The baritone saxophone or "bari sax" is one of the larger members of the saxophone family, only being smaller than the bass and subcontrabass saxophones. It is the lowest-pitched saxophone in common use; the baritone saxophone uses a mouthpiece and ligature in order to produce sound. It is larger than the tenor and soprano saxophones, which are the other found members of the family; the baritone saxophone is used in classical music such as concert band, chamber music, military bands, jazz. It is employed in marching bands, though less than other saxophones due to its size and weight; the baritone saxophone was created in 1846 by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax as one of a family of 14 instruments created to be a tonal link between the woodwinds and brasses, which Sax believed to be lacking. The family was divided into two groups of seven saxophones each from the soprano to the contrabass; the family consisting of saxophones ranged in the keys of B♭ and E♭ were more successful because of their popularity in military bands.
The bari sax, pitched in E♭, is the fifth member of this family. The baritone saxophone, like other saxophones, is a conical tube of thin brass, it has a wider end, flared to form a bell, a smaller end connected to a mouthpiece. The baritone saxophone uses a single reed mouthpiece like that of a clarinet. There is a loop in the neck to reduce it to a practical height. Baritone saxophones come in two sizes with one ranging to low A and the other to low B♭. All baritone saxophones were low B♭ instruments, but over time players began modifying their horns to reach the low A below the staff. In the 1980s, it became common for saxophone manufacturers to produce low A instruments. In modern times, the low A is considered standard and is written in sheet music for the instrument. Despite the ubiquity of the low A horn, some players still prefer to use B♭ horns because of the added weight and less crisp sound of low A horns; as with other saxophones, some are manufactured with a high F ♯ key. The baritone saxophone's large mass has led to the development of harness-style neckstrap that distributes the instrument's weight across the user's shoulders.
Several different kinds exist, produced by brands as well known as Neotech and Vandoren, which each distributes weight differently across the saxophonist's neck and shoulder blades. Many marching saxophonists prefer this style for its ability to decrease fatigue; those who perform seated, on the other hand, may dislike the decreased ability to move one's upper body. It is a transposing instrument in the key of E♭, pitched an octave plus a major sixth lower than written, it is one octave lower than the alto saxophone. Modern baritones with a low A key and high F♯ key have a range from C2 to A4. Adolphe Sax produced a baritone saxophone in F intended for orchestral use, but these fell into disuse as the saxophone never became a standard orchestral instrument; as with all saxophones, its music is written in treble clef. To transpose a baritone sax part to concert pitch, it is only necessary to change the treble to a bass clef and modify the accidentals accordingly; the baritone saxophone is used as a standard member of concert bands and saxophone quartets.
It has been called for in music for orchestra. Examples include Richard Strauss' Sinfonia Domestica, which calls for a baritone saxophone in F. 4, composed in 1910–1916. In his opera The Devils of Loudun, Krzysztof Penderecki calls for two baritone saxes. Karlheinz Stockhausen includes a baritone saxophone in Gruppen, it has a comparatively small solo repertoire although an increasing number of concertos have appeared, one of these being "Concerto for Saxophone Quartet and Orchestra" by American composer Philip Glass. This is a piece that can be played with or without an orchestra that features the baritone sax in the second movement. A number of jazz performers have used the baritone saxophone as their primary instrument, it is part of standard big band instrumentation. As phrased by Alain Cupper from JazzBariSax.com, "Used a few times in contemporary classical music...it is in jazz that this wonderful instrument feels most comfortable." One of the instrument's pioneers was Harry Carney, longtime baritone saxophone player in the Duke Ellington band.
Since the mid-1950s, baritone saxophone soloists such as Gerry Mulligan, Cecil Payne, Pepper Adams achieved fame, while Serge Chaloff was the first baritone saxophone player to achieve fame as a bebop soloist. In free jazz, Peter Brötzmann is notable. More recent notable performers include Hamiet Bluiett, John Surman, Scott Robinson, James Carter, Stephen "Doc" Kupka of the band Tower of Power, Nick Brignola, Gary Smulyan, Brian Landrus, Ronnie Cuber. In the avant-garde scene, Tim Berne has doubled on bari. Another modern bari sax player is Leo Pellegrino of "Lucky Chops" and "Too Many Zooz" A noted Scottish performer is Joe Temperley, who has appeared with Humphrey Lyttelton as well as with the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra; the baritone sax is common in musical theater. The baritone sax plays a notable role in many Motown hits of the 60s, is in the horn sections of funk, Latin, soul bands, is used in rock music although it is not as common. Prominent baritone saxophoni
Pantages Theatre (Hollywood)
The Hollywood Pantages Theatre known as RKO Pantages Theatre, is located at Hollywood and Vine, in Hollywood. Designed by architect B. Marcus Priteca, it was the last theater built by the vaudeville impresario Alexander Pantages; the palatial Art Deco theater opened on June 1930, as part of the Pantages Theatre Circuit. The Pantages Theatre Circuit had been built on vaudeville, the new Hollywood theater programmed first-run movies alternating through the day with vaudeville acts for its first two years, but like other theaters during the Great Depression, it was forced to economize and thereafter operated as a movie theater, though live entertainment was presented occasionally. Alexander Pantages sold the Hollywood landmark in 1932 to Fox West Coast Theaters. In 1949, Howard Hughes acquired the Hollywood Pantages for his RKO Theatre Circuit and moved his personal offices to the building's second floor. From 1949 through 1959, the theatre hosted the American motion picture industry's annual Academy Award Ceremonies.
It continued to be a major venue for roadshow movies into the 1970s. From 1965, it was operated by Pacific Theatres; the Hollywood Pantages closed as a movie theater in January, 1977, re-opened the following month with Bubbling Brown Sugar, the first of the many stage productions that have since become its regular fare. Now operated by an arm of the Nederlander Organization, the Hollywood Pantages is one of Los Angeles' leading venues for live theater; the theatre has presented large-scale Broadway musicals such as Disney's The Lion King, which ran at the theatre for over two years, hosted the long-running Los Angeles production of the Broadway musical Wicked. Situated on a prime location, the area's building and a rejuvenation boom has spread to Bob Hope Square with the addition of a new W Hotel and retail stores, tied to the Hollywood/Vine station; the theater underwent a $10-million restoration and upgrade in 2000. The original plans for the Hollywood Pantages were for a 12-story building: 2 floors dedicated to theater and 10 floors of office space.
Completion of the 10 upper floors was halted due to the 1929 stock market crash during construction. In December 2007, plans were revealed to complete the original design and additional stories, but it was never realized; the theatre has occasionally hosted popular music concerts, including those of the bands Dream Theater, Foo Fighters and Mark Knopfler. Talking Heads' 1984 concert film Stop Making Sense was shot there. In 1997, 4 years before her English crossover, Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira performed her first show in the United States at the Hollywood Pantages. In 2006, Mexican pop-group RBD recorded their CD/DVD Live in Hollywood at the Hollywood Pantages; the Hollywood Pantages Theatre is a popular location for the filming of movies, TV shows, music videos. Concert scenes in the 1980 film The Jazz Singer and in Michael Jackson's 1995 video "You Are Not Alone" are just two examples out of many. Rickie Lee Jones's 1979 self-titled debut album includes a reference to the Pantages in her song "Chuck E.'s In Love".
Productions at the Pantages, have included: School of Rock On Your Feet! Waitress A Bronx Tale Wicked Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood Official Pantages Theatre website
In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America awards certification based on the number of albums and singles sold through retail and other ancillary markets. Other countries have similar awards. Certification is not automatic; the audit is conducted against net shipments after returns, which includes albums sold directly to retailers and one-stops, direct-to-consumer sales and other outlets. A Gold record is album that managed to sell 500,000 units; the award was launched in 1958. In 1975, the additional requirement of 500,000 units sold was added for Gold albums. Reflecting growth in record sales, the Platinum award was added in 1976, for albums able to sell one million units, singles selling two million units; the Multi-Platinum award was introduced in 1984, signifying multiple Platinum levels of albums and singles. In 1989, the sales thresholds for singles were reduced to 500,000 for Gold and 1,000,000 for Platinum, reflecting a decrease in sales of singles. In 1992, RIAA began counting each disc in a multi-disc set as one unit toward certification.
Reflecting additional growth in music sales, the Diamond award was instituted in 1999 for albums or singles selling ten million units. Because of these changes in criteria, the sales level associated with a particular award depends on when the award was made. Nielsen SoundScan figures are not used in RIAA certification. Prior to Nielsen SoundScan, RIAA certification was the only audited and verifiable system for tracking music sales in the U. S.. This system has allowed, at times, for record labels to promote an album as Gold or Platinum based on large shipments. For instance, in 1978 the Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band soundtrack shipped Platinum but was a sales bust, with two million returns. All four solo albums by the members of Kiss shipped Platinum that same year but did not reach the top 20 of the Billboard 200 album chart; the following year, the RIAA began requiring 120 days from the release date before recordings were eligible for certification, although that requirement has been reduced over the years and stands at 30 days.
Sony was criticized in 1995 for hyping Michael Jackson's double album HIStory as five times Platinum, based on shipments of 2.5 million and using the RIAA's adopted practice of counting each disc toward certification, while SoundScan was reporting only 1.3 million copies sold. A similar discrepancy between shipments and sales was reported with The Lion King soundtrack. 500,000 units: Gold album 1,000,000 units: Platinum album 2,000,000+ units: Multi-Platinum album 10,000,000 units: Diamond albumFor further information, see Music recording sales certification. Multi-disc albums are counted once for each disc within the album if it is over 100 minutes in length or is from the vinyl era. For example, The Smashing Pumpkins's Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness and OutKast's Speakerboxxx/The Love Below, both double albums, were counted twice, meaning each album was certified diamond after 5 million copies were shipped. Pink Floyd's The Wall and The Beatles' White Album, both vinyl-era, are counted double though their running times are under the minimum requirement.
Rules may not apply depending on most recent staff within the Distributions position. Since 2000, the RIAA awards Los Premios de Oro y De Platino to Latin albums which are defined by the RIAA as a type of product that features at least 51% of content in Spanish; as of December 20, 2013, the award levels for Latin certifications are: 30,000 units: Disco de Oro 60,000 units: Disco de Platino 120,000 units: Disco de Multi-Platino 600,000 units: Disco de DiamanteFor certifications made before December 20, 2013, the award levels are: 50,000 units: Disco de Oro 100,000 units: Disco de Platino 200,000 units: Disco de Multi-Platino 1,000,000 units: Disco de DiamanteNote: The number of sales required to qualify for Oro and Platino awards was higher prior to January 1, 2008. The thresholds were 200,000 units. All Spanish-language albums certified prior to 2008 were updated to match the current certification at the time. "La Bomba" by Bolivian group Azul Azul is the only single to receive a Latin certification based on shipments before the creation of the Latin digital singles awards in 2013.
The Disco de Diamante award was introduced after the RIAA updated the thresholds for Latin certifications in December 20, 2013. The Disco de Diamante is awarded to Latin albums. Standard singles are certified: Gold when it ships 500,000 copies Platinum when it ships 1,000,000 copies Multi-Platinum when it ships at least 2,000,000 copiesNote: The number of sales required to qualify for Gold and Platinum discs was higher prior to January 1, 1989; the thresholds were 1,000,000 units and 2,000,000 units. Digital singles are certified: Gold means 500,000 certification units Platinum means 1,000,000 certification units Multi-Platinum means 2,000,000+ certification unitsFrom 2004 through July 2006, the certification level was 100,000 downloads for
VHS is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Developed by Victor Company of Japan in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976 and in the United States on August 23, 1977. From the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders. At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging. In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses; the television industry viewed videocassette recorders as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their hobby. In the 1970s and early 1980s, there was a format war in the home video industry. Two of the standards, VHS and Betamax, received the most media exposure. VHS won the war, dominating 60 percent of the North American market by 1980 and emerging as the dominant home video format throughout the tape media period.
Optical disc formats began to offer better quality than analog consumer video tape such as VHS and S-VHS. The earliest of these formats, LaserDisc, was not adopted. However, after the introduction of the DVD format in 1997, VHS's market share began to decline. By 2008, DVD had replaced VHS as the preferred low-end method of distribution; the last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment, Funai of Japan, ceased production in July 2016. After several attempts by other companies, the first commercially successful VTR, the Ampex VRX-1000, was introduced in 1956 by Ampex Corporation. At a price of US$50,000 in 1956, US$300 for a 90-minute reel of tape, it was intended only for the professional market. Kenjiro Takayanagi, a television broadcasting pioneer working for JVC as its vice president, saw the need for his company to produce VTRs for the Japan market, at a more affordable price. In 1959, JVC developed a two-head video tape recorder, by 1960 a color version for professional broadcasting.
In 1964, JVC released the DV220. In 1969, JVC collaborated with Sony Corporation and Matsushita Electric in building a video recording standard for the Japanese consumer; the effort produced the U-matic format in 1971, the first format to become a unified standard. U-matic was successful in business and some broadcast applications, but due to cost and limited recording time few of the machines were sold for home use. Soon after and Matsushita broke away from the collaboration effort, in order to work on video recording formats of their own. Sony started working on Betamax, while Matsushita started working on VX. JVC released the CR-6060 in 1975, based on the U-matic format. Sony and Matsushita produced U-matic systems of their own. In 1971, JVC engineers Yuma Shiraishi and Shizuo Takano put together a team to develop a consumer-based VTR. By the end of 1971 they created an internal diagram titled "VHS Development Matrix", which established twelve objectives for JVC's new VTR; these included: The system must be compatible with any ordinary television set.
Picture quality must be similar to a normal air broadcast. The tape must have at least a two-hour recording capacity. Tapes must be interchangeable between machines; the overall system should be versatile, meaning it can be scaled and expanded, such as connecting a video camera, or dub between two recorders. Recorders should be affordable, easy to have low maintenance costs. Recorders must be capable of being produced in high volume, their parts must be interchangeable, they must be easy to service. In early 1972, the commercial video recording industry in Japan took a financial hit. JVC restructured its video division, shelving the VHS project. However, despite the lack of funding and Shiraishi continued to work on the project in secret. By 1973 the two engineers had produced a functional prototype. In 1974, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, desiring to avoid consumer confusion, attempted to force the Japanese video industry to standardize on just one home video recording format.
Sony had a functional prototype of the Betamax format, was close to releasing a finished product. With this prototype, Sony persuaded the MITI to adopt Betamax as the standard, allow it to license the technology to other companies. JVC believed that an open standard, with the format shared among competitors without licensing the technology, was better for the consumer. To prevent the MITI from adopting Betamax, JVC worked to convince other companies, in particular Matsushita, to accept VHS, thereby work against Sony and the MITI. Matsushita agreed out of concern that Sony might become the leader in the field if its proprietary Betamax format was the only one allowed to be manufactured. Matsushita regarded Betamax's one-hour recording time limit as a disadvantage. Matsushita's backing of JVC persuaded Hitachi and Sharp to back the VHS standard as well. Sony's release of its Betamax unit to the Japanese market in 1975 placed further pressure on the MITI to side with the company. However, the collaboration of
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, incidental music and a large body of piano and chamber music, his major works include the Piano Quintet in A major, D. 667, the Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D. 759, the three last piano sonatas, the opera Fierrabras, the incidental music to the play Rosamunde, the song cycles Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise. Born to immigrant parents in the Himmelpfortgrund suburb of Vienna, Schubert's uncommon gifts for music were evident from an early age, his father gave him his first violin lessons and his older brother gave him piano lessons, but Schubert soon exceeded their abilities. In 1808, at the age of eleven, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt school, where he became acquainted with the orchestral music of Haydn and Beethoven, he left the Stadtkonvikt at the end of 1813, returned home to live with his father, where he began studying to become a schoolteacher.
In 1821, Schubert was granted admission to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde as a performing member, which helped establish his name among the Viennese citizenry. He gave a concert of his own works to critical acclaim in March 1828, the only time he did so in his career, he died eight months at the age of 31, the cause attributed to typhoid fever, but believed by some historians to be syphilis. Appreciation of Schubert's music while he was alive was limited to a small circle of admirers in Vienna, but interest in his work increased in the decades following his death. Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms and other 19th-century composers discovered and championed his works. Today, Schubert is ranked among the greatest composers of the 19th century, his music continues to be popular. Franz Peter Schubert was born in Himmelpfortgrund, Archduchy of Austria on 31 January 1797, baptised in the Catholic Church the following day, he was the twelfth child of Maria Elisabeth Katharina Vietz.
Schubert's immediate ancestors came from the province of Zukmantel in Austrian Silesia. His father, the son of a Moravian peasant, was a well-known parish schoolmaster, his school in Lichtental had numerous students in attendance, he was appointed schoolmaster two years later. His mother was the daughter of a Silesian master locksmith and had been a housemaid for a Viennese family before marriage. Of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth's fourteen children, nine died in infancy. At the age of five, Schubert began to receive regular instruction from his father, a year was enrolled at his father's school. Although it is not known when Schubert received his first musical instruction, he was given piano lessons by his brother Ignaz, but they lasted for a short time as Schubert excelled him within a few months. Ignaz recalled: I was amazed when Franz told me, a few months after we began, that he had no need of any further instruction from me, that for the future he would make his own way, and in truth his progress in a short period was so great that I was forced to acknowledge in him a master who had distanced and out stripped me, whom I despaired of overtaking.
His father gave him his first violin lessons when he was eight years old, training him to the point where he could play easy duets proficiently. Soon after, Schubert was given his first lessons outside the family by Michael Holzer and choirmaster of the local parish church in Lichtental. Holzer would assure Schubert's father, with tears in his eyes, that he had never had such a pupil as Schubert, the lessons may have consisted of conversations and expressions of admiration. Holzer gave the young Schubert instruction in organ as well as in figured bass. According to Holzer, however, he did not give him any real instruction as Schubert would know anything that he tried to teach him; the boy seemed to gain more from an acquaintance with a friendly apprentice joiner who took him to a neighbouring pianoforte warehouse where Schubert could practise on better instruments. He played viola in the family string quartet, with his brothers Ferdinand and Ignaz on first and second violin and his father on the cello.
Schubert wrote his earliest string quartets for this ensemble. Young Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salieri Vienna's leading musical authority, in 1804, when his vocal talent was recognised. In November 1808, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt through a choir scholarship. At the Stadtkonvikt, he was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozart, the symphonies of Joseph Haydn and his younger brother Michael Haydn, the overtures and symphonies of Beethoven, a composer for whom he developed a significant admiration, his exposure to these and other works, combined with occasional visits to the opera, laid the foundation for a broader musical education. One important musical influence came from the songs by Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, an important composer of Lieder; the precocious young student "wanted to modernize" Zumsteeg's songs, as reported by Joseph von Spaun, Schub