St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Queen Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place a few days after the wedding day of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre. Many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in Catholic Paris to attend the wedding; the massacre began in the night of 23–24 August 1572, two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, the slaughter spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre expanded outward to the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead across France vary from 5,000 to 30,000; the massacre marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion.
The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file. Those who remained were radicalized. Though by no means unique, it "was the worst of the century's religious massacres." Throughout Europe, it "printed on Protestant minds the indelible conviction that Catholicism was a bloody and treacherous religion." The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day was the culmination of a series of events: The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which put an end to the third War of Religion on 8 August 1570. The marriage between Henry III of Navarre and Margaret of Valois on 18 August 1572; the failed assassination of Admiral de Coligny on 22 August 1572. The Peace of Saint-Germain put an end to three years of terrible civil war between Catholics and Protestants; this peace, was precarious since the more intransigent Catholics refused to accept it. The Guise family was out of favour at the French court. Staunch Catholics were shocked by the return of Protestants to the court, but the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici, her son, Charles IX, were practical in their support of peace and Coligny, as they were conscious of the kingdom's financial difficulties and the Huguenots' strong defensive position: they controlled the fortified towns of La Rochelle, La Charité-sur-Loire and Montauban.
To cement the peace between the two religious parties, Catherine planned to marry her daughter Margaret to the Protestant, Henry of Navarre, son of the Huguenot leader Queen Jeanne d'Albret. The royal marriage was arranged for 18 August 1572, it was not accepted by the Pope. Both the Pope and King Philip II of Spain condemned Catherine's Huguenot policy as well; the impending marriage led to the gathering of a large number of well-born Protestants in Paris. But Paris was a violently anti-Huguenot city, Parisians, who tended to be extreme Catholics, found their presence unacceptable. Encouraged by Catholic preachers, they were horrified at the marriage of a princess of France to a Protestant; the Parlement's opposition and the court's absence from the wedding led to increased political tension. Compounding this bad feeling was the fact that the harvests had been poor and taxes had risen; the rise in food prices and the luxury displayed on the occasion of the royal wedding increased tensions among the common people.
A particular point of tension was an open-air cross erected on the site of the house of Philippe de Gastines, a Huguenot, executed in 1569. The mob erected a large wooden cross on a stone base. Under the terms of the peace, after considerable popular resistance, this had been removed in December 1571, which had led to about 50 deaths in riots, as well as mob destruction of property. In the massacres of August, the relatives of the Gastines family were among the first to be killed by the mob; the court itself was divided. Catherine had not obtained Pope Gregory XIII's permission to celebrate this irregular marriage, it took all the queen mother's skill to convince the Cardinal de Bourbon to marry the couple. Beside this, the rivalries between the leading families re-emerged; the Guises were not prepared to make way for the House of Montmorency. François, Duke of Montmorency and governor of Paris, was unable to control the disturbances in the city. On August 20, he retired to Chantilly. In the years preceding the massacre, Huguenot "political rhetoric" had for the first time taken a tone against not just the policies of a particular monarch of France, but monarchy in general.
In part this was led by an apparent change in stance by John Calvin in his Readings on the Prophet Daniel, a book of 1561, in which he had argued that when kings disobey God, they "automatically abdicate their worldly power" – a change from his views in earlier works that ungodly kings should be obeyed. This change was soon picked up by Huguenot writers, who began to expand on Calvin and promote the idea of the sovereignty of the people, ideas to which Catholic writers and preachers responded fiercely, it was only in the aftermath of the massacre that anti-monarchical ideas found widespread supp
A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame, to ignite a variety of combustible materials, such as cigars, gas stoves, candles or cigarettes. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with a flammable fluid or pressurized liquid gas, a means of ignition to produce the flame, some provision for extinguishing the flame. Alternatively, a lighter can be powered by electricity, using an electric arc or heating element to ignite the target; the first lighters were converted flintlock pistols. One of the first lighters was invented by the German chemist named Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner in 1823 and was called Döbereiner's lamp; this lighter worked by passing flammable hydrogen gas, produced within the lighter by a chemical reaction, over a platinum metal catalyst which in turn caused it to ignite and give off a great amount of heat and light. The patenting of ferrocerium by Carl Auer von Welsbach in 1903 has made modern lighters possible; when scratched it produces a large spark, responsible for lighting the fuel of many lighters, is suitably inexpensive for use in disposable items.
Using Carl Auer von Welsbach's flint, companies like Ronson were able to develop practical and easy to use lighters. In 1910, Ronson released the first Pist-O-Liter, in 1913, the company developed its first lighter, called the "Wonderlite", a permanent match style of lighter. During WWl soldiers started to create lighters of empty cartridge cases. During that time one of the soldiers came up with a means to insert a chimney cap with holes in it to make it more windproof; the Zippo lighter and company were invented and founded by George Grant Blaisdell in 1932. The Zippo was noted for its reliability, "Life Time Warranty" and marketing as "Wind-Proof". Most early Zippos used naphtha as a fuel source. In the 1950s, there was a switch in the fuel of choice from naphtha to butane, as butane allows for a controllable flame and has less odour; this led to the use of piezoelectric spark, which replaced the need for a flint wheel in some lighters and was used in many Ronson lighters. In modern times most of the world's lighters are produced in France, the United States and Thailand.
Naphtha based lighters employ a saturated cloth wick and fibre packing to absorb the fluid and prevent it from leaking. They employ an enclosed top to prevent the volatile liquid from evaporating, to conveniently extinguish the flame. Butane lighters have a valved orifice. A spark is created by striking metal against a flint, or by pressing a button that compresses a piezoelectric crystal, generating an electric arc. In naphtha lighters, the liquid is sufficiently volatile, flammable vapour is present as soon as the top of the lighter is opened. Butane lighters combine the striking action with the opening of the valve to release gas; the spark ignites the flammable gas causing a flame to come out of the lighter which continues until either the top is closed, or the valve is released. A metal enclosure with air holes surrounds the flame, is designed to allow mixing of fuel and air while making the lighter less sensitive to wind; the high energy jet in butane lighters allows mixing to be accomplished by using Bernoulli's principle, so that the air hole in this type tend to be much smaller and farther from the flame.
Specialized "windproof" butane lighters are manufactured for demanding conditions such as shipboard, high altitude, wet climates. Some dedicated; such lighters are far hotter than normal lighters and can burn in excess of 1,100 °C. The windproof capabilities are not achieved from higher pressure fuel. Instead, windproof lighters mix the fuel with air and pass the butane–air mixture through a catalytic coil. An electric spark starts the initial flame, soon the coil is hot enough to cause the fuel–air mixture to burn on contact. Arc lighters use a spark to create a plasma conduit between electrodes, maintained by a lower voltage; the arc is applied to a flammable substance to cause ignition. Some vehicles are equipped with an electric lighter located on the dashboard or in the well between the front seats, its electric heating element becomes hot in seconds upon activation. The car lighter was claimed to have been invented by Alexander Kucala, a tavern owner and inventor, on the south side of Chicago in the early 1930s called the AL Lighter.
Not to be confused with the meaning of match as in matchsticks or the "permanent match", this type of lighter consists of a length of slow match in a holder, with means to ignite and to extinguish the match. While the glowing match does not supply enough energy to start a fire without further kindling, it is sufficient to light a cigarette; the main advantage of this design shows itself in windy conditions, where the glow of the match is fanned by the wind instead of being blown out. A typical form of lighter is the permanent match or everlasting match, consisting of a naphtha fuel-filled metal shell and a separate threaded metal rod assembly —the "match"— serving as the striker and wick; this "metal match" is stored screwed into the shell. The fuel-saturated striker/wick assembly is unscrewed to remove, scratched against a flint on the side of the case to create a spark, its concealed wick catches fire. The flame is extinguished by blowing it out before screwing the "match" back into the shell, where it absorbs fuel for the next use.
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A firearm is a portable gun that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by expanding high-pressure gas produced chemically by exothermic combustion of propellant within an ammunition cartridge. If gas pressurization is achieved through mechanical gas compression rather than through chemical propellant combustion the gun is technically an air gun, not a firearm; the first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance, used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an in 1132. In the 13th century the Chinese invented the metal-barrelled hand cannon considered the true ancestor of all firearms; the technology spread through the rest of East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Europe. Older firearms used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern firearms have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.
Modern firearms can be described in the case of shotguns by their gauge. Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used and to the barrel length, to the firing mechanism, to the design's primary intended use, or to the accepted name for a particular variation. Shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye coordination, using either iron sights or optical sights; the accurate range of pistols does not exceed 110 yards, while most rifles are accurate to 550 yards using iron sights, or to longer ranges using optical sights. Purpose-built sniper rifles and anti-materiel rifles are accurate to ranges of more than 2,200 yards. Firearms include a variety of ranged weapons and there is no agreed upon definition. Many soldiers consider a firearm to be any ranged weapon that uses gunpowder or a derivative as a propellant. Small arms include handguns and long guns, such as rifles, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons, light machine guns; the world's top small arms manufacturing companies are Browning, Colt, Smith & Wesson, Mossberg, Heckler & Koch, SIG Sauer, Walther, ČZUB, Steyr-Mannlicher, FN Herstal, Norinco, Tula Arms and Kalashnikov, while former top producers were Mauser, Springfield Armory, Rock Island Armory under Armscor.
In 2018, Small Arms Survey reported that there are over one billion small arms distributed globally, of which 857 million are in civilian hands. U. S. civilians alone account for 393 million of the worldwide total of civilian held firearms. This amounts to "120.5 firearms for every 100 residents." The world's armed forces control about 133 million of the global total of small arms, of which over 43 percent belong to two countries: the Russian Federation and China. Law enforcement agencies control about 23 million of the global total of small arms; the smallest of all firearms is the handgun. There are two common types of handguns: semi-automatic pistols. Revolvers have "charge holes" in a revolving cylinder. Semi-automatic pistols have a single fixed firing chamber machined into the rear of the barrel, a magazine so they can be used to fire more than one round; each press of the trigger fires a cartridge, using the energy of the cartridge to activate the mechanism so that the next cartridge may be fired immediately.
This is opposed to "double-action" revolvers which accomplish the same end using a mechanical action linked to the trigger pull. Prior to the 19th century all handguns were single-shot muzzleloaders. With the invention of the revolver in 1818, handguns capable of holding multiple rounds became popular. Certain designs of auto-loading pistol appeared beginning in the 1870s and had supplanted revolvers in military applications by the end of World War I. By the end of the 20th century, most handguns carried by military and civilians were semi-automatic, although revolvers were still used. Speaking and police forces use semi-automatic pistols due to their high magazine capacities and ability to reload by removing the empty magazine and inserting a loaded one. Revolvers are common among handgun hunters because revolver cartridges are more powerful than similar caliber semi-automatic pistol cartridges and the strength and durability of the revolver design is well-suited to outdoor use. Revolvers in.22 LR and 38 Special/357 Magnum, are common concealed weapons in j
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2. Pyrite is considered the most common of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a superficial resemblance to gold, hence the well-known nickname of fool's gold; the color has led to the nicknames brass and Brazil used to refer to pyrite found in coal. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πυρίτης, "of fire" or "in fire", in turn from πύρ, "fire". In ancient Roman times, this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. By Georgius Agricola's time, c. 1550, the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite is found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins, sedimentary rock, metamorphic rock, as well as in coal beds and as a replacement mineral in fossils, but has been identified in the sclerites of scaly-foot gastropods. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold, pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold.
Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. In the Carlin–type gold deposits, arsenian pyrite contains up to 0.37% gold by weight. Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms, most notably the wheellock, where a sample of pyrite was placed against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. Iron pyrite was allowed to weather; the acidic runoff from the heap was boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. In the 15th century, new methods of such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. By the 19th century, it had become the dominant method. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide, for use in such applications as the paper industry, in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS and elemental sulfur starts at 540 °C. A newer commercial use for pyrite is as the cathode material in Energizer brand non-rechargeable lithium batteries.
Pyrite is a semiconductor material with a band gap of 0.95 eV. Pure pyrite is n-type, in both crystal and thin-film forms due to sulfur vacancies in the pyrite crystal structure acting as n-dopants. During the early years of the 20th century, pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers, is still used by crystal radio hobbyists; until the vacuum tube matured, the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available – with considerable variation between mineral types and individual samples within a particular type of mineral. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point between galena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. Pyrite detectors can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A germanium diode detector. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant, non-toxic, inexpensive material in low-cost photovoltaic solar panels. Synthetic iron sulfide was used with copper sulfide to create the photovoltaic material.. More recent efforts are working toward thin-film solar cells made of pyrite.
Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry. Marcasite jewelry, made from small faceted pieces of pyrite set in silver, was known since ancient times and was popular in the Victorian era. At the time when the term became common in jewelry making, "marcasite" referred to all iron sulfides including pyrite, not to the orthorhombic FeS2 mineral marcasite, lighter in color and chemically unstable, thus not suitable for jewelry making. Marcasite jewelry does not contain the mineral marcasite. China represents the main importing country with an import of around 376,000 tonnes, which resulted at 45% of total global imports. China is the fastest growing in terms of the unroasted iron pyrites imports, with a CAGR of +27.8% from 2007 to 2016. In value terms, China constitutes the largest market for imported unroasted iron pyrites worldwide, making up 65% of global imports. From the perspective of classical inorganic chemistry, which assigns formal oxidation states to each atom, pyrite is best described as Fe2+S22−.
This formalism recognizes. These persulfide units can be viewed as derived from hydrogen disulfide, H2S2, thus pyrite would be more descriptively, not iron disulfide. In contrast, molybdenite, MoS2, features isolated sulfide centers and the oxidation state of molybdenum is Mo4+; the mineral arsenopyrite has the formula FeAsS. Whereas pyrite has S2 subunits, arsenopyrite has units, formally derived from deprotonation of H2AsSH. Analysis of classical oxidation states would recommend the description of arsenopyrite as Fe3+3−. Iron-pyrite FeS2 represents the prototype compound of the crystallographic pyrite structure; the structure is simple cubic and was among the first crystal structures solved by X-ray diffraction. It belongs to the crystallographic space group Pa3 and is denoted by the Strukturbericht notation C2. Under thermodynamic standard conditions the lattice constant a of stoichiometric iron pyrite FeS2 amounts to 541.87 pm. The unit cell is composed of a Fe face-centered cubic sublattice into.
The pyrite structure is used by other compounds MX2 of trans
Gunpowder known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur and potassium nitrate; the sulfur and charcoal act as fuels. Because of its incendiary properties and the amount of heat and gas volume that it generates, gunpowder has been used as a propellant in firearms, artillery and fireworks, as a blasting powder in quarrying and road building. Gunpowder was invented in 9th-century China and spread throughout most parts of Eurasia by the end of the 13th century. Developed by the Taoists for medicinal purposes, gunpowder was first used for warfare about 1000 AD. Gunpowder is classified as a low explosive because of its slow decomposition rate and low brisance. Low explosives deflagrate at subsonic speeds, whereas high explosives detonate, producing a supersonic wave. Ignition of gunpowder packed behind a projectile generates enough pressure to force the shot from the muzzle at high speed, but not enough force to rupture the gun barrel.
Gunpowder thus makes a good propellant, but is less suitable for shattering rock or fortifications with its low-yield explosive power. However, by transferring enough energy a bombardier may wear down an opponent's fortified defenses. Gunpowder was used to fill fused artillery shells until the second half of the 19th century, when the first high explosives were put into use. Gunpowder is no longer used in modern weapons, nor is it used for industrial purposes, due to its inefficient cost compared to newer alternatives such as dynamite and ammonium nitrate/fuel oil. Today gunpowder firearms are limited to hunting, target shooting, bulletless historical reenactments. Based on a 9th-century Taoist text, the invention of gunpowder by Chinese alchemists was an accidental byproduct from experiments seeking to create the elixir of life; this experimental medicine origin of gunpowder is reflected in its Chinese name huoyao, which means "fire medicine". The first military applications of gunpowder were developed around 1000 AD.
The earliest chemical formula for gunpowder appeared in the 11th century Song dynasty text, Wujing Zongyao, however gunpowder had been used for fire arrows since at least the 10th century. In the following centuries various gunpowder weapons such as bombs, fire lances, the gun appeared in China. Saltpeter was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and was produced in the provinces of Sichuan and Shandong. There is strong evidence of the use of sulfur in various medicinal combinations. A Chinese alchemical text dated 492 noted saltpeter burnt with a purple flame, providing a practical and reliable means of distinguishing it from other inorganic salts, thus enabling alchemists to evaluate and compare purification techniques; the first reference to the incendiary properties of such mixtures is the passage of the Zhenyuan miaodao yaolüe, a Taoist text tentatively dated to the mid-9th century: "Some have heated together sulfur and saltpeter with honey. The Chinese word for "gunpowder" is Chinese: 火药/火藥.
In the following centuries a variety of gunpowder weapons such as rockets and land mines appeared before the first metal barrel firearms were invented. Explosive weapons such as bombs have been discovered in a shipwreck off the shore of Japan dated from 1281, during the Mongol invasions of Japan; the Chinese Wujing Zongyao, written by Zeng Gongliang between 1040 and 1044, provides encyclopedia references to a variety of mixtures that included petrochemicals—as well as garlic and honey. A slow match for flame throwing mechanisms using the siphon principle and for fireworks and rockets is mentioned; the mixture formulas in this book do not contain enough saltpeter to create an explosive however. The Essentials was however written by a Song dynasty court bureaucrat, there is little evidence that it had any immediate impact on warfare. However, by 1083 the Song court was producing hundreds of thousands of fire arrows for their garrisons. Bombs and the first proto-guns, known as "fire lances", became prominent during the 12th century and were used by the Song during the Jin-Song Wars.
Fire lances were first recorded to have been used at the Siege of De'an in 1132 by Song forces against the Jin. In the early 13th century the Jin utilized iron-casing bombs. Projectiles were added to fire lances, re-usable fire lance barrels were developed, first out of hardened paper, metal. By 1257 some fire lances were firing wads of bullets. In the late 13th century metal fire lances became'eruptors', proto-cannons firing co-viative projectiles, by 1287 at the latest, had become true guns, the hand cannon; the earliest Western accounts of gunpowder appear in texts written by English philosopher Roger Bacon in the 13th century. Several sources men
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. He was never crowned by the Pope, he was instead proclaimed Emperor elect by Pope Julius II at Trent, thus breaking the long tradition of requiring a papal coronation for the adoption of the imperial title. Maximilian was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Eleanor of Portugal, he ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter's reign, from c. 1483 to his father's death in 1493. Maximilian expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, though he lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy. Through marriage of his son Philip the Handsome to eventual queen Joanna of Castile in 1498, Maximilian helped to establish the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, which allowed his grandson Charles to hold the thrones of both Castile and Aragon. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459.
His father, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, named him for an obscure saint, Maximilian of Tebessa, who Frederick believed had once warned him of imminent peril in a dream. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. One source relates that, during the siege's bleakest days, the young prince would wander about the castle garrison, begging the servants and men-at-arms for bits of bread; the young prince was an excellent hunter, his favorite hobby was the hunting for birds as a horse archer. At the time, the dukes of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the French royal family, with their sophisticated nobility and court culture, were the rulers of substantial territories on the eastern and northern boundaries of France; the reigning duke, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and, to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian.
After the Siege of Neuss, he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on 19 August 1477. Maximilian's wife had inherited the large Burgundian domains in France and the Low Countries upon her father's death in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Before his coronation as the King of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian decided to secure this distant and extensive Burgundian inheritance to his family, the House of Habsburg, at all costs; the Duchy of Burgundy was claimed by the French crown under Salic Law, with Louis XI of France vigorously contesting the Habsburg claim to the Burgundian inheritance by means of military force. Maximilian undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI and defeated the French forces at Guinegate, the modern Enguinegatte, on 7 August 1479. Maximilian and Mary's wedding contract stipulated that their children would succeed them but that the couple could not be each other's heirs. Mary tried to bypass this rule with a promise to transfer territories as a gift in case of her death, but her plans were confounded.
After Mary's death in a riding accident on 27 March 1482 near the Wijnendale Castle, Maximilian's aim was now to secure the inheritance to his and Mary's son, Philip the Handsome. Some of the Netherlander provinces were hostile to Maximilian, and, in 1482, they signed a treaty with Louis XI in Arras that forced Maximilian to give up Franche-Comté and Artois to the French crown, they rebelled twice in the period 1482–1492, attempting to regain the autonomy they had enjoined under Mary. Flemish rebels managed to capture Philip and Maximilian himself, but they were defeated when Frederick III intervened. Maximilian continued to govern Mary's remaining inheritance in the name of Philip the Handsome. After the regency ended and Charles VIII of France exchanged these two territories for Burgundy and Picardy in the Treaty of Senlis, thus a large part of the Netherlands stayed in the Habsburg patrimony. Maximilian was elected King of the Romans on 16 February 1486 in Frankfurt-am-Main at his father's initiative and crowned on 9 April 1486 in Aachen.
He became ruler of the Holy Roman Empire upon the death of his father in 1493. Much of Austria was under Hungarian rule when he took power, as they had occupied the territory under the reign of Frederick. In 1490, Maximilian entered Vienna; as the Treaty of Senlis had resolved French differences with the Holy Roman Empire, King Louis XII of France had secured borders in the north and turned his attention to Italy, where he made claims for the Duchy of Milan. In 1499/1500 he drove the Sforza regent Lodovico il Moro into exile; this brought him into a potential conflict with Maximilian, who on 16 March 1494 had married Bianca Maria Sforza, a daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke of Milan. However, Maximilian was unable to hinder the French from taking over Milan; the prolonged Italian Wars resulted in Maximilian joining the Holy League to counter the French. In 1513, with Henry VIII of England, Maximilian won an important victory at the battle of the Spurs against the French, stopping their advance in northern France.
His campaigns in Italy were not as successful, his progress there was checked. The situation in Italy was not the only problem; the Swiss won a decisive victory against the Empire in the Battle of Dornach on 22 July 1499. Maximilian had no choice but to agree to a peace treaty signed on 22 September 1499 in Basel that granted the Swiss Confederacy independence from the Holy Roman Empire. In addition, the Cou