Whales are a distributed and diverse group of aquatic placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder Cetacea excluding dolphins and porpoises. Whales and porpoises belong to the order Cetartiodactyla, which consists of even-toed ungulates, their closest living relatives are the hippopotamuses. The two parvorders of whales, baleen whales and toothed whales, are thought to have split apart around 34 million years ago. Whales consist of eight extant families: Balaenopteridae, Cetotheriidae, Monodontidae, Physeteridae and Ziphiidae. Whales are creatures of the open ocean. So extreme is their adaptation to life underwater. Whales range in size from the 2.6 metres and 135 kilograms dwarf sperm whale to the 29.9 metres and 190 metric tons blue whale, the largest known creature that has lived. The sperm whale is the largest toothed predator on earth. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism. Baleen whales have no teeth, they use their throat pleats to expand the mouth to take in huge gulps of water.
Balaenids have heads. Toothed whales, on the other hand, have conical teeth adapted to catching squid. Baleen whales have a well developed sense of "smell", whereas toothed whales have well-developed hearing − their hearing, adapted for both air and water, is so well developed that some can survive if they are blind; some species, such as sperm whales, are well adapted for diving to great depths to catch squid and other favoured prey. Whales have evolved from land-living mammals; as such, whales must breathe air although they can remain submerged under water for long periods of time. Some species such as the sperm whale are able to stay submerged for as much as 90 minutes, they have blowholes located on top of their heads, through which air is expelled. They are warm-blooded, have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin. With streamlined fusiform bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers, whales can travel at up to 20 knots, though they are not as flexible or agile as seals. Whales produce a great variety of notably the extended songs of the humpback whale.
Although whales are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, migrate to the equator to give birth. Species such as humpbacks and blue whales are capable of travelling thousands of miles without feeding. Males mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species nurse their young for one to two years. Once relentlessly hunted for their products, whales are now protected by international law; the North Atlantic right whales nearly became extinct in the twentieth century, with a population low of 450, the North Pacific grey whale population is ranked Critically Endangered by the IUCN. Besides whaling, they face threats from bycatch and marine pollution; the meat and baleen of whales have traditionally been used by indigenous peoples of the Arctic. Whales have been depicted in various cultures worldwide, notably by the Inuit and the coastal peoples of Vietnam and Ghana, who sometimes hold whale funerals.
Whales feature in literature and film, as in the great white whale of Herman Melville's Moby Dick. Small whales, such as belugas, are sometimes kept in captivity and trained to perform tricks, but breeding success has been poor and the animals die within a few months of capture. Whale watching has become a form of tourism around the world; the word "whale" comes from the Old English hwæl, from Proto-Germanic *hwalaz, from Proto Indo European *kwal-o-, meaning "large sea fish". The Proto-Germanic *hwalaz is the source of Old Saxon hwal, Old Norse hvalr, Swedish val, Middle Dutch wal, Dutch walvis, Old High German wal, German Wal; the obsolete "whalefish" has a similar derivation, indicating a time when whales were thought to be fish. Other archaic English forms include wal, whal, whaille, etc; the term "whale" is sometimes used interchangeably with dolphins and porpoises, acting as a synonym for Cetacea. Six species of dolphins have the word "whale" in their name, collectively known as blackfish: the killer whale, the melon-headed whale, the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale, the two species of pilot whales, all of which are classified under the family Delphinidae.
Each species has a different reason for it, for example, the killer whale was named "Ballena asesina"'killer whale' by Spanish sailors. The term "Great Whales" covers those regulated by the International Whaling Commission: the Odontoceti family Physeteridae; the whales are part of the terrestrial mammalian clade Laurasiatheria. Whales do not form a order.
2019 T10 League or Abu Dhabi T10 was the third season of the T10 League. The matches had a 10-over-a-side format with a time duration of 90 minutes; the tournament was played as a round robin followed by the final. It was played from 15 to 24 November 2019 at the Sheikh Zayed Cricket Stadium; the Sindhis, Bengal Tigers and Pakhtoons were replaced by newly formed Deccan Gladiators, Delhi Bulls and Bangla Tigers teams respectively. Another new team named Qalandars were added on 22 September 2019, they were owned by the same franchise. Kerala Knights, Punjabi Legends and Rajputs were replaced by Team Abu Dhabi. Advanced to Qualifier Advanced to Eliminator 1 Eliminator 1 Eliminator 2 Series home at ESPNCricinfo
Edible ink printing is the process of creating preprinted images with edible food colors onto various confectionery products such as cookies and pastries. Designs made with edible ink can be either preprinted or created with an edible ink printer, a specialty device which transfers an image onto a thin, edible paper. Edible paper is printed with edible food colors; some edible inks and paper materials have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and carry its recognized as safe certification. The first papers of this process used rice paper; the first U. S. patent for food printing, as it applied to edible ink printing, was filed by George J. Krubert of the Keebler Company and granted in 1981; such paper may be consumed without harmful effects. Most edible paper has limited texture. Edible paper may be printed on by a standard printer and, upon application to a moist surface, dissolves while maintaining a high resolution; the end effect is. Edible printer inks are used in conjunction with special ink printers.
Ink, not marketed as being edible may be harmful or fatal if swallowed. Edible toner for laser printers is not available. Any inkjet or bubblejet printer can be used to print, although resolution may be poor, care should be taken to avoid contaminating the edible inks with used inks. Inkjet or bubblejet printers can be converted to print using edible ink, cartridges of edible ink are commercially available; some edible inks are powdered, but if they are soluble in water they can be used as any other edible ink without reducing quality. Edible paper is used on cakes, cookies and marshmallows. Media related to Edible paper at Wikimedia Commons