click links in text for more info


A whaler or whaling ship is a specialized ship, designed, or adapted, for whaling: the catching or processing of whales. The former includes the whale catcher – a steam or diesel-driven vessel with a harpoon gun mounted at its bow; the latter includes such vessels as the sail or steam-driven whaleship of the 16th to early 20th centuries and the floating factory or factory ship of the modern era. There have been vessels which combined the two activities, such as the bottlenose whalers of the late 19th and early 20th century, catcher/factory ships of the modern era. Whaleships had two or more whaleboats, open rowing boats used in the capture of whales. Whaleboats brought the captured whales to the whaleships to cut up. Here the blubber was rendered into oil using two or three try-pots set in a brick furnace called the tryworks. At first, whale catchers either brought the whales they killed to a whaling station, or factory ship anchored in a sheltered bay or inlet. With the development of the slipway at the ship's stern, whale catchers were able to transfer their catch to factory ships operating in the open sea.

The World War II Flower-class corvettes were based on the design of the whale catcher Southern Pride. The crews of whaling vessels fought small skirmishes for the control of the Spitsbergen whale fishery between 1613 and 1638. In the late 18th and early 19th century, the owners of whalers armed their vessels with cannons to enable the vessels to protect themselves against pirates, in wartime, privateers. Weapons were carried on vessels visiting Pacific islands for food and wood in order to defend themselves from the sometimes hostile natives. At the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793, British privateers captured several French whalers, among them Necker and Deux Amis, Anne. Dutch privateers captured Penn.. At the time, many French whalers transferred to the American flag, the United States being neutral in the Anglo-French war; some whaleships carried letters of marque that authorized them to take enemy vessels should the opportunity arise. In July 1793 the British armed whaleship Liverpool, of 20 guns, captured the French whaleship Chardon.

However, Chardon's crew succeeded in retaking their vessel. In 1793, an armed British whaleship captured the French whaleship Hébé in Walvis Bay. During the War of 1812, the U. S. Navy captured two British whaleships and Seringapatam, used them as warships. During World War II, the Norwegian and British Royal Navies requisitioned a number of whalers for use in a variety of functions such as minesweeping and rescue, anti-submarine warfare. Ten Allied vessels categorized as whalers were lost in the war. Since the 1982 moratorium on commercial whaling, few countries still operate whalers, with Norway and Japan among those still operating them. Of those, the Nisshin Maru of Japan's Institute of Cetacean Research is the only whaling factory ship in operation; as compared to whaling before and during the 19th century, executed with handheld harpoons thrown from oar-powered whaleboats, whaling since the 1900s is quite different. Whale oil, which fossil-fuel based alternatives has supplanted, is no longer the primary commercial product of whaling.

Whaling is now done for whale meat for the small culinary market. Harpoon cannons, fired from harpoon ships with displacement in the hundreds of tons, are now universally used for commercial whaling operations; these motorized ships are able to keep up with the sleeker and fast-swimming rorquals such as the fin whale, that would have been impossible for the muscle-powered rowboats to chase, allow whaling to be done more safely for the crews. The use of grenade-tipped harpoons has improved the effectiveness of whaling, allowing whales to be killed instantaneously as compared to the previous method in which whales bled to death, which took a long time and left the whale to thrash around in its death throes; these harpoons inject air into the carcass to keep the heavier rorqual whales hunted today from sinking. However, the harpoon-cannon is still criticized for its cruelty as not all whales are killed instantly. Japan is the only country that engages in whaling in the Antarctic, now under the protection of the International Whaling Commission as the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary.

The area saw large scale commercial whaling operations by numerous countries before the moratorium. The three Japanese harpoon ships of the ICR serve a factory ship that processes the catch on board and preserves it on site in refrigerators, allowing the long endurance whaling missions; these whaling operations, which are claimed by Japan to be for research purposes, sell the meat from these operations on the market, allowed under the current moratorium to defer research costs. They are controversial, are challenged by anti-whaling parties as being a disguise for commercial whaling; the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society has clashed with the Japanese whalers in the Antarctic in confrontations that have led to international media attention and diplomatic incidents. Hvalur 9 RE399 Jason Southern Actor History of whaling Moby-Dick Whaleboat Whaling

Abigail Smith

Abigail Smith is a professor in marine sciences at Otago University in Dunedin. Smith grew up in Maine and did her undergraduate studies at Colby College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology before emigrating to New Zealand to study for a PhD at Waikato University with a thesis entitled'Aspects of the sedimentology of New Zealand bryozoans and mixed carbonate-clastic deposits: a contribution to the temperate shelf carbonate model.'Smith's research relates to the formation of skeletons' marine micro-flora and their deposition on the seafloor as sediment. In October 2019, Smith won the Miriam Dell Award for Excellence in Science Mentoring from the Association for Women in Science. Institutional homepage

Henry Josey

Henry Josey is an American football running back, a free agent. He was most a member of the Ottawa Redblacks of the Canadian Football League, he played college football at Missouri. Josey is from Texas, his father, Henry Neal, set a national high school record in the 100-meter dash in 1990. Josey attended Angleton High School, where he began his football career as a linebacker in 2007; as a junior, he moved to the running back position and gained 1,267 rushing yards and scored 20 touchdowns. As a senior in 2009, he scored 15 touchdowns. A standout track & field athlete, Josey earned a second-place finish in the 100-meters at the 2010 Region 3-4A Meet, recording a career-best time of 10.50 seconds. He competed as a long jumper, he got a personal-best mark of 6.48 meters at the 2009 Rice Bayou Classic, placing 6th. As a freshman for the 2010 Missouri Tigers football team, Josey gained 112 yards and scored three touchdowns in the season opener against McNeese State. Over the course of the 2010 season, he totaled 437 rushing yards and five touchdowns on 76 carries for an average of 4.8 yards per carry.

As a sophomore, Josey became the starting running back for the 2011 Missouri Tigers football team. In the third week of the season, Josey gained 263 rushing yards and scored three touchdowns on 14 carries against Western Illinois, he did not play in the second half. The following week, he rushed for 133 yards and a touchdown on 14 carries against the No. 1 ranked Oklahoma Sooners. During the 2011 regular season, Josey totaled 1,168 rushing yards on 145 carries for an average of 8.1 yards per carry. He ranked second in the NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision in yards per carry, he ranked 12th in the Football Bowl Subdivision with an average of 116.8 rushing yards per game. His 2011 season ended short due to a severe knee injury. Josey missed spring football practice in 2012. Although he participated in pre-season practice with the team in August 2012, he did not play in any games during the season. Josey returned to play in all 14 games in 2013, rushing for 1,166 yards on 174 carries with 16 touchdowns.

After the season, he announced that he would enter the 2014 NFL Draft. Josey signed as an undrafted free agent with the Philadelphia Eagles on May 10, 2014. While Josey had a strong pre-season, he was released by the Eagles on August 29, 2014, he was signed to the Jacksonville Jaguars practice squad on August 31, 2014. On December 24, 2014, Josey signed with the Minnesota Vikings off the Jaguars' practice squad. On May 26, 2015, Josey signed with the Toronto Argonauts in the Canadian Football League. In the 2015 season Josey carried the ball 16 times gaining 30 yards on the ground. Josey signed with the Ottawa Redblacks on September 25, 2017, he was released by the club on April 12, 2018. List of college football yearly rushing leaders Philadelphia Eagles bio Missouri Tigers bio

Barbara Hall (TV producer)

Barbara Hall is an American television writer, young adult novelist and singer-songwriter. She is known for creating and producing the CBS legal drama Judging Amy and the CBS fantasy family drama Joan of Arcadia, she was a co-executive producer of the Showtime political thriller Homeland and created and produced the CBS political drama Madam Secretary. Hall was born in Virginia to Ervis and Flo Hall, her older sister, Karen Hall, is a television writer and producer. She graduated from Chatham High School in 1978, Summa Cum Laude from James Madison University with a B. A. in English in 1982. Shortly after graduating from university, Hall became a television writer and producer in Los Angeles and worked on shows including Northern Exposure, Chicago Hope, ER, I'll Fly Away, Anything But Love and Moonlighting, she created and produced the CBS legal drama Judging Amy and the CBS fantasy family drama Joan of Arcadia. In 2013, Hall created and produced the CBS political drama Madam Secretary which ran from September 21, 2014 to December 8, 2019.

Hall is a founding member of the alternative country rock band The Enablers with whom she released the albums The First Seven Songs and Come Back Soon. In 2005, she released her debut solo album Handsome, her second album, Bad Man, was released in 2013. Humanitas Prize for Television Television Critics Association Award TV Guide Award Catholics in Media Award Skeeball and the Secret of the Universe Dixie Storms Fool's Hill A Better Place House Across the Cove 1995) Close to Home A Summons to New Orleans The Noah Confessions The Music Teacher Tempo Change Charisma The First Seven Songs Come Back Soon Handsome Bad Man Barbara Hall on IMDb Barbara Hall of Chatham, Virginia

Ernst Kromayer

Ernst Kromayer was a German dermatologist. He was the younger brother of historian Johannes Kromayer, he studied medicine at the universities of Strasbourg, Würzburg, Bonn, receiving his doctorate in 1885. From 1888 he worked as an assistant to Karl Koester at the pathology clinic in Bonn, in 1890 qualified as a lecturer at the University of Halle. At Halle he established a clinic for skin and venereal diseases that acquired the status of a university clinic. In 1901 he received the title of professor at the university in 1904 relocated to Berlin, where he opened a private practice, he is best remembered for inventing a water-cooled mercury-vapor lamp for ultraviolet irradiation of the skin. On 23 October 1906 he received a patent for the lamp, he made pioneer contributions in regards to dermabrasion. In 1962 Grünstraße in Halle an der Saale was renamed Ernst-Kromayer-Straße in his honor, his book Die Behandlung der kosmetischen Hautleiden, was translated into English and published as The cosmetic treatment of skin complaints, with especial reference to physical therapy and scarless methods of operation.

Other works by Kromayer are: Allgemeine Dermatologie. Zur Austilgung der Syphilis. Repetitorium der haut- und geschlechtskrankheiten für studierende und aerzte, 1902 – Refresher course on skin and venereal diseases for students and doctors. Röntgen-radium-licht in der dermatologie, 1913 – Röntgen-radium-light in dermatology

Robert Chisholm (Canadian politician)

Robert Lawrence Chisholm is a former trade unionist and politician from Nova Scotia, Canada. He represented the Halifax Atlantic riding in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly from 1991 to 2003, he succeeded Alexa McDonough as leader of the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party in 1996. He served as the leader of the Official Opposition in the Nova Scotia Legislature from 1998 to 1999, he subsequently founded a consulting firm, was co-chair of the 2010–11 United Way of Halifax Region campaign, sat on the Board of Governors of Dalhousie University. On May 2, 2011, Chisholm was elected as the Member of Parliament for the Dartmouth—Cole Harbour riding in Nova Scotia; as a member of the Official Opposition, he served as the Critic for Fisheries and Oceans and Deputy Critic for Employment Insurance until his defeat in the 2015 election. The NDP scored a surprise electoral success in the 1997 federal election, winning six of Nova Scotia's eleven electoral districts; this new-found electoral success boded well for the NDP's provincial party, able to take advantage of the new wave of popularity.

Prior to 1997, the Nova Scotia NDP had not been considered contenders to form a provincial government. Chisholm's greatest accomplishment was leading his party to 19, of the House of Assembly's 52, seats in the 1998 provincial election; this record amount of NDP representation in the Legislature, tied them with the governing Liberal Party. The Liberals were able to continue ruling, as they received support from the third-place Progressive Conservatives, who held 14 seats; the NDP formed the Official Opposition. 15 months the Liberal government was defeated by a motion of non-confidence from the Conservatives, forcing an election in the summer of 1999. During the campaign, it was revealed that Chisholm had a past criminal record for driving under the influence of alcohol when he was 19 years old; the NDP lost eight seats during the campaign, which saw the third-place Conservatives elected to a majority government. Under his leadership, the NDP shared official opposition status with the Liberals until Russell MacLellan's resignation and subsequent election of Cecil Clarke gave the NDP 11 seats to the Liberals 10.

Chisholm unexpectedly resigned the leadership after the campaign, at the November 6, 1999 NSNDP provincial council meeting. He said that he wanted to spend more time with his family and could not subject them to ten more years of political life, he remained as leader until a new one was elected. He was succeeded by Helen MacDonald in 2000. Chisholm did not run for re-election as an MLA in 2003 provincial election. After the 2003 provincial election, Chisholm returned to the labour movement and worked as researcher for the Canadian Union of Public Employees. Since 2004, he has been a member of Dalhousie University's board of governors. In 2007, he became CUPE's Regional Director for the Atlantic Region. In the spring of 2009, he started a consulting firm with his wife Paula Simon: Simon Chisholm Consulting. On January 18, 2011, Chisholm announced that he would seek the New Democratic Party nomination in Dartmouth—Cole Harbour for the 2011 federal election, was nominated on January 25. On May 2, 2011, he was elected, winning 15,661 votes and defeating Liberal Party of Canada incumbent Mike Savage.

Following the death of federal NDP leader Jack Layton, Chisholm was a candidate in the 2012 New Democratic Party leadership election, but after speaking English during a leadership debate in French on account of his lack of fluency in the latter language, he withdrew in December 2011 and subsequently endorsed Thomas Mulcair. In the 2015 federal election, Chisholm was defeated by Liberal Darren Fisher. Official website Robert ChisholmParliament of Canada biography