No Child Left Behind Act
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was a U. S. Act of Congress that reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, it supported standards-based education reform based on the premise that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals could improve individual outcomes in education. The Act required states to develop assessments in basic skills. To receive federal school funding, states had to give these assessments to all students at select grade levels; the act did not assert a national achievement standard—each state developed its own standards. NCLB expanded the federal role in public education through further emphasis on annual testing, annual academic progress, report cards, teacher qualifications, as well as significant changes in funding; the bill passed in the Congress with bipartisan support. By 2015, criticism from right and center had accumulated so much that a bipartisan Congress stripped away the national features of No Child Left Behind, its replacement, the Every Student Succeeds Act, turned the remnants over to the states.
It was coauthored by Representatives John Boehner, George Miller, Senators Ted Kennedy and Judd Gregg. The United States House of Representatives passed the bill on December 13, 2001, the United States Senate passed it on December 18, 2001. President Bush signed it into law on January 8, 2002. No Child Left Behind requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer a statewide standardized test annually to all students. Schools that receive Title I funding through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 must make Adequate Yearly Progress in test scores. If the school's results are poor steps are taken to improve the school. Schools that miss AYP for a second consecutive year are publicly labeled as "In Need of Improvement," and must develop a two-year improvement plan for the subject that the school is not teaching well. Students have the option to transfer to a better school within the school district. Missing AYP in the third year forces the school to offer free tutoring and other supplemental education services to students who are struggling.
If a school misses its AYP target for a fourth consecutive year, the school is labelled as requiring "corrective action," which might involve wholesale replacement of staff, introduction of a new curriculum, or extending the amount of time students spend in class. A fifth year of failure results in planning to restructure the entire school. Common options include closing the school, turning the school into a charter school, hiring a private company to run the school, or asking the state office of education to run the school directly. States must create AYP objectives consistent with the following requirements of the law: States must develop AYP statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students and for specific groups: economically disadvantaged students, students with disabilities, students with limited English proficiency; the objectives must be set with the goal of having all students at the proficient level or above within 12 years. AYP must be based on state assessments, but must include one additional academic indicator.
The AYP objectives must be assessed at the school level. Schools that failed to meet their AYP objective for two consecutive years are identified for improvement. School AYP results must be reported separately for each group of students identified above so that it can be determined whether each student group met the AYP objective. At least 95% of each group must participate in state assessments. States may aggregate up to three years of data in making AYP determinations; the act requires states to provide "highly qualified" teachers to all students. Each state sets its own standards for what counts as "highly qualified." The act requires states to set "one high, challenging standard" for its students. Each state decides for itself what counts as "one high, challenging standard," but the curriculum standards must be applied to all students, rather than having different standards for students in different cities or other parts of the state; the act requires schools to let military recruiters have students' contact information and other access to the student, if the school provides that information to universities or employers, unless the students opt out of giving military recruiters access.
This portion of the law has drawn lots of criticism and has led to political resistance. For instance, in 2003 in Santa Cruz, student-led efforts forced school districts to create an "opt-in" policy that required students affirm they wanted the military to have their information; this successful student organizing effort was copied in various other cities throughout the United States. Supporters of the NCLB claim one of the strong positive points of the bill is the increased accountability, required of schools and teachers. According to the legislation, schools must pass yearly tests that judge student improvement over the fiscal year; these yearly standardized tests are the main means of determining whether schools live up to required standards. If required improvements are not made, the schools face decreased funding and other punishments that contribute to the increased accountability. According to supporters, these goals help teachers and schools realize the significance and importance of the educational system and how it affects the n
A quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team, is responsible for calling the play in the huddle; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, is the offensive player that always throws forward passes. In modern American football, the quarterback is the leader of the offense; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and highest-paid positions in team sports. Prior to each play, the quarterback will tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback. On a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a halfback or fullback.
On a passing play, the quarterback is always the player responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver. Additionally, the quarterback will run with the football himself, which could be part of a designed play like the option run or quarterback sneak, or it could be an effort to avoid being sacked by the defense. Depending on the offensive scheme by his team, the quarterback's role can vary. In systems like the triple option the quarterback will only pass the ball a few times per game, if at all, while the pass-heavy spread offense as run by schools like Texas Tech requires quarterbacks to throw the ball in most plays; the passing game is emphasized in the Canadian Football League, where there are only three downs as opposed to the four downs used in American football, a larger field of play and an extra eligible receiver. Different skillsets are required of the quarterback in each system - quarterbacks that perform well in a pass-heavy spread offensive system, a popular offensive scheme in the NCAA and NFHS perform well in the National Football League, as the fundamentals of the pro-style offense used in the NFL are different from those in the spread system.
While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball and accurately. In general, quarterbacks need to have physical skills such as arm strength and quick throwing motion, in addition to intangibles such as competitiveness, leadership and downfield vision. In the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 49. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99; because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, CFL. Compared to captains of other team sports, before the implementation of NFL team captains in 2007, the starting quarterback is the de facto team leader and well-respected player on and off the field. Since 2007, when the NFL allowed teams to designate several captains to serve as on-field leaders, the starting quarterback has been one of the team captains as the leader of the team's offense.
In the NFL, while the starting quarterback has no other responsibility or authority, he may, depending on the league or individual team, have various informal duties, such as participation in pre-game ceremonies, the coin toss, or other events outside the game. For instance the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Lamar Hunt Trophy/George Halas Trophy and the Vince Lombardi Trophy; the starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the "I'm going to Disney World!" campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not. Dilfer was chosen though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis' murder trial the prior year. Being able to rely on a quarterback is vital to team morale. San Diego Chargers safety Rodney Harrison called the 1998 season a "nightmare" because of poor play by Ryan Leaf and Craig Whelihan and, from the rookie Leaf, obnoxious behavior toward teammates. Although their 1999 season replacements Jim Harbaugh and Erik Kramer were not stars, linebacker Junior Seau said "you can't imagine the security we feel as teammates knowing we have two quarterbacks who have performed in this league and know how to handle themselves as players and as leaders".
Commentators have noted the "disproportionate importance" of the quarterback, describing it as the "most glorified -- and scrutinized -- position" in team sports. It is believed that "there is no other position in sports that'dictates the terms' of a game the way quarterback does, whether that impact is positive or negative, as "Everybody feeds off of what the quarterback can and cannot do... Defensively, everybody reacts to what threats or non-threats the quarterback has. Everything else is secondary". "An argument can be made that quarterback is the most influential position in team sport
The Denver Broncos are a professional American football franchise based in Denver, Colorado. The Broncos compete as a member club of the National Football League's American Football Conference West division, they began play in 1960 as a charter member of the American Football League and joined the NFL as part of the merger in 1970. The Broncos are owned by the Pat Bowlen trust and play home games at Broncos Stadium at Mile High. Prior to that, they played at Mile High Stadium from 1960 to 2000; the Broncos were competitive during their 10-year run in the AFL and their first seven years in the NFL. They did not complete a winning season until 1973. In 1977, four years they qualified for the playoffs for the first time in franchise history and advanced to Super Bowl XII. Since 1975, the Broncos have become one of the NFL's most successful teams, having suffered only seven losing seasons, they have won eight AFC Championships, three Super Bowl championships, share the NFL record for most Super Bowl losses.
They have ten players in the Pro Football Hall of Fame: John Elway, Floyd Little, Shannon Sharpe, Gary Zimmerman, Willie Brown, Tony Dorsett, Terrell Davis, Brian Dawkins, Ty Law and Champ Bailey. The Denver Broncos were founded on August 14, 1959, when Minor League Baseball owner Bob Howsam was awarded an American Football League charter franchise; the Broncos won the first-ever AFL game over the Boston Patriots 13–10, on September 9, 1960. On August 5, 1967, they became the first-ever AFL team to defeat an NFL team, with a 13–7 win over the Detroit Lions in a preseason game. However, the Broncos were not successful in the 1960s. Denver came close to losing its franchise in 1965, until a local ownership group took control and rebuilt the team; the team's first superstar, "Franchise" Floyd Little, was instrumental in keeping the team in Denver, due to his signing in 1967 as well as his Pro Bowl efforts on and off the field. The Broncos were the only original AFL team that never played in the title game, as well as the only original AFL team never to have a winning season while a member of the AFL during the upstart league's 10-year history.
In 1972, the Broncos hired former Stanford University coach John Ralston as their head coach. In 1973, he was the UPI's AFC Coach of the Year, after Denver achieved its first winning season at 7–5–2. In five seasons with the Broncos, Ralston guided the team to winning seasons three times. Though Ralston finished the 1976 season with a 9–5 record, the team, as was the case in Ralston's previous winning seasons, still missed the playoffs. Following the season, several prominent players publicly voiced their discontent with Ralston, which soon led to his resignation. Red Miller, a long-time assistant coach was hired and along with the Orange Crush Defense and aging quarterback Craig Morton, took the Broncos to what was a record-setting 12–2 regular season record and their first playoff appearance in 1977, first Super Bowl, in which they were defeated by the Dallas Cowboys, 27–10. In 1981, Broncos' owner Gerald Phipps, who had purchased the team in May 1961 from the original owner Bob Howsam, sold the team to Canadian financier Edgar Kaiser Jr. grandson of shipbuilding industrialist Henry J. Kaiser.
In 1984, the team was purchased by Pat Bowlen, who placed team ownership into a family trust sometime before 2004 and remained in day-to-day control until his battle with Alzheimer's disease forced him to cede the team to Joe Ellis in 2014. Dan Reeves became the youngest head coach in the NFL when he joined the Broncos in 1981 as vice president and head coach. Quarterback John Elway, who played college football at Stanford, arrived in 1983 via a trade. Drafted by the Baltimore Colts as the first pick of the draft, Elway proclaimed that he would shun football in favor of baseball, unless he was traded to a selected list of other teams, which included the Broncos. Prior to Elway, the Broncos had over 24 different starting quarterbacks in its 23 seasons to that point. Reeves and Elway guided the Broncos to six post-season appearances, five AFC West divisional titles, three AFC championships and three Super Bowl appearances during their 12-year span together; the Broncos lost Super Bowl XXI to the New York Giants, 39–20.
The last year of the Reeves-Elway era were marked by feuding, due to Reeves taking on play-calling duties after ousting Elway's favorite offensive coordinator Mike Shanahan after the 1991 season, as well as Reeves drafting quarterback Tommy Maddox out of UCLA instead of going with a wide receiver to help Elway. Reeves was fired after the 1992 season and replaced by his protégé and friend Wade Phillips, serving as the Broncos' defensive coordinator. Phillips was fired after a mediocre 1994 season, in which management felt he lost control of the team. In 1995, Mike Shanahan, who had served under Reeves as the Broncos' offensive coordinator, returned as head coach. Shanahan drafted rookie running back Terrell Davis. In 1996, the Broncos were the top seed in the AFC with a 13–3 record, dominating most of the teams that year; the fift
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
Wheaton is a suburban city in Milton and Winfield Townships and is the county seat of DuPage County, Illinois. It is located 30 miles west of Chicago; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 52,894, estimated to have increased to 53,469 by July 2012. The city dates its founding to the period between 1831 and 1837, following the Indian Removal Act, when Erastus Gary laid claim to 790 acres of land near present-day Warrenville; the Wheaton brothers arrived from Connecticut, in 1837, Warren L. Wheaton laid claim to 640 acres of land in the center of town. Jesse Wheaton made claim to 300 acres of land just west of Warren's, it was not long. In 1848, they gave the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad three miles of right-of-way, upon which railroad officials named the depot Wheaton. In 1850, ten blocks of land were platted and anyone, willing to build was granted free land. In 1853, the lots were surveyed and a formal plat for the community was filed with the county; the community was incorporated as a village on February 24, 1859, with Warren serving as its first President.
The village was incorporated as a city on April 24, 1890, when the first mayor of the city was selected, Judge Elbert Gary, son of Erastus Gary and founder of Gary, Indiana. In 1857, the Illinois state legislature authorized an election to be held to decide the question of whether the DuPage county seat should remain in Naperville or be moved to the more centrally located Wheaton, on the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad. Naperville won the election by a vote of 1,542 to 762. Hostility between the two towns continued for the next decade and another election was held in 1867, in which Wheaton narrowly won by a vote of 1,686 to 1,635. At a cost of $20,000, the City of Wheaton built a courthouse to house a courtroom, county offices, a county jail; the building was dedicated on July 4, 1868. However, animosity between the two towns continued, in 1868, as records were moved from the old Naperville courthouse to the new one in Wheaton, Naperville refused to turn over the remaining county records, prompting a band of Civil War veterans from Wheaton to conduct what came to be known as the "Midnight Raid" on the Naperville courthouse.
As Wheatonites fled back on Wheaton-Naperville Road, Napervillians were able to secure some of the last remaining records, which were taken to the Cook County Recorder in Chicago for safekeeping. During this time, Naperville was mounting a lawsuit against Wheaton accusing election judges of leaving their posts for lunch during the vote when duplicate ballot stuffing occurred; as the courts deliberated the fate of the county seat, the records were destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Shortly thereafter, Wheaton was proclaimed the county seat; as demand for space increased, the courthouse was rebuilt in 1887 at a cost of $69,390, modeled after the courthouse in Aledo. This structure was used for the next 94 years until the county's rapid growth prompted the building of a brand new complex; the old courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was used by National Louis University until National Louis moved to Lisle in 2004. It is being developed into luxury condominiums.
On November 2, 1990, the courthouse moved to a building about two miles west in a new 57-acre complex at the corner of County Farm Road and Manchester Road. It includes a 300,000-square-foot judicial building. In 1992, the county sued the architect and contractor for $4 million after several employees became ill from the ventilation system. In the end, the county received only $120,000 for minor repairs and the jury sided with the defendants, finding that the alleged problems were caused by the county's negligent operation and maintenance of the ventilation system. Wheaton has expanded since the 1950s, although population growth has slowed since the early 1990s, as the city has become landlocked. Downtown lost much business after the county courthouse facility moved two miles west in 1990, but in the decade since, the downtown has seen a renaissance of sorts, with the creation of several significant condominium and business developments. One of the most recognizable landmarks of the city is Wheaton Center, a 758-unit apartment complex on 14 acres in downtown Wheaton.
The six building complex includes two twenty-story high-rise buildings built in 1975. In 1887, Wheaton prohibited the sale of alcoholic beverages, a ban which lasted until 1985 and applied to all supermarkets, convenience stores and other establishments. Wheaton is located at 41°51′22″N 88°06′30″W. According to the 2010 census, Wheaton has a total area of 11.436 square miles, of which 11.25 square miles is land and 0.186 square miles is water. Wheaton is the sister city of Sweden. Karlskoga Street, located along the southern edge of Memorial Park in downtown Wheaton, is named after the Swedish City; as of the census of 2000, there were 55,416 people, 19,377 households and 13,718 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,938.5 people per square mile. There were 19,881 housing units at an average density of 1,771.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.85% White, 4.85% Asian, 2.82% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.03% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 3.65% of the population. There were 19,377 households
Guard (American and Canadian football)
In American and Canadian football, a guard is a player who lines up between the center and the tackles on the offensive line of a football team on the line of scrimmage used for blocking. Right guards is the term for the guards on the right of the offensive line, while left guards are on the left side. Guards are to the left of the center; the guard's job is to protect the quarterback from the incoming linemen during pass plays, as well as creating openings for the running backs to head through. Guards are automatically considered ineligible receivers, so they cannot intentionally touch a forward pass, unless it is to recover a fumble or is first touched by a defender or eligible receiver. Aside from speed blocking a guard may "pull"—backing out of his initial position and running behind the other offensive linemen to sprinting out in front of a running back to engage a defensive player beyond the initial width of the offensive line; this technique is used on counter plays. Vanderbilt's Dan McGugin is credited with first pulling guards.
While tackles can pull, this strategy is less common as they are too far away to pull to the opposite side of the formation and have the responsibility of blocking the outside defender for outside runs. Since the guard is free of responsibility for play-side outside runs and far-side counter plays, pulling is a unique responsibility for guards; the Packers sweep was a signature play of the Green Bay Packers in the 1960s, as they won five NFL titles and the first two Super Bowls under head coach Vince Lombardi. The pulling guards were Fuzzy Thurston on the left and hall of famer Jerry Kramer on the right