The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology on Beaumont Street, England, is the world's first university museum. Its first building was erected in 1678–83 to house the cabinet of curiosities that Elias Ashmole gave to the University of Oxford in 1677; the present building was erected 1841–45. The museum reopened in 2009 after a major redevelopment. In November 2011, new galleries focusing on Egypt and Nubia were unveiled. In May 2016, the museum opened new galleries of 19th-century art; the museum opened on 24 May 1683, with naturalist Robert Plot as the first keeper. The building on Broad Street, which became known as the Old Ashmolean, is sometimes attributed to Sir Christopher Wren or Thomas Wood. Elias Ashmole had acquired the collection from the gardeners and collectors John Tradescant the Elder and his son, John Tradescant the Younger, it included antique coins, engravings, geological specimens, zoological specimens—one of, the stuffed body of the last dodo seen in Europe. The present building dates from 1841–45.
It was designed as the University Galleries by Charles Cockerell in a classical style and stands on Beaumont Street. One wing of the building is occupied by the Taylor Institution, the modern languages faculty of the university, standing on the corner of Beaumont Street and St Giles' Street; this wing of the building was designed by Charles Cockerell, using the Ionic order of Greek architecture. Sir Arthur Evans, appointed keeper in 1884 and retired in 1908, is responsible for the current museum. Evans found that the Keeper and the Vice-Chancellor had managed to lose half of the Ashmole collection and had converted the original building into the Examination Rooms. Charles Drury Edward Fortnum had offered to donate his personal collection of antiques on condition that the museum was put on a sound footing. A donation of £10,000 from Fortnum enabled Evans to build an extension to the University Galleries and move the Ashmolean collection there in 1894. In 1908, the Ashmolean and the University Galleries were combined as the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology.
The museum became a depository for some of the important archaeological finds from Evans' excavations in Crete. After the various specimens had been moved into new museums, the "Old Ashmolean" building was used as office space for the Oxford English Dictionary. Since 1924, the building has been established as the Museum of the History of Science, with exhibitions including the scientific instruments given to Oxford University by Lewis Evans, amongst them the world's largest collection of astrolabes. Charles Buller Heberden left £1,000 to the University, used for the Coin Room at the museum. In 2012, the Ashmolean was awarded a grant of $1.1m by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to establish the University Engagement Programme or UEP; the programme employs three Teaching Curators and a Programme Director to develop the use of the museum's collections in the teaching and research of the University. The interior of the Ashmolean has been extensively modernised in recent years and now includes a restaurant and large gift shop.
In 2000, the Chinese Picture Gallery, designed by van Heyningen and Haward Architects, opened at the entrance of the Ashmolean and is integrated into the structure. It was inserted into a lightwell in the Grade 1 listed building, was designed to support future construction from its roof. Apart from the original Cockerell spaces, this gallery was the only part of the museum retained in the rebuilding; the gallery houses the Ashmolean's own collection and is used from time to time for the display of loan exhibitions and works by contemporary Chinese artists. It is the only museum gallery in Britain devoted to Chinese paintings; the Sackler Library, incorporating the older library collections of the Ashmolean, opened in 2001 and has allowed an expansion of the book collection, which concentrates on classical civilization and art history. Between 2006 and 2009, the museum was expanded to the designs of architect Rick Mather and the exhibition design company Metaphor, supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.
The $98.2 million rebuilding resulted in five floors instead of three, with a doubling of the display space, as well as new conservation studios and an education centre. The renovated museum re-opened on 7 November 2009. On 26 November 2011, the Ashmolean opened to the public the new galleries of Ancient Egypt and Nubia; this second phase of major redevelopment now allows the museum to exhibit objects that have been in storage for decades, more than doubling the number of coffins and mummies on display. The project received lead support from Lord Sainsbury's Linbury Trust, along with the Selz Foundation, Mr Christian Levett, as well as other trusts and individuals. Rick Mather Architects led the redesign and display of the four previous Egypt galleries and the extension to the restored Ruskin Gallery occupied by the museum shop. In May 2016, the museum opened new galleries dedicated to the display of its collection of Victorian art; this development allowed for the return to the Ashmolean of the Great Bookcase, designed by William Burges, described as "the most important example of Victorian painted furniture made.".
The main museum contains huge collections of fine art. It has one of the best collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings, majolica pottery, English silver; the archaeology department includes the bequest of Arthur Evans and so has an excellent collection of Greek and Minoan pottery. The depar
United Reformed Church
The United Reformed Church is a Protestant Christian church in the United Kingdom. It has 46,500 members in 1,383 congregations with 608 active ministers, including 13 church related community workers; the United Reformed Church resulted from the 1972 union of the Presbyterian Church of England and the Congregational Church in England and Wales. In introducing the United Reformed Church Bill in the House of Commons on 21 June 1972, Alexander Lyon called it "one of the most historic measures in the history of the Christian churches in this country". About a quarter of English Congregational churches chose not to join the new denomination; the URC subsequently united with the Re-formed Association of Churches of Christ in 1981 and the Congregational Union of Scotland in 2000. In 1982, the United Reformed Church voted in favour of a covenant with the Church of England, the Methodist Church and the Moravian Church, which would have meant remodelling its moderators as bishops and incorporating its ministry into the apostolic succession.
However, the Church of England rejected the covenant. In 2012, the United Reformed Church voted to allow the blessing of same-sex civil partnerships. In 2016, the URC voted to allow its churches to conduct same-sex marriages. According to its own records, the United Reformed Church has 56,000 members in 1,400 congregations with 608 active ministers, including 13 church-related community workers. From 2005 to 2010, 90 congregations closed, the fourth highest number of closures for a British denomination over the period; the decline of the URC is one of the fastest within denominations in the UK. Between 31 December 2013 and 31 December 2018, the denomination declined by 12,196 members, representing 20.6% of its membership. At the current decline rate, the URC would have no members by the mid-2030s; the URC is a trinitarian church whose theological roots are distinctly Reformed and whose historical and organisational roots are in the Presbyterian and Congregational traditions. Its Basis of Union contains a statement concerning the nature and order of the United Reformed Church which sets out its beliefs in a condensed form.
The URC is governed by a combined form of presbyterian polity. Each congregation within the URC is governed by a Church Meeting consisting of all its members, the ultimate decision-making body in the local church. There is an elders' meeting which advises the Church Meeting and shares with the minister the spiritual and pastoral oversight of the church. Elders are elected to serve for a specific period of time. Within the present structures, congregations are able to manage themselves and arrange their services as they choose, reflecting their circumstances and preferences; as a result, congregations neighbouring ones, may have quite different characters, types of service and eligibility for communion. Congregations, through the Church Meeting, are responsible for the selection of ministers to fill vacancies, they select elders from within the membership and accept new members. At a regional level, representatives of the congregations assemble in a synod. There are 11 English synods corresponding to each region of England, one in Scotland and one in Wales.
The synod and its committees provide oversight within the framework of presbyterian polity, giving pastoral care and making important decisions about where ministers serve and how churches share ministry. Through the synods, the URC relates to other Christian denominations at a regional level such as Anglican dioceses. Synods make many key decisions about finance, about church property, held in trust by a synod trust company. Synods employ staff to encourage and serve local churches; the URC has a General Assembly which gathers representatives of the whole of the URC to meet biennially. Advised by the Mission Council, the General Assembly plans the activity of the URC across Great Britain and makes key policy decisions about the direction of the life of the denomination, it appoints central staff, receives reports from committees, deals with substantial reports and initiatives such as Vision4Life. The synods are represented along with the convenors of the Assembly's standing committees. There are 11 standing committees appointed by General Assembly to carry out its policy and to advise the Assembly.
Each committee relates to a different area of church life, including mission and education and learning. Mission Council, the executive body of the General Assembly, meets twice a year. Church related community work is a distinctive ministry within the URC. CRCW ministers use the principles of community development to respond to issues facing their neighbourhoods, working alongside local individuals and organisations, developing initiatives to transform communities. Between them, CRCW ministers enable churches to widen their mission by: identifying local needs and opportunities. Formed in an act of ecumenical union, the URC is committed to ecumenism; the denomination is a member of many ecumenical organisations
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf
Bishop of Oxford
The Bishop of Oxford is the diocesan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury. The current bishop is Steven Croft, following the confirmation of his election to the See on 6 July 2016; the origins of Christianity in this part of England go back at least to the 7th century, when Saint Birinus brought his mission to the West Saxons in 634. The West Saxon King Cynegils was baptised in the River Thames near the present site of Dorchester Abbey, where the original See was established; the see was transferred in 1092 to Winchester, before being absorbed into the Diocese of Lincoln, the vast extent of which covered much of central and eastern England from the River Thames to the Humber. King Henry VIII, acting now as head of the Church in England, established by Act of Parliament in 1542 six new dioceses out of the spoils of the suppressed monasteries; these six were Bristol, Gloucester, Oxford and Westminster. This intervention by Henry VIII saw a new see located at Osney in Oxfordshire in 1542 before being moved to its present location in the City of Oxford in 1546.
While the city gained prosperity from the accession of thousands of students, it was never, apart from the university, again prominent in history until the seventeenth century, when it became the headquarters of the Royalist party, again the meeting-place of Parliament. The city of Oxford showed its Hanoverian sympathies long before the university, feeling between them ran high in consequence; the area and population of the city remained stationary until about 1830, but since it has grown rapidly. The modern diocese covers the counties of Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, with parishes in Bedfordshire, Hampshire and Warwickshire; the see is in the City of Oxford where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Christ, elevated to cathedral status in 1546, and, the chapel of Christ Church, Oxford. The Oxford diocese at the present day contains the greatest number of parishes of any diocese on England and the most church buildings, of which 475 are grade 1 or 2* listed buildings. Croft is the first to reside at Kidlington.
Each bishop signs + Christian name Oxon:. List of the Bishops of Oxford, its precursor offices. Cuddesdon Palace Oxford Diocesan Year Book Haydn's Book of Dignities Joseph Haydn/Horace Ockerby, reprinted Whitaker's Almanack 1883 to 2004, Joseph Whitaker and Sons Ltd/A&C Black, London The above text is drawn from the Catholic Encyclopaedia of 1908
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, bronze and copper coinage. From its introduction to the Republic, during the third century BC, well into Imperial times, Roman currency saw many changes in form and composition. A persistent feature was the inflationary replacement of coins over the centuries. Notable examples of this followed the reforms of Diocletian; this trend continued into Byzantine times. Because of the economic power and longevity of the Roman state, Roman currency was used throughout western Eurasia and northern Africa from classical times into the Middle Ages, it served as a model for the currencies of the Muslim caliphates and the European states during the Middle Ages and the Modern Era. Roman currency names survive today in many countries; the manufacture of coins in the Roman culture, dating from about the 4th century BC influenced development of coin minting in Europe. The origin of the word "mint" is ascribed to the manufacture of silver coin at Rome in 269 BC at the temple of Juno Moneta.
This goddess became the personification of money, her name was applied both to money and to its place of manufacture. Roman mints were spread across the Empire, were sometimes used for propaganda purposes; the populace learned of a new Roman Emperor when coins appeared with the new Emperor's portrait. Some of the emperors who ruled only for a short time made sure; the Romans cast their larger copper coins in clay moulds carrying distinctive markings, not because they did not know about striking, but because it was not suitable for such large masses of metal. Roman adoption of metallic commodity money was a late development in monetary history. Bullion bars and ingots were used as money in Mesopotamia since the 7th millennium BC. Coinage proper was only introduced by the Roman Republican government c. 300 BC. The greatest city of the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy, several other Italian cities had a long tradition of using coinage by this time and produced them in large quantities during the 4th century BC to pay for their wars against the inland Italian groups encroaching on their territory.
For these reasons, the Romans would have known about coinage systems long before their government introduced them. The reason behind Rome's adoption of coinage was cultural; the Romans had no pressing economic need. However, Roman coinage saw limited use; the type of money introduced by Rome was unlike. It combined a number of uncommon elements. One example is the aes signatum, it measured about 160 by 90 millimetres and weighed around 1,500 to 1,600 grams, being made out of a leaded tin bronze. Although similar metal currency bars had been produced in Italy and northern Etruscan areas, these had been made of Aes grave, an unrefined metal with a high iron content. Along with the aes signatum, the Roman state issued a series of bronze and silver coins that emulated the styles of those produced in Greek cities. Produced using the manner of manufacture utilised in Greek Naples, the designs of these early coins were heavily influenced by Greek designs; the designs on the coinage of the Republican period displayed a "solid conservatism" illustrating mythical scenes or personifications of various gods and goddesses.
In 27 BC, the Roman Republic came to an end. Taking autocratic power, it soon became recognized that there was a link between the emperor's sovereignty and the production of coinage; the imagery on coins took an important step when Julius Caesar issued coins bearing his own portrait. While moneyers had earlier issued coins with portraits of ancestors, Caesar's was the first Roman coinage to feature the portrait of a living individual; the tradition continued following Caesar's assassination, although the imperators from time to time produced coins featuring the traditional deities and personifications found on earlier coins. The image of the Roman emperor took on a special importance in the centuries that followed, because during the empire, the emperor embodied the state and its policies; the names of moneyers continued to appear on the coins until the middle of Augustus' reign. Although the duty of moneyers during the Empire is not known, since the position was not abolished, it is believed that they still had some influence over the imagery of the coins.
The main focus of the imagery during the empire was on the portrait of the emperor. Coins were an important means of disseminating this image throughout the empire. Coins attempted to make the emperor appear god-like through associating the emperor with attributes seen in divinities, or emphasizing the special relationship between the emperor and a particular deity by producing a preponderance of coins depicting that deity. During his campaign against Pompey, Caesar issued a variety of types that featured images of either Venus or Aeneas, attempting to associate himself
A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side. Embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, a culvert may be made from a pipe, reinforced concrete or other material. In the United Kingdom, the word can be used for a longer artificially buried watercourse. Culverts are used both as cross-drains for ditch relief, to pass water under a road at natural drainage and stream crossings. A culvert may be a bridge-like structure designed to allow vehicle or pedestrian traffic to cross over the waterway while allowing adequate passage for the water. Culverts come in many sizes and shapes including round, flat-bottomed, open-bottomed, pear-shaped, box-like constructions; the culvert type and shape selection is based on a number of factors including requirements for hydraulic performance, limitations on upstream water surface elevation, roadway embankment height. If the span of crossing is greater than 12 feet the structure is termed a bridge.
A structure that carries water above land is known as an aqueduct. The process of removing culverts, becoming prevalent, is known as daylighting. In the UK, the practice is known as deculverting. Culverts can be constructed of a variety of materials including cast-in-place or precast concrete, galvanized steel, aluminum, or plastic. Two or more materials may be combined to form composite structures. For example, open-bottom corrugated steel structures are built on concrete footings. Construction or installation at a culvert site results in disturbance of the site soil, stream banks, or streambed, can result in the occurrence of unwanted problems such as scour holes or slumping of banks adjacent to the culvert structure. Culverts must be properly sized and installed, protected from erosion and scour. Many U. S. agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration, Bureau of Land Management, Environmental Protection Agency, as well as state or local authorities, require that culverts be designed and engineered to meet specific federal, state, or local regulations and guidelines to ensure proper function and to protect against culvert failures.
Culverts are classified by standards for their load capacities, water flow capacities, life spans, installation requirements for bedding and backfill. Most agencies adhere to these standards when designing and specifying culverts. Culvert failures can occur for a wide variety of reasons including maintenance and installation related failures, functional or process failures related to capacity and volume causing the erosion of the soil around or under them, structural or material failures that cause culverts to fail due to collapse or corrosion of the materials from which they are made. If the failure is sudden and catastrophic, it can result in loss of life. Sudden road collapses are the result of poorly designed and engineered culvert crossing sites or unexpected changes in the surrounding environment cause design parameters to be exceeded. Water passing through undersized culverts will scour away the surrounding soil over time; this can cause a sudden failure during medium-sized rain events.
Accidents from culvert failure can occur if a culvert has not been adequately sized and a flood event overwhelms the culvert, or disrupts the road or railway above it. Ongoing culvert function without failure depends on proper design and engineering considerations being given to load, hydraulic flow, surrounding soil analysis and bedding compaction, erosion protection. Improperly designed backfill support around culverts can result in material collapse or failure from inadequate load support. For existing culverts which have experienced degradation, loss of structural integrity or need to meet new codes or standards, rehabilitation using a reline pipe maybe preferred versus replacement. Sizing of a reline culvert uses the same hydraulic flow design criteria as that of a new culvert however as the reline culvert is meant to be inserted into an existing culvert or host pipe, reline installation requires the grouting of the annular space between the host pipe and the surface of reline pipe so as to prevent or reduce seepage and soil migration.
Grouting serves as a means in establishing a structural connection between the liner, host pipe and soil. Depending on the size and annular space to be filled as well as the pipe elevation between the inlet and outlet, grouting maybe required to be performed in multiple stages or "lifts". If multiple lifts are required a grouting plan is required which defines the placement of grout feed tubes, air tubes, type of grout to be used and if injecting or pumping grout the required developed pressure for injection; as the diameter of the reline pipe will be smaller than the host pipe, the cross-sectional flow area will be smaller. By selecting a reline pipe with a smooth internal surface, with an approximate Hazen-Williams Friction Factor, C, value of between 140-150, the decreased flow area can be offset and hydraulic flow rates increased by way of reduced surface flow resistance. Examples of pipe materials with high C-factors are HDPE. Undersized and poorly placed culverts can cause problems for aquatic organisms.
Poorly designed culverts can degrade water quality via scour and erosion, as well as restrict the movement of aquatic organisms between upstream and downstream habitat. Fish are a common victim in the loss of habitat du