Wasco County, Oregon
Wasco County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,213, its county seat is The Dalles. The county is named for a local tribe of Native Americans, the Wasco, a Chinook tribe who live on the south side of the Columbia River. Wasco County comprises The Dalles Micropolitan Statistical Area. Celilo Falls on the Columbia River served as a gathering place and major trading center for the local Native Americans, including the Wasco and Warm Springs tribes, for thousands of years; these rapids came to be named Les Grandes Dalles de la Columbia or "The Great Falls of the Columbia" by the French Canadian fur traders. The Dalles served as a way station on the Oregon Trail as it approached the Willamette Valley; the construction of the Barlow Road over the Cascade Range in 1845, the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 encouraged families to settle in the area. Over the following years, Wasco County was a major transportation hub for both river and inland traffic; the Oregon Territorial Legislature created Wasco County on January 11, 1854, from the parts of Clackamas, Lane and Marion counties, that were east of the Cascade Range.
At the time of its creation, it was the largest county in the United States, consisting of 130,000 square miles that stretched clear to the Rocky Mountains. Its northern border was the Washington Territory line; when Dakota Territory was created in 1861, Idaho Territory in 1863, Montana Territory in 1864, the parts of Wasco County east of the present Oregon boundaries were ceded to those territories. Other Oregon counties were split away, Wasco was reduced to its current size; the Dalles was designated the county seat with the creation of the county, has been its only location. The river traffic on the Columbia River was profoundly affected in 1935 by the building of Bonneville Dam in Multnomah County and by The Dalles Dam in 1957 in Wasco County. Wasco County attracted international attention in the 1980s, when Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh went to the United States and settled for several years at a marginal ranch called "The Big Muddy", but known as Rajneeshpuram. Disagreements over zoning rules and building codes in the beginning continued to escalate between not only his followers and the inhabitants of Wasco County, but with the rest of the state.
His followers, known as Rajneeshees, settled en bloc in Antelope and were able to elect a majority of the town councillors. Acerbic, if not hostile comments by his spokeswoman, Ma Anand Sheela, only increased tensions, were not helped by Rajneesh's vow of silence; when the Rajneeshees subsequently recruited homeless people from across the United States to settle at Rajneeshpuram, it was seen as an attempt to use the ballot box to seize control of the county. But the most bizarre turn of events was when an outbreak of salmonella in salad bars at ten restaurants in The Dalles was traced to the acts of his followers. About this time, Sheela was removed from her post in Rajneesh's service; this chapter in the county's history ended in 1985, when Rajneesh was arrested as he was fleeing the U. S. On October 23, 1985, a federal grand jury in Portland had secretly indicted Rajneesh and six other of his followers for immigration crimes. Two days a Wasco County grand jury returned indictments against Sheela and two others, charging them with the attempted murder of Swami Devaraj, Rajneesh's personal doctor.
Rajneesh entered an Alford plea and was given a suspended sentence on condition that he leave the country. The former Rajneesh ranch is now known as "Washington Family Ranch", it is owned and operated by Young Life Ministries, a Christian organization providing camp services for youth. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,395 square miles, of which 2,382 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water; the northern boundary with Washington is the Columbia River. Mount Hood National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 23,791 people, 9,401 households, 6,505 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 10,651 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.58% White, 3.81% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.50% Pacific Islander, 0.30% Black or African American, 5.65% from other races, 2.36% from two or more races. 9.31% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
17.8% were of German, 11.8% English, 9.8% American, 9.5% Irish and 5.0% Norwegian ancestry. There were 9,401 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.80% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.80% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,959, the median income for a family was $42,412. Males had a median income of $36,051 versus $21,575 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,195.
About 10.30% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.70% of those under age 18 and 7.30% of those age 65
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument is a U. S. National Monument in Wheeler and Grant counties in east-central Oregon. Located within the John Day River basin and managed by the National Park Service, the park is known for its well-preserved layers of fossil plants and mammals that lived in the region between the late Eocene, about 45 million years ago, the late Miocene, about 5 million years ago; the monument consists of three geographically separate units: Sheep Rock, Painted Hills, Clarno. The units cover a total of 13,944 acres of semi-desert shrublands, riparian zones, colorful badlands. About 210,000 people visited the park in 2016 to engage in outdoor recreation or to visit the Thomas Condon Paleontology Center or the James Cant Ranch Historic District. Before the arrival of Euro-Americans in the 19th century, the John Day basin was frequented by Sahaptin people who hunted and gathered roots and berries in the region. After road-building made the valley more accessible, settlers established farms, a few small towns along the river and its tributaries.
Paleontologists have been unearthing and studying the fossils in the region since 1864, when Thomas Condon, a missionary and amateur geologist, recognized their importance and made them known globally. Parts of the basin became a National Monument in 1975. Averaging about 2,200 feet in elevation, the monument has a dry climate with temperatures that vary from summer highs of about 90 °F to winter lows below freezing; the monument has more than 80 soil types that support a wide variety of flora, ranging from willow trees near the river to grasses on alluvial fans to cactus among rocks at higher elevations. Fauna include more than 50 species of migratory birds. Large mammals like elk and smaller animals such as raccoons and voles frequent these units, which are populated by a wide variety of reptiles, fish and other creatures adapted to particular niches of a mountainous semi-desert terrain; the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument consists of three separated units—Sheep Rock, Painted Hills, Clarno—in the John Day River basin of east-central Oregon.
Located in rugged terrain in the counties of Wheeler and Grant, the park units are characterized by hills, deep ravines, eroded fossil-bearing rock formations. To the west lies the Cascade Range, to the south the Ochoco Mountains, to the east the Blue Mountains. Elevations within the 13,944-acre park range from 2,000 to 4,500 feet; the Clarno Unit, the westernmost of the three units, consists of 1,969 acres located 18 miles west of Fossil along Oregon Route 218. The Painted Hills Unit, which lies about halfway between the other two, covers 3,132 acres, it is situated about 9 miles northwest of Mitchell along Burnt Ranch Road, which intersects U. S. Route 26 west of Mitchell; these two units are within Wheeler County. The remaining 8,843 acres of the park, the Sheep Rock Unit, are located along Oregon Route 19 and the John Day River upstream of the unincorporated community of Kimberly; this unit is in Grant County, although a small part extends into Wheeler County. The Sheep Rock Unit is further subdivided into the Mascall Formation Overlook, Picture Gorge, the James Cant Ranch Historic District, Cathedral Rock, Blue Basin, the Foree Area.
Some of these are separated from one another by farms and other parcels of land that are not part of the park. The park headquarters and main visitor center, both in the Sheep Rock Unit, are 122 miles northeast of Bend and 240 miles southeast of Portland by highway; the shortest highway distances from unit to unit within the park are Sheep Rock to Painted Hills, 45 miles. The John Day River, a tributary of the Columbia River, flows west from the Strawberry Mountains before reaching the national monument, it turns north between the Mascall Formation Overlook and Kimberly, where the North Fork John Day River joins the main stem. Downstream of Kimberly, the river flows west to downstream of the unincorporated community of Twickenham, north thereafter. Rock Creek enters the river at the north end of Picture Gorge. Bridge Creek passes through Mitchell north along the eastern edge of the Painted Hills Unit to meet the John Day downstream of Twickenham. Intermittent streams in the Clarno Unit empty into Pine Creek, which flows just beyond the south edge of the unit and enters the John Day upstream of the unincorporated community of Clarno.
Early inhabitants of north-central Oregon included Sahaptin-speaking people of the Umatilla and Warm Springs tribes as well as the Northern Paiutes, speakers of a Uzo-Aztecan language. All were hunter-gatherers competing for resources such as elk and salmon. Researchers have identified 36 sites of related archeological interest, including rock shelters and cairns, in or adjacent to the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument. Most significant among the prehistoric sites are the Picture Gorge pictographs, consisting of six panels of rock art in the canyon at the south end of the Sheep Rock Unit; the art is of undetermined origin and age but is "centuries old". The John Day basin remained unexplored by non-natives until the mid-19th century. Lewis and Clark noted but did not explore the John Day River while traveling along the Columbia River in 1805. John Day, for whom the river is named visited only its confluence with the Columbia in 1812. In 1829, Peter Skene Ogden, working for the Hudson's Bay Company, led a company of explorers and fur trappers along the river through what would
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Oregon Geographic Names
Oregon Geographic Names is a compilation of the origin and meaning of place names in the U. S. state of Oregon, published by the Oregon Historical Society. The book was published in 1928, it was edited by Lewis A. McArthur; as of 2011, the book is in its seventh edition, compiled and edited by Lewis L. McArthur. In its introduction, it identifies six periods in the history of the state which have contributed to the establishment of local names: The thousands of years of Native American life. Entries are listed in alphabetical order beginning with A B Crossing, a railroad station in Coos County; the last entry is an island near Brookings, Oregon. The first three editions were published by Binford & Mort; the seventh edition includes a CD-ROM with a complete biographic and geographic index as well as various maps of Oregon locations. Lewis L. McArthur died in 2018, his daughter, Mary McArthur took over editorship for the book's upcoming 8th edition
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
Wheeler is a city in Tillamook County, United States. The population was 414 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.52 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 414 people, 197 households, 97 families residing in the city; the population density was 796.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 289 housing units at an average density of 555.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.6% White, 0.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 197 households of which 14.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.0% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 50.8% were non-families. 40.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 1.87 and the average family size was 2.40. The median age in the city was 57.4 years. 12.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.1% male and 53.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 391 people, 176 households, 93 families residing in the city; the population density was 545.7 people per square mile. There were 244 housing units at an average density of 340.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.09% White, 0.77% Native American, 1.79% Asian, 1.79% from other races, 2.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.81% of the population. There were 176 households out of which 16.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.9% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.6% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.98 and the average family size was 2.54.
In the city, the population was spread out with 14.3% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 19.9% from 25 to 44, 31.7% from 45 to 64, 27.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,000, the median income for a family was $31,161. Males had a median income of $26,364 versus $21,429 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,535. About 10.9% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Entry for Wheeler in the Oregon Blue Book