Rockville is a city and the county seat of Montgomery County, United States, part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. The 2010 census tabulated Rockville's population at 61,209, making it one of the largest communities in Maryland and the third largest location in Montgomery County, after Silver Spring and Germantown. Rockville, along with neighboring Gaithersburg and Bethesda, is at the core of the Interstate 270 Technology Corridor, home to numerous software and biotechnology companies as well as several federal government institutions; the city has several upscale regional shopping centers and is one of the major retail hubs in Montgomery County. Situated in the Piedmont region and crossed by three creeks, Rockville provided an excellent refuge for semi-nomadic Native Americans as early as 8000 BC. By the first millennium BC, a few of these groups had settled down into year-round agricultural communities that exploited the native flora, including sunflowers and marsh elder. By AD 1200, these early groups were drawn into conflict with the Senecas and Susquehannocks who had migrated south from Pennsylvania and New York.
Within the present-day boundaries of the city, six prehistoric sites have been uncovered and documented, along with numerous artifacts several thousand years old. By the year 1700, under pressure from European colonists, the majority of these original inhabitants had been driven away; the indigenous population carved a path on the high ground, known as Sinequa Trail, now downtown Rockville. The Maryland Assembly set the standard of 20 feet for main thoroughfares and designated the Rock Creek Main Road or Great Road to be built to this standard. In the mid-18th century, Lawrence Owen opened a small inn on the road; the place, known as Owen's Ordinary, took on greater prominence when, on April 14, 1755, Major General Edward Braddock stopped at Owen's Ordinary on a start of a mission from George Town to press British claims of the western frontier. The location of the road, near the present Rockville Pike, was strategically located on higher ground making it dry year-round; the first land patents in the Rockville area were obtained by Arthur Nelson between 1717 and 1735.
Within three decades, the first permanent buildings in what would become the center of Rockville were established on this land. Still a part of Prince George's County at this time, the growth of Daniel Dulaney's Frederick Town prompted the separation of the western portion of the county, including Rockville, into Frederick County in 1748. Being a small, unincorporated town, early Rockville was known by a variety of names, including Owen's Ordinary, Hungerford's Tavern, Daley's Tavern; the first recorded mention of the settlement which would become known as Rockville dates to the Braddock Expedition in 1755. On April 14, one of the two thousand men who were accompanying General Braddock through wrote the following: "we marched to larance Owings or Owings Oardianary, a Single House, it being 18 miles and dirty." Owen's Ordinary was a small rest stop on Rock Creek Main Road, which stretched from George Town to Frederick Town, was one of the largest thoroughfares in the colony of Maryland. On September 6, 1776, the Maryland Constitutional Convention agreed to a proposal introduced by Thomas Sprigg Wootton wherein Frederick County, the largest and most populous county in Maryland, would be divided into three smaller units.
The southern portion of the county, of which Rockville was a part, was named Montgomery County. The most populous and prosperous urban center in this new county was George Town, but its location at the far southern edge rendered it worthless as a seat of local government. Rockville, a small, but centrally located and well-traveled town, was chosen as the seat of the county's government. At the time, Rockville did not have a name. After being named the county seat, the village was referred to by all as Montgomery Court House; the tavern served as the county courthouse, it held its first such proceedings on May 20, 1777. In 1784, William Prather Williams, a local landowner, hired a surveyor to lay out much of the town. In his honor, many took to calling the town Williamsburg. In practice, however and Montgomery Court House were used interchangeably. Rockville came to greater prominence when Montgomery county was created and when George Town was ceded to the federal government to create the District of Columbia.
It was first considered to name the town Wattsville, after the nearby Watts Branch, but the stream was considered too small to give its name to the town. On July 16, 1803, when the area was entered into the county land records with the name "Rockville," derived from Rock Creek; the name Montgomery Court House continued to appear on maps and other documents through the 1820s. In November 1833, guests of the Old Hungerford Tavern were playing cards in the card room when they saw the Leonids meteor shower above; the guests threw their cards in the knelt in prayer to ask for God's forgiveness. By petition of Rockville's citizens, the Maryland General Assembly incorporated the village on March 10, 1860. During the American Civil War, General George B. McClellan stayed at the Beall Dawson house in 1862. In addition, General J. E. B. Stuart and an army of 8,000 Confederate cavalrymen marched through and occupied Rockville on June 28, 1863, while on their way to Gettysburg and stayed at the Prettyman house.
Jubal Anderson Early had crossed through Maryland on his way to and from his attack on Was
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Kensington is a town in Montgomery County, Maryland. The population was 2,213 at the 2010 United States Census. Greater Kensington encompasses the entire 20895 ZIP code, with a population of 19,054; the area around the Rock Creek basin where Kensington is located was agricultural until 1873, when the B&O Railroad completed the Metropolitan Branch which traversed Montgomery County. A community arose; this early settlement was first known as Knowles Station. In the early 1890s, Washington, D. C. developer Brainard Warner began purchasing land parcels to build a planned Victorian community, complete with church, library and a local newspaper. Fascinated by a recent trip to London, Warner named his subdivision Kensington Park, the 10th and largest subdivision in the area which became the Town of Kensington. Upon incorporation in 1894, Warner convinced the Council to name the town Kensington; the historic core of Kensington was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, as the Kensington Historic District in 1980.
A farming community at Knowles Station, Kensington developed into a summer refuge for Washington, D. C. residents wishing to escape the capital's humid summers. As years passed and its residents remained year round, Kensington evolved into a commuter suburb; the large southernmost section mapped out by Warner remains unchanged since inception, is a preserved zone. Indeed, the only major changes in the town's basic layout have been the bridging over of the original railroad crossing in 1937, the extension and widening of Connecticut Avenue, the town's main thoroughfare, in 1957. In March 1975, Kensington gained attention regionally due to the disappearance of Sheila and Katherine Lyon; the sisters walked to Wheaton Plaza, a local shopping mall where they were seen by witnesses including their brother. However, they never returned the case remains unsolved; the town gained national attention three times in a 10-month span early in the 21st century as a result of events which occurred within a mere quarter-mile radius.
In December 2001, the town responded to complaints from anonymous citizens by banning Santa Claus from the annual holiday parade. Protesters arrived at the parade en masse, including dozens of Santas riding everything from motorcycles to fire trucks. Eight months an Amtrak train derailed adjacent to the town center when the tracks separated at an overheated joint, injuring 72 people, though there were no fatalities. On October 2, 2002, Lori Ann Lewis-Rivera became the fifth victim of the snipers who terrorized the Washington area that month, while cleaning her auto at a Kensington gas station. Kensington is located in Montgomery County, northwest of Silver Spring, northeast of Bethesda, west of Wheaton and southeast of Rockville, its latitude is 39°1′48″N, longitude 77°4′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.48 square miles, all land. While the town proper is but one-half square mile in size, the Kensington Post Office serves a much larger area and extends into North Bethesda and the Wheaton Planning District.
Residents within this ZIP code refer to Kensington as their home town though they technically do not reside in "The Town of Kensington". Significant through roads in Kensington include Maryland Routes 185, 193, 547; the look and white color of the Washington D. C. Temple located in Greater Kensington, coupled with its location near the Capital Beltway has made it a local landmark. D. C.-area traffic reports refer to the "Mormon temple" or "temple". As of the census of 2010, there were 2,213 people, 870 households, 563 families residing in the town; the population density was 4,610.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 902 housing units at an average density of 1,879.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 82.0% White, 6.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 5.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.8% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.4% of the population. There were 870 households of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.3% were non-families.
27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.17. The median age in the town was 42.1 years. 26.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 52.4 % female. As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the town was $76,716, the median income for a family was $96,394. Males had a median income of $65,804 versus $41,364 for females; the per capita income for the town was $35,919. About 0.9% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 1.3% of those age 65 or over. Kensington is a bedroom community for workers who commute to jobs in the Washington, D. C. area, but it is not without its own commercial enterprises, which include "Antique Row" on Howard Avenue, the West Howard Antique District, Kaiser-Permanente's Kensington facility, plus art shops, supermarkets, auto repair shops, hardware stores, others.
The Town of Kensington hosts a farmer's market on
A division is a large military unit or formation consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 30,000 in nominal strength. In most armies, a division is composed of several brigades; the division has been the default combined arms unit capable of independent operations. Smaller combined arms units, such as the American regimental combat team during World War II, were used when conditions favored them. In recent times, modern Western militaries have begun adopting the smaller brigade combat team as the default combined arms unit, with the division they belong to being less important. While the focus of this article is on army divisions, in naval usage division has a different meaning, referring to either an administrative/functional sub-unit of a department aboard naval and coast guard ships, shore commands, in naval aviation units, to a sub-unit of several ships within a flotilla or squadron, or to two or three sections of aircraft operating under a designated division leader.
Some languages, like Russian, Serbo-Croatian and Polish, use a similar word divizion/dywizjon for a battalion-size artillery or cavalry unit. In administrative/functional sub-unit usage, unit size varies though divisions number far fewer than 100 people and are equivalent in function and organizational hierarchy/command relationship to a platoon or flight. In the West, the first general to think of organising an army into smaller combined-arms units was Maurice de Saxe, Marshal General of France, in his book Mes Rêveries, he died without having implemented his idea. Victor-François de Broglie put the ideas into practice, he conducted successful practical experiments of the divisional system in the Seven Years' War. The first war in which the divisional system was used systematically was the French Revolutionary War. Lazare Carnot of the Committee of Public Safety, in charge of military affairs, came to the same conclusion about it as the previous royal government, the army was organised into divisions.
It made the armies more flexible and easy to maneuver, it made the large army of the revolution manageable. Under Napoleon, the divisions were grouped together because of their increasing size. Napoleon's military success spread the corps system all over Europe; the divisional system reached its numerical height during the Second World War. The Soviet Union's Red Army consisted of more than a thousand divisional-size units at any one time, the total number of rifle divisions raised during the Great Patriotic War is estimated at 2,000. Nazi Germany had hundreds of numbered and/or named divisions, while the United States employed 91 divisions, two of which were disbanded during the war. A notable change to divisional structures during the war was completion of the shift from square divisions to triangular divisions that many European nations started using in World War I; this was done to pare down chain of command overhead. The triangular division allowed the tactic of "two forward, one back", where two of the division's regiments would be engaging the enemy with one regiment in reserve.
All divisions in World War II were expected to have their own artillery formations the size of a regiment depending upon the nation. Divisional artillery was seconded by corps level command to increase firepower in larger engagements. Regimental combat teams were used by the US during the war as well, whereby attached and/or organic divisional units were parceled out to infantry regiments, creating smaller combined-arms units with their own armor and artillery and support units; these combat teams would still be under divisional command but have some level of autonomy on the battlefield. Organic units within divisions were units which operated directly under Divisional command and were not controlled by the Regiments; these units were support units in nature, include signal companies, medical battalions, supply trains and administration. Attached units were smaller units that were placed under Divisional command temporarily for the purpose of completing a particular mission; these units were combat units such as tank battalions, tank destroyer battalions and cavalry reconnaissance squadrons.
In modern times, most military forces have standardized their divisional structures. This does not mean that divisions are equal in size or structure from country to country, but divisions have, in most cases, come to be units of 10,000 to 20,000 troops with enough organic support to be capable of independent operations; the direct organization of the division consists of one to four brigades or battle groups of its primary combat arm, along with a brigade or regiment of combat support and a number of direct-reporting battalions for necessary specialized support tasks, such as intelligence, logistics and combat engineers. Most militaries standardize ideal organization strength for each type of division, encapsulated in a Table of Organization and Equipment which specifies exact assignments of units and equipment for a division; the modern division became the primary identifiable combat unit in many militaries during the second half of the 20th century, supplanting the brigade.
Silver Spring, Maryland
Silver Spring is an unincorporated community, large village, suburb of Washington, D. C. and census-designated place located inside the Capital Beltway in Montgomery County, United States. It had a population of 79,483, according to the 2017 official estimate by the United States Census Bureau, making it the fourth most populous place in Maryland, after Baltimore and Germantown, the second largest in Montgomery County after Germantown. Inner Silver Spring consists of the following neighborhoods: Downtown Silver Spring, East Silver Spring, North Woodside, Woodside Park, North Hills Sligo Park, Long Branch, Montgomery Knolls, Franklin Knolls, Indian Spring Terrace, Indian Spring Village, Clifton Park Village, New Hampshire Estates and Woodmoor. Outer Silver Spring consist of the following neighborhoods: Four Corners, Glenmont, Forest Glen, Aspen Hill, White Oak, Colesville Park, Calverton, Briggs Chaney, Northwood Park, Sunset Terrace, Fairland and Kemp Mill; the urbanized and southernmost part of Silver Spring is a major business hub that lies at the north apex of Washington, D.
C. As of 2004, the Central Business District held 7,254,729 square feet of office space, 5216 dwelling units and 17.6 acres of parkland. The population density of this CBD area of Silver Spring was 15,600 per square mile all within 360 acres and 2.5 square miles in the CBD/downtown area. The community has undergone a significant renaissance, with the addition of major retail and office developments. Silver Spring takes its name from a mica-flecked spring discovered there in 1840, by Francis Preston Blair, who subsequently bought much of the surrounding land. Acorn Park, tucked away in an area of south Silver Spring away from the main downtown area, is believed to be the site of the original spring; as an unincorporated area, Silver Spring's boundaries are not defined. As of the 2010 Census the United States Census Bureau defines Silver Spring as a census-designated place with a total area of 7.92 square miles, all land. This definition is a 15% reduction from the 9.4 square miles used in previous years.
The United States Geological Survey locates the center of Silver Spring at 38°59′26″N 77°1′35″W, notably some distance from the Census Bureau's datum. By another definition, Silver Spring is located at 39°0′15″N 77°1′8″W; the definitions used by the Silver Spring Urban Planning District, the United States Postal Service, the Greater Silver Spring Chamber of Commerce, etc. are all different, each defining it for its own purposes. Residents of a large swath of southeastern Montgomery County have Silver Spring mailing addresses, including Four Corners, Glenmont, Forest Glen, Aspen Hill, White Oak, Colesville Park, Calverton, Briggs Chaney, Northwood Park, Sandy Spring, Sunset Terrace, Lyttonsville, Kemp Mill, a portion of Langley Park, a portion of Adelphi; the area that has a Silver Spring mailing address is larger in area than any city in Maryland except Baltimore. Silver Spring's notable landmarks include the world headquarters of Discovery Communications, the AFI Silver Theatre, the world headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the headquarters of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the headquarters of the Food and Drug Administration, the national headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
Rock Creek Park passes along the west side of Silver Spring, offers hiking trails, picnic grounds, bicycling on weekends, when its main road, Beach Drive, is closed to motor vehicles. Sligo Creek Park follows Sligo Creek through Silver Spring; the latter is facilitated on weekends. The bike trails are slower than most in the region. Rocks have been spread along either side of the road, providing a hazardous bike ride, or skating leisure. Acorn Park in the downtown area of Silver Spring, is believed to be the site of the eponymous "silver spring."The 14.5-acre Jessup-Blair Park was renovated and features a soccer field, tennis courts, basketball courts, picnic area. Brookside Gardens is a 50-acre park within Wheaton Regional Park, in "greater" Silver Spring, it is located on the original site of Stadler Nursery. Northwest Branch Park is a 700-acre park surrounding the Northwest Branch of the Anacostia River; the park includes hiking and cycling trails on the Northwest Branch and Rachel Carson Greenway Trails.
This park extends farther within Montgomery County. Note that the Rachel Carson Greenway Trail is named after Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring and former resident of Silver Spring. Note: For the 2010 Census the boundaries of the Silver Spring CDP were changed reducing the land area by approx. 15%. As a result, the population count for 2010 shows a 6.6% decrease, while the population density increases 11%. As enumerated in the 2010 census, there were 71,452 residents, 28,603 total households, 15,684 families residing in the Silver Spring CDP; the population density was 9,021.7 people per square mile. There were 30,522 housing units at an average density of 3,853.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the community, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, for residents who self-identified as being members of "one race," was 45.7% "White," 27.8% "Black or African American," 0.6% "American I
Rock Creek (Potomac River tributary)
Rock Creek is a free-flowing tributary of the Potomac River, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean via the Chesapeake Bay. The creek is 32.6 miles long, with a drainage area of about 76.5 square miles. The last quarter-mile of the creek is affected by tides; the creek rises from a spring near Laytonsville in Montgomery County, in the U. S. state of Maryland, joins the Potomac near Georgetown and the Watergate in Washington, D. C. Beginning in the Derwood–Rockville area in Maryland, the creek flows through Rock Creek Regional Park southward to the D. C. boundary. About 9 miles of the creek flow through Rock Creek Park in Washington, where it is fed by several small creeks — Piney Branch, Pinehurst Branch, Broad Branch, Soapstone Branch, Luzon Branch — and numerous storm sewers; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal joins Rock Creek in Georgetown, used the mouth of Rock Creek as its terminus in Georgetown. At the Tidewater Lock, the creek empty into the Potomac River; this area, called the "Rock Creek Basin" by the Canal Company, which included a mole and waste weir, was completed in 1831.
Subject to silting up, it was dredged several times for the Canal's use. The Maryland portion of the watershed comprises the second-largest watershed in Montgomery County, about 60 sq mi. About 21 percent of the creek's watershed is in Washington. Total land usage in the watershed is 896 acres of wetlands or water, 22,272 acres of residential and commercial areas, 15,488 acres of forest or grasslands, 10,304 acres of agricultural areas; the creek has a steep gradient, with rapid changes in elevation. The man-made Lake Needwood is located on the creek, north of Rockville. In Maryland, most of the northern Rock Creek watershed has good to excellent water quality, according to studies conducted by the county government. In 2004, to preserve water quality in developed areas, the county imposed restrictions on development in parts of this sub-watershed; the southern portion of the Maryland watershed is urbanized. Most of this portion of the creek and its tributaries have poor water quality; as of 2018 the county has completed several stream restoration projects throughout the watershed, has additional projects planned or under construction.
The D. C. segment of Rock Creek has poor water quality. In addition to typical urban stormwater pollution problems such as runoff from streets and other impervious surfaces, the creek has high bacteria levels due to combined sewer overflows; the D. C. government, which has a stormwater discharge permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is improving its stormwater management to raise water quality in Rock Creek. In 2009, the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority began a planned two-year effort to replace portions of the combined sewer with separate storm sewers, so eliminate CSO-related problems in the creek. Fish species observed in Rock Creek and its tributaries include eastern blacknose dace, bluntnose minnow, yellow bullhead, satinfin shiner, swallowtail shiner, longnose dace, American eel. In 2006, the National Park Service finished a project to remove or bypass eight fish barriers in the creek by adding a fish ladder to bypass the 1905 Peirce Mill Dam, modifying historic fords, removing abandoned sewage lines and fords.
The effort is designed to restore American shad, river herring, other migratory fish to the creek and their historic upriver spawning grounds. An estimated two million fish migrate up the creek each year; the D. C. government completed a restoration project on the Milkhouse Run and Bingham Run tributaries in 2013. As of 2014, ongoing restoration projects in the watershed include the Broad Branch and Klingle Run tributaries. In D. C. Dumbarton Oaks Normanstone Creek Klingle Valley Creek Piney Branch Melvin Hazen Valley Branch Broad Branch Soapstone Branch Luzon Branch Milkhouse Run Bingham Run Pinehurst Branch Fenwick Branch Portal BranchIn MarylandDonnybrook Tributary Coquelin Run Capitol View Tributary Kensington Heights Branch Stoney Creek Alta Vista Tributary Luxmanor Branch Stoneybrook Tributary Josephs Branch Turkey Branch Sycamore Creek Croydon Park Tributary Southlawn Branch North Branch Lake Needwood Crabbs Branch Mill Creek Pope Farm Branch Airpark Road Branch List of crossings of Rock Creek List of rivers of Washington, D.
C. List of rivers of Maryland Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway Tidewater Lock Montgomery County: Overview of Rock Creek Watershed Rock Creek Watershed Implementation Plan - Stormwater management Rock Creek Park: Environmental Inventory & Monitoring Volunteer stewardship organization: Rock Creek Conservancy
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo