6,415 families residing in the county; the population density was 41 per square mile. There were 12,853 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.51% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. 0.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 26.0% were of German, 11.9% English, 11.0% American, 8.8% Irish, 6.5% Dutch and 5.2% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.8 % spoke 1.1 % German and 1.0 % Spanish as their first language. There were 8,861 households of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families.
22.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.01. 27.10% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 26.50% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 97.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median household income was $34,102 and the median family income was $39,205. Males had a median income of $29,837 compared with $22,278 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,632. About 9.50% of families and 12.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.90% of those under age 18 and 10.30% of those age 65 or over. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Prosecuting Attorney: Anthony Badovinac Sheriff: James A. Crawford County Clerk: Karen J. Bluhm County Treasurer: Lori Leudeman Register of Deeds: Nancy Crawford Drain Commissioner: Jerry Powell County Surveyor: Bill Sikkema Evart Reed City Hersey Le Roy Marion Tustin Sears List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Osceola County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Osceola County, Michigan Official website "Bibliography on Osceola County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 29, 2013
M-42 (Michigan highway)
M-42 is a rural state trunkline highway in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is located in the northwestern Lower Peninsula of the state. Along its route, M-42 ends north of Lake City, some 10.356 miles apart. The highway used to run much farther. Former termini included the Traverse City area from 1919 until 1940 and Mesick from 1940 until 2007. M-42 is a two-lane highway connecting Manton and Lake City, it runs through wooded terrain on rolling hills. Between the western terminus at Michigan Avenue and the US 131 freeway in Manton, M-42 runs concurrently Bus. US 131 along Seventh Street, it runs east along Seventh Street to a folded diamond interchange at exit 191 on US 131 east of downtown. Continuing east, it is known as North 16 1⁄2 Road until it crosses the Wexford–Missaukee county line at Seeley Road 2.5 miles east of the freeway. Here the road name changes to Mike and Tony Road before M-42 curves southeasterly crossing Morrisy Creek on West Walker Road. East of the unincorporated community of Arlene the highway turns ninety degrees to the south off Walker Road before angling southeasterly skirting the edge of some hills near Dyer Lake just west of M-66.
The road turns back due east between Al Moses M-66, where it ends north of Lake City. No section of the trunkline is part of the National Highway System. M-42 is an original state trunkline dating back to the 1919 signage of the highway system in Michigan; the original highway routing ran due west to Mesick. From there the highway met M-11 at Chums Corners. M-11/M-42 ran concurrently northward into the City of Traverse City where M-42 ended. By May 1929, M-42 was extended east to connect to Lake City; the highway was further extended before 1936 up the Old Mission Peninsula north of Traverse City. In the latter half of 1940, the M-37 designation replaced M-42 north of Mesick through Traverse City to Old Mission; the last sections of highway were paved in late 1951 and early 1952. In 2007, the stretch of M-42 between M-37 and US 131 along 16 Road was transferred to the Wexford County Road Commission; this change shortened the highway from 25.255 miles to 10.356 miles. The section of transferred highway in Wexford County was labeled as "flexible pavements" on the 2006 MDOT Truck Operators Map.
This classification meant truck traffic on the roadway was subject to weight and load restrictions during spring. This classification is unlike the other highways in the county and surrounding area which were marked as "all-weather highways" and would not carry such restrictions. Michigan Highways portal M-42 at Michigan Highways M-42 at Michigan Highway Ends