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Diogenes (disambiguation)

Diogenes was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Diogenes may refer to: Diogenes of Apollonia or Diogenes Apolloniates, philosopher Diogenes of Athens, writer of tragedies Diogenes of Babylon or "Diogenes the Stoic", Stoic philosopher from Seleucia confused with the following Diogenes of Seleucia, Epicurean philosopher and adviser to King Alexander of Syria Antonius Diogenes, Greek romance writer, most notable for his work The Wonders of Thule Diogenes of Cappadocia, Diogenes of Tarsus, Epicurean philosopher Diogenes of Judea and advisor of Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus Diogenes of Athens, sculptor who worked in Augustan Rome Diogenes, Greek merchant and explorer of Mountains of the Moon Diogenes of Byzantium, bishop of Byzantium Diogenes of Oenoanda, Epicurean Diogenes Laërtius and philologist Diogenes of Edessa, Bishop of Edessa Constantine Diogenes, Byzantine general Romanos IV Diogenes, Byzantine emperor 1068–1071, son of Constantine Diogenes Constantine Diogenes Nikephoros Diogenes, Byzantine general, son of Romanos IV "Diogenes" is sometimes confused with the name of Digenes Akritas, the hero of a famous Byzantine epic.

Diogenes, a pen-name used by Sir Max Beerbohm Diogenes is a genus of hermit crabs Diogenes syndrome, a misnomer for a mental disorder Diogenes, a British satirical magazine published from 1853–1855 Diogenes journal from the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Studies Diogenes Verlag, a Swiss publishing house Diogenes Club, named after Diogenes of Sinope, co-founded by Sherlock Holmes' brother Mycroft Diogenes, an interstellar scout ship in Poul Anderson's The Entity Diogenes Small, a character created by Colin Dexter in the Inspector Morse series of books Diogenes Pendergast, a character from Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child's Pendergast series of books Diogenes Teufelsdröckh, the fictional philosopher of Clothes Philosophy described in Thomas Carlyle's Sartor Resartus Diogenes Project, original name of the Wizards Project Mount Diogenes, another name for Hanging Rock, Australia Diogenes of Athens All pages with titles beginning with Diogenes All pages with titles containing Diogenes

Season cracking

Season cracking is a form of stress-corrosion cracking of brass cartridge cases reported from British forces in India. During the monsoon season, military activity was temporarily reduced, ammunition was stored in stables until the dry weather returned. Many brass cartridges were subsequently found to be cracked where the case was crimped to the bullet, it was not until 1921 that the phenomenon was explained by Moor and Mallinson: ammonia from horse urine, combined with the residual stress in the cold-drawn metal of the cartridges, was responsible for the cracking. Season cracking is characterised by deep brittle cracks. If the cracks reach a critical size, the component can fracture, sometimes with disastrous results. However, if the concentration of ammonia is high attack is much more severe, attack over all exposed surfaces occurs; the problem was solved by annealing the brass cases after forming so as to relieve the residual stresses. The attack takes the form of a reaction between ammonia and copper to form the cuprammonium ion, formula 2+, a chemical complex, water-soluble, hence washed from the growing cracks.

The problem of cracking can therefore occur in copper and any other copper alloy, such as bronze. The tendency of copper to react with ammonia was exploited in making rayon, the deep blue colour of the aqueous solution of copper oxide in ammonia is known as Schweizer's reagent. Although the problem was first found in brass, any alloy containing copper will be susceptible to the problem, it includes copper itself and other alloys with a significant copper content. Like all problems with hairline cracks, detection in the early stages of attack is difficult, but the characteristic blue coloration may give a clue to attack. Microscopic inspection will reveal the cracks, x-ray analysis using the EDX facility on the scanning electron microscope or SEM should reveal the presence of elemental nitrogen from ammoniacal traces. Brass Environmental stress fracture Forensic engineering Stress corrosion cracking Forms of corrosive attack Cracking of Manganese bronze by ammonia Cracking of a copper pipe National Corrosion Service in the UK

Videos and audio recordings of Osama bin Laden

There were several video and audio recordings released by Osama bin Laden between 2001 and 2011. Most of the tapes were released directly to Arabic language satellite television networks al Jazeera. Just after US and NATO forces launched strikes in Afghanistan, bin Laden released a video tape, stating that "America has been hit by Allah at its most vulnerable point, thank God, its most prestigious buildings," referencing the September 11 attacks on the US. Bin Laden did not claim responsibility for the attacks in the recording. Bin Laden released another video tape, excoriating the West, the United Nations, Israel, explaining all of the unfolding events as fundamentally a religious war. On November 10, 2001, U. S. military forces in Jalalabad found a video tape of bin Laden. On December 13, 2001, the United States State Department released a video tape showing bin Laden speaking with Khaled al-Harbi and other associates, somewhere in Afghanistan, before the U. S. invasion had driven the Taliban regime from Kandahar.

The State Department stated that the tape was captured by U. S. forces in Afghanistan during a raid on a house in Jalalabad. The tape was aired with an accompanying English translation. In this translation, Osama bin Laden displays knowledge of the timing of the actual attack a few days in advance. We calculated that the floors that would be hit would be four floors. I was the most optimistic of them all.... We had notification since the previous Thursday. We had finished our work that day and had the radio on.... Muhammad from the Egyptian family, was in charge of the group.... The brothers, who conducted the operation, all they knew was that they have a martyrdom operation and we asked each of them to go to America but they didn't know anything about the operation, not one letter, but they were trained and we did not reveal the operation to them until they are there and just before they boarded the planes."On December 20, 2001, German TV channel "Das Erste" broadcast an analysis of the White House's translation of the videotape.

On the program "Monitor", two independent translators and an expert on oriental studies found the White House's translation to be both inaccurate and manipulative stating "At the most important places where it is held to prove the guilt of bin Laden, it is not identical with the Arabic" and that the words used that indicate foreknowledge can not be heard at all in the original. Prof. Gernot Rotter, professor of Islamic and Arabic Studies at the Asia-Africa Institute at the University of Hamburg said "The American translators who listened to the tapes and transcribed them wrote a lot of things in that they wanted to hear but that cannot be heard on the tape no matter how many times you listen to it."In the recording, bin Laden describes attacks by the United States against Islamic people. He describes his message as a review of events following 9/11, in this statement, he neither admits nor denies responsibility for the attacks. Colin Powell told a United States Senate panel that he'd reviewed a transcript of a message from bin Laden stating that he was in "partnership with Iraq", to be broadcast on al Jazeera.

Al Jazeera said they did not have the tape, but said they received it the same day and broadcast it that evening at 8pm GMT. The quality of the recording was said to sound like bin Laden and to be "quite good" by The Guardian but "poor quality" by the BBC. Shortly before the U. S. presidential election on October 29, 2004, Arab television network al Jazeera broadcast an 18-minute video tape of Osama bin Laden, addressed to citizens of the United States. According to the English translation distributed by the BBC and other media outlets, he tells viewers he directed the 19 hijackers, describes his motivation: I will explain to you the reasons behind these events, I will tell you the truth about the moments when this decision was taken, so that you can reflect on it. God knows that the plan of striking the towers had not occurred to us, but the idea came to me when things went just too far with the American-Israeli alliance's oppression and atrocities against our people in Palestine and Lebanon.

Bin Laden claimed he was inspired to destroy the World Trade Center after watching the destruction of towers in Lebanon by Israel during the 1982 Lebanon War. Al Jazeera broadcast an audiotape of bin Laden addressing citizens of the United States again. Al Jazeera broadcast parts of an audiotape. On this tape, bin Laden accuses the Western world of waging a Zionist crusade against Islam, he comments on Hamas and the situation in Iraq. Al Jazeera broadcast a 5-minute audiotape from bin Laden, where he claims he, assigned the hijackers to perform the September 11 attacks. Bin Laden comments on the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui, the prisoners in Guantanamo Bay, the imprisoned journalists Sami al-Hajj and Tayssir Alouni, denying that any of them were connected with al-Qaeda.bin Laden tells viewers that Zacarias Moussaoui "had no connection at all with September 11. I am the one in charge of the 19 brothers and I never assigned brother Zacarias to be with them in that mission. I am certain of what I say because I was responsible for entrusting the 19 brothers... with the raids."

An Islamist website posted a recording, in which bin Laden praised Abu Musab al-Zarqawi as a "lion of Jihad". The 19-minute video shows a still picture of bin Laden next to video celebrating al-Zarqawi. US officials said that th

Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013)

The Iraqi insurgency referred to as the Iraq Crisis, escalated in 2011, resulting in violent conflict with the central government, as well as sectarian violence among Iraq's religious groups. The insurgency was a direct continuation of events following the U. S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. Sunni militant groups stepped up attacks targeting the country's majority Shia population to undermine confidence in the Shia-led government and its efforts to protect people without coalition assistance. Armed groups inside Iraq were galvanized by the Syrian Civil War, with which it merged in 2014. Many Sunni factions stood against the Syrian government, which Shia groups moved to support, numerous members of both sects crossed the border to fight in Syria. In 2014, the insurgency escalated following the conquest of Mosul and major areas in northern Iraq by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, a Salafi jihadist militant group and unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre, thereby merging the new conflict with the Syrian Civil War, into a new, far deadlier conflict. The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began with the U. S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, which toppled the government of Saddam Hussein. However, the war continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government; the United States withdrew its troops from Iraq in 2011, but the insurgency and various dimensions of the civil armed conflict have continued. The invasion began in 2003 when the United States, joined by the United Kingdom and several coalition allies, launched a "shock and awe" surprise attack without declaring war. Iraqi forces were overwhelmed as U. S. forces swept throughout the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government.

However, the power vacuum following Saddam's fall, the mismanagement of the occupation and the sectarian policies of various militias led to a lengthy insurgency against U. S. coalition forces and Iraqi government forces as well as widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis. The United States responded with a troop surge in 2007; the U. S. began withdrawing its troops in the winter of 2007–2008. The winding down of U. S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U. S. withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by 2011. The Bush administration based its rationale for war principally on the assertion that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction and that Saddam's government posed an immediate threat to the United States and its coalition allies; some U. S. officials accused Saddam of harboring and supporting al-Qaeda, while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq. After the invasion, however, no evidence was found to verify the initial claims about WMDs.

The rationale and misrepresentation of pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism within the U. S. and internationally. As a result of the war, Iraq held its multi-party elections in 2005, Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister the following year; the Maliki government enacted policies that were seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority, which worsened sectarian tensions. In 2014, ISIS launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies; the Iraq War caused hundreds of thousands of military casualties. The majority of the casualties occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007; as planned, the last US combat troops were withdrawn from Iraq in 2011, with security responsibility in the hands of the Iraqi Armed Forces. On 15 December, martial closing ceremony was held in Baghdad putting a formal end to the U. S. mission in Iraq.

This ceased direct U. S. combat involvement in the war. The last 500 soldiers left Iraq under cover of darkness and under strict secrecy early on the morning of 18 December 2011, ending the U. S. military presence in Iraq after nearly nine years. On 22 December 2011 at least 72 civilians were killed and more than 170 wounded in a series of bombings across Baghdad, while nine others died in various attacks in Baqubah and Kirkuk. A number of bombings took place in Nasiriyah, killing 73 and leaving 149 injured; the bombing in the southern Iraqi city was targeted at crowds of Shi'ite Muslims and killed at least 44, injuring more than 80 others. It was the first major attack in Nasiriyah since a suicide attack against an Italian army base killed 28 in November 2003, including 19 Italians. ISIS claimed responsibility. A suicide bomber detonated his explosives amid a crowd of Shi'ite pilgrims in Basra, killing 53 and injuring 141; this was the deadliest attack in the city since car bombs in April 2004 killed at least 74.

On January 27 – A suicide bomber attacked a funeral procession in Baghdad's Zaafaraniyah district, killing 32 and injuring more than 70 others. On February 23 – A series of attacks across 15 Iraqi cities left 83 killed and more than 250 injured. ISIS claimed responsibility two days later. On March 5 – A gang of gunmen disguised in military-style uniforms and carrying forged arrest warrants killed 27 police and hoisted the battle flag of al-Qaeda in a planned ea

Ryuichi Sakamoto

Ryuichi Sakamoto is a Japanese composer, songwriter, record producer and actor who has pursued a diverse range of styles as a solo artist and as a member of Yellow Magic Orchestra. With his bandmates Haruomi Hosono and Yukihiro Takahashi, Sakamoto influenced and pioneered a number of electronic music genres. Sakamoto began his career while at university in the 1970s as a session musician and arranger, his first major success came in 1978 as co-founder of YMO. He concurrently pursued a solo career, releasing the experimental electronic fusion album Thousand Knives in 1978. Two years he released the album B-2 Unit, it included the track "Riot in Lagos", significant in the development of electro and hip hop music. He went on to produce more solo records, collaborate with many international artists, David Sylvian, Carsten Nicolai, Youssou N'Dour, Fennesz among them. Sakamoto composed music for the opening ceremony of the 1992 Barcelona Olympics, his composition "Energy Flow" was the first instrumental number-one single in Japan's Oricon charts history.

As a film-score composer, Sakamoto has won an Oscar, a BAFTA, a Grammy, 2 Golden Globe Awards. Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence marked his debut as a film-score composer, his most successful work as a film composer was The Last Emperor, after which he continued earning accolades composing for films such as The Sheltering Sky, Little Buddha, The Revenant. On occasion, Sakamoto has worked as a composer and a scenario writer on anime and video games. In 2009, he was awarded the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres from the Ministry of Culture of France for his contributions to music. Sakamoto entered the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music in 1970, earning a B. A. in music composition and an M. A. with special emphasis on both electronic and ethnic music. He studied ethnomusicology there with the intention of becoming a researcher in the field, due to his interest in various world music traditions the Japanese and African musical traditions, he was trained in classical music and began experimenting with the electronic music equipment available at the university, including synthesizers such as the Buchla, ARP.

One of Sakamoto's classical influences was Claude Debussy, who he described as his "hero" and stated that “Asian music influenced Debussy, Debussy influenced me. So, the music goes around the world and comes full circle.”In 1975, Sakamoto collaborated with percussionist Tsuchitori Toshiyuki to release Disappointment-Hateruma. After working as a session musician with Haruomi Hosono and Yukihiro Takahashi in 1977, the trio formed the internationally successful electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra in 1978. Known for their seminal influence on electronic music, the group helped pioneer electronic genres such as electropop/technopop, cyberpunk music, ambient house, electronica; the group's work has had a lasting influence across genres, ranging from hip hop and techno to acid house and general melodic music. Sakamoto was the songwriter and composer for a number of the band's hit songs—including "Yellow Magic", "Technopolis", "Nice Age", "Ongaku" and "You've Got to Help Yourself" —while playing keyboards for many of their other songs, including international hits such as "Computer Game/Firecracker" and "Rydeen".

He sang on several songs, such as "Kimi ni Mune Kyun". Sakamoto's composition "Technopolis" was credited as a contribution to the development of techno music, while the internationally successful "Behind the Mask" —a synthpop song in which he sang vocals through a vocoder—was covered by a number of international artists, including Michael Jackson and Eric Clapton. Sakamoto released his first solo album Thousand Knives of Ryūichi Sakamoto in mid-1978 with the help of Hideki Matsutake—Hosono contributed to the song "Thousand Knives"; the album experimented with different styles, such as "Thousand Knives" and "The End of Asia"—in which electronic music was fused with traditional Japanese music—while "Grasshoppers" is a more minimalistic piano song. The album was recorded from April to July 1978 with a variety of electronic musical instruments, including various synthesizers, such as the KORG PS-3100, a polyphonic synthesizer. A version of the song "Thousand Knives" was released on the Yellow Magic Orchestra's 1981 album BGM.

This version was one of the earliest uses of the Roland TR-808 drum machine, for YMO's live performance of "1000 Knives" in 1980 and their BGM album release in 1981. In 1980, Sakamoto released the solo album B-2 Unit, referred to as his "edgiest" record and is known for the electronic song "Riot in Lagos", considered an early example of electro music, as Sakamoto anticipated the beats and sounds of electro. Early electro and hip hop artists, such as Afrika Bambaata and Kurtis Mantronik, were influenced by the album—especially "Riot in Lagos"—with Mantronik citing the work as a major influence on his electro hip hop group Mantronix. "Riot in Lagos" was included in Playgroup's compilation album Kings of Electro