Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling. The coagulation can be caused by adding rennet or any edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, allowing it to coagulate; the increased acidity curds. Milk, left to sour will naturally produce curds, sour milk cheeses are produced this way. Producing cheese curds is one of the first steps in cheesemaking; the remaining liquid, which contains only whey proteins, is the whey. In cow's milk, 90 percent of the proteins are caseins. In Indian English, used only in the Indian subcontinent, curd is used to refer to the traditional homemade yogurt known as dahi, while paneer and Chhena are used to denote curdled milk. There are two methods to make curd, with acid. Using acid, like lemon juice, to make curd releases the lactose into the water, thus the solid curd formed from this method is good for people with lactose intolerance. This type of curd is known as Chhena in India. Using rennet to make curd, attaches the lactose to the solid coagulated proteins.
Thus it is not recommended for people with lactose intolerance. This type of curd is the commercial cheese available in supermarkets, such as Cheddar, Swiz, Parmesan. Vegetarian rennet from Withania coagulans, is used to make paneer in India. Curd products vary by region and include cottage cheese, curd cheese, farmer cheese, pot cheese, queso blanco, paneer; the word can refer to a non-dairy substance of similar appearance or consistency, though in these cases a modifier or the word curdled is used. In England, curds produced using rennet are referred to as junket. Cheese curds, drained of the whey and served without further processing or aging, are popular in some French-speaking regions of Canada, such as Quebec, parts of Ontario, Atlantic Canada. Throughout Canada cheese curds are served with french fries and gravy in a popular snack called poutine. Curds are typical of some Germanic-descent regions such as historic Waterloo County in Ontario. In some parts of the Midwestern U. S. in Wisconsin, curds are eaten fresh without further additions, or they are breaded and fried.
In Turkey, curds are called keş and are served on fried bread and are eaten with macaroni in the provinces of Bolu and Zonguldak. In Mexico, chongos zamoranos is a dessert prepared with milk curdled with cinnamon. Albanian gjiza is made by adding vinegar or lemon; the derivative is salted to taste. Gjiza can be served or refrigerated for a couple of days. Aarts, Mongolian fermented curd, eaten as a dried snack or reconstituted as a hot beverage Chongos zamoranos, a dessert prepared with milk curdled with sugar and cinnamon Cuajada sweetened and eaten for breakfast or dessert, popular in Spain and Central America Curd snack, a snack popular in the Baltic States Kurt or Qurut, central Asian cheese curd Ostkaka, Swedish style cheese cake, some call it a Swedish National dish Paskha, a Russian Easter dessert made of quark Ricotta, an Italian whey cheese Skyr, Icelandic curd Tofu, the coagulated product from soy milk, from eastern and south-eastern Asian countries Túró Rudi, a Hungarian chocolate bar with curd Urdă, a Balkans fresh white cheese made from whey.
List of dairy products Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations A fresh look at fine cheese, audio tour of Canada’s best cheese curds. Mrs Beeton
A mineral is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound that occurs in pure form. A rock may consist of a single mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases. Compounds that occur only in living beings are excluded, but some minerals are biogenic and/or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry. Moreover, living beings synthesize inorganic minerals that occur in rocks. In geology and mineralogy, the term "mineral" is reserved for mineral species: crystalline compounds with a well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure. Minerals without a definite crystalline structure, such as opal or obsidian, are more properly called mineraloids. If a chemical compound may occur with different crystal structures, each structure is considered different mineral species. Thus, for example and stishovite are two different minerals consisting of the same compound, silicon dioxide; the International Mineralogical Association is the world's premier standard body for the definition and nomenclature of mineral species.
As of November 2018, the IMA recognizes 5,413 official mineral species. Out of more than 5,500 proposed or traditional ones; the chemical composition of a named mineral species may vary somewhat by the inclusion of small amounts of impurities. Specific varieties of a species sometimes have official names of their own. For example, amethyst is a purple variety of the mineral species quartz; some mineral species can have variable proportions of two or more chemical elements that occupy equivalent positions in the mineral's structure. Sometimes a mineral with variable composition is split into separate species, more or less arbitrarily, forming a mineral group. Besides the essential chemical composition and crystal structure, the description of a mineral species includes its common physical properties such as habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, specific gravity, fluorescence, radioactivity, as well as its taste or smell and its reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents.
Silicate minerals comprise 90% of the Earth's crust. Other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. One definition of a mineral encompasses the following criteria: Formed by a natural process. Stable or metastable at room temperature. In the simplest sense, this means. Classical examples of exceptions to this rule include native mercury, which crystallizes at −39 °C, water ice, solid only below 0 °C. Modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy. Represented by a chemical formula. Minerals are chemical compounds, as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula. Many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution. For example, the olivine group is described by the variable formula 2SiO4, a solid solution of two end-member species, magnesium-rich forsterite and iron-rich fayalite, which are described by a fixed chemical formula. Mineral species themselves could have a variable composition, such as the sulfide mackinawite, 9S8, a ferrous sulfide, but has a significant nickel impurity, reflected in its formula.
Ordered atomic arrangement. This means crystalline. An ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been several recent proposals to classify amorphous substances as minerals; the formal definition of a mineral approved by the IMA in 1995: "A mineral is an element or chemical compound, crystalline and, formed as a result of geological processes." Abiogenic. Biogenic substances are explicitly excluded by the IMA: "Biogenic substances are chemical compounds produced by biological processes without a geological component and are not regarded as minerals. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound the product can be accepted as a mineral."The first three general characteristics are less debated than the last two. Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science. Recent changes have included the addition of an organic class, in both the new Dana and the Strunz classification schemes.
The organic class includes a rare group of minerals with hydrocarbons. The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names adopted in 2009 a hierarchical scheme for the naming and classification of mineral groups and group names and established seven commissions and four working groups to review and classify minerals into an official listing of their published names. According to these new r
A gel is a solid jelly-like soft material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough. Gels are defined as a dilute cross-linked system, which exhibits no flow when in the steady-state. By weight, gels are liquid, yet they behave like solids due to a three-dimensional cross-linked network within the liquid, it is the crosslinking within the fluid that gives a gel its structure and contributes to the adhesive stick. In this way gels are a dispersion of molecules of a liquid within a solid in which liquid particles are dispersed in the solid medium; the word gel was coined by 19th-century Scottish chemist Thomas Graham by clipping from gelatine. Gels consist of a solid three-dimensional network that spans the volume of a liquid medium and ensnares it through surface tension effects; this internal network structure may result from physical bonds or chemical bonds, as well as crystallites or other junctions that remain intact within the extending fluid. Any fluid can be used as an extender including water and air.
Both by weight and volume, gels are fluid in composition and thus exhibit densities similar to those of their constituent liquids. Edible jelly is a common example of a hydrogel and has the density of water. Polyionic polymers are polymers with an ionic functional group; the ionic charges prevent the formation of coiled polymer chains. This allows them to contribute more to viscosity in their stretched state, because the stretched-out polymer takes up more space; this is the reason gel hardens. See polyelectrolyte for more information. A hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. A three-dimensional solid results from the hydrophilic polymer chains being held together by cross-links; because of the inherent cross-links, the structural integrity of the hydrogel network does not dissolve from the high concentration of water. Hydrogels are absorbent natural or synthetic polymeric networks. Hydrogels possess a degree of flexibility similar to natural tissue, due to their significant water content.
As responsive "smart materials," hydrogels can encapsulate chemical systems which upon stimulation by external factors such as a change of pH may cause specific compounds such as glucose to be liberated to the environment, in most cases by a gel-sol transition to the liquid state. Chemomechanical polymers are also hydrogels, which upon stimulation change their volume and can serve as actuators or sensors; the first appearance of the term'hydrogel' in the literature was in 1894. Common uses for hydrogels include: Scaffolds in tissue engineering; when used as scaffolds, hydrogels may contain human cells to repair tissue. They mimic 3D microenvironment of cells. Hydrogel-coated wells have been used for cell culture Environmentally sensitive hydrogels; these hydrogels have the ability to sense changes of pH, temperature, or the concentration of metabolite and release their load as result of such a change. Sustained-release drug delivery systems Providing absorption and debriding of necrotic and fibrotic tissue Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors, as well as in DDS.
Disposable diapers where they absorb urine, or in sanitary napkins Contact lenses EEG and ECG medical electrodes using hydrogels composed of cross-linked polymers Water gel explosives Rectal drug delivery and diagnosis Encapsulation of quantum dots Breast implants Glue Granules for holding soil moisture in arid areas Dressings for healing of burn or other hard-to-heal wounds. Wound gels are excellent for helping to maintain a moist environment. Reservoirs in topical drug delivery. Materials mimicking animal mucosal tissues to be used for testing mucoadhesive properties of drug delivery systemsCommon ingredients include polyvinyl alcohol, sodium polyacrylate, acrylate polymers and copolymers with an abundance of hydrophilic groups. Natural hydrogel materials are being investigated for tissue engineering. Hydrogels show promise for use in agriculture, as they can release agrochemicals including pesticides and phosphate fertiliser increasing efficacy and reducing runoff, at the same time improve the water retention of drier soils such as sandy loams.
An organogel is a non-crystalline, non-glassy thermoreversible solid material composed of a liquid organic phase entrapped in a three-dimensionally cross-linked network. The liquid can be, for an organic solvent, mineral oil, or vegetable oil; the solubility and particle dimensions of the structurant are important characteristics for the elastic properties and firmness of the organogel. These systems are based on self-assembly of the structurant molecules. Organogels have potential for use in a number of applications, such as in pharmaceuticals, art conservation, food. A xerogel is a solid formed from a gel by drying with unhindered shrinkage. Xerogels retain high porosity and enormous surface area, along with small pore size; when solvent removal occurs under supercritical conditions, the network doe
Cheddar cheese is a hard, off-white, sometimes sharp-tasting, natural cheese. Originating in the English village of Cheddar in Somerset, cheeses of this style are produced beyond the region and in several countries around the world. Cheddar is the most popular type of cheese in the UK, accounting for 51% of the country's £1.9 billion annual cheese market. It is the second-most popular cheese in the US, with an average annual consumption of 10 lb per capita; the US produced 3,000,000,000 lb in 2014, the UK 258,000 long tons in 2008. The term "Cheddar cheese" is used, but has no protected designation of origin within the European Union. However, in 2007 a Protected Designation of Origin, "West Country Farmhouse Cheddar", was created and only Cheddar produced from local milk within Somerset, Dorset and Cornwall and manufactured using traditional methods may use the name. Outside of Europe, the style and quality of cheeses labelled as cheddar may vary with some processed cheeses being packaged as "cheddar" while bearing little resemblance.
Furthermore, certain cheeses that are more similar in taste and appearance to Red Leicester are sometimes popularly marketed as "Red Cheddar". The cheese originates from the village of Cheddar in Somerset, south west England. Cheddar Gorge on the edge of the village contains a number of caves, which provided the ideal humidity and steady temperature for maturing the cheese. Cheddar cheese traditionally had to be made within 30 mi of Wells Cathedral. Cheddar has been produced since at least the 12th century. A pipe roll of King Henry II from 1170 records the purchase of 10,240 lb at a farthing per pound. Charles I bought cheese from the village. Romans may have brought the recipe to Britain from the Cantal region of France. Central to the modernisation and standardisation of Cheddar cheese was the 19th-century Somerset dairyman Joseph Harding. For his technical innovations, promotion of dairy hygiene, volunteer dissemination of modern cheese-making techniques, he has been dubbed "the father of Cheddar cheese".
Harding introduced new equipment to the process of cheese-making, including his "revolving breaker" for curd cutting, saving much manual effort. The "Joseph Harding method" was the first modern system for Cheddar production based upon scientific principles. Harding stated that Cheddar cheese is "not made in the field, nor in the byre, nor in the cow, it is made in the dairy", his wife and he were behind the introduction of the cheese into North America. His sons and William Harding, were responsible for introducing Cheddar cheese production to Australia and facilitating the establishment of the cheese industry in New Zealand, respectively. During the Second World War, for nearly a decade after, most milk in Britain was used for the making of one single kind of cheese nicknamed "Government Cheddar" as part of war economies and rationing; this resulted in wiping out all other cheese production in the country. Before the First World War, more than 3,500 cheese producers were in Britain. According to a United States Department of Agriculture researcher, Cheddar cheese is the world's most popular variety of cheese, the most studied type of cheese in scientific publications.
The curds and whey are separated using rennet, an enzyme complex produced from the stomachs of newborn calves."Cheddaring" refers to an additional step in the production of Cheddar cheese where, after heating, the curd is kneaded with salt, cut into cubes to drain the whey, stacked and turned. Strong, extra-mature Cheddar, sometimes called vintage, needs to be matured for 15 months or more; the cheese is kept at a constant temperature requiring special facilities. As with other hard cheese varieties produced worldwide, caves provide an ideal environment for maturing cheese. Additionally, some versions of Cheddar cheese are smoked; the ideal quality of the original Somerset Cheddar was described by Joseph Harding in 1864 as "close and firm in texture, yet mellow in character or quality. Cheddar made in the classical way tends to have a sharp, pungent flavour slightly earthy; the "sharpness" of cheddar is associated with the levels of bitter peptides in the cheese. This bitterness has been found to be significant to the overall perception of the aged Cheddar flavour.
The texture is firm, with farmhouse traditional Cheddar being crumbly. Cheddar can be a deep to pale yellow colour, or a yellow-orange colour when certain plant extracts are added, such as beet juice. One used spice is annatto, extracted from seeds of the tropical achiote tree. Added to simulate the colour of high-quality milk from grass-fed Jersey and Guernsey cows, annatto may impart a sweet, nutty flavour; the largest producer of Cheddar cheese in the United States, uses a combination of annatto and oleoresin paprika, an extract of the lipophilic portion of paprika. Cheddar cheese was sometimes packaged in black wax, but was more packaged in larded cloth, impermeable to contaminants, but still allowed the cheese to "breathe". T
Ricotta is an Italian whey cheese made from sheep, goat, or Italian water buffalo milk whey left over from the production of other cheeses. Like other whey cheeses, it is made by coagulating the proteins that remain after the casein has been used to make cheese, notably albumin and globulin. Ricotta protein can be harvested if the whey is first allowed to become more acidic by additional fermentation; the acidified whey is heated to near boiling. The combination of low pH and high temperature denatures the protein and causes it to precipitate, forming a fine curd. Once cooled, it is separated by passing the liquid through a fine cloth. Ricotta curds are creamy white in appearance, sweet in taste; the fat content changes depending on the type of milk used. In this form, it is somewhat similar in texture to some cottage cheese variants, though lighter, it is perishable. However, ricotta is made in aged varieties which are preservable for much longer; the production of ricotta in the Italian peninsula dates back to the Bronze Age.
In the second millennium BC, ceramic vessels called milk boilers started to appear and were unique to the peninsula. These were designed to prevent the milk from boiling over; the fresh acid-coagulated cheeses produced with these boilers were made with whole milk. However, the production of rennet-coagulated cheese overtook the production of fresh whole-milk cheeses during the first millennium BC. Bronze cheese graters found in the graves of the Etruscan elite prove that hard-grating cheeses were popular with the aristocracy. Cheese graters were commonly used in ancient Roman kitchens. Unlike the fresh acid-coagulated cheese, aged rennet-coagulated cheese could be preserved for much longer; the increased production of rennet-coagulated cheese led to a large supply of sweet whey as a byproduct. Cheesemakers started using a new recipe, which used a mixture of whey and milk to make the traditional ricotta as it is known today; the ancient Romans made ricotta, but writers on agriculture such as Cato the Elder, Marcus Terentius Varro, Columella do not mention it.
They described the production of rennet-coagulated cheese but did not write about milk boilers or acid-coagulated cheese. A reason is that ricotta was not profitable because its short shelf life did not allow distribution to urban markets. Ricotta was most consumed by the shepherds who made it. So, evidence from paintings and literature indicates that ricotta was known and eaten by Roman aristocrats as well. Ceramic milk boilers were still used by Apennine shepherds to make ricotta in the 19th century AD. Today, metal milk boilers are used. Whey protein is a kind of milk protein but there are numerous other milk proteins. Whey itself is less than 1% protein by weight; this means ricotta production is a low-yield process, considering the amount of whey required to produce it. The whey is heated, sometimes with additional acid such as vinegar or lemon juice to catalyze the coagulation through heat of albumin and globulin in the whey; the whey is heated to a near-boiling temperature, much hotter than during the production of the original cheese, of which the whey is a remnant.
The original ricotta is made of whey with the addition of a small amount of milk, but more ricotta has been made of whole milk as well. Whole-milk ricotta is popular in the USA, where whey ricotta is known by the name ricottone. Ricotta di Bufala Campana and Ricotta Romana are notable varieties produced in Italy and protected by the European Union's Protected Designation of Origin regulation. Ricotta di Bufala Campana is made from the whey left over after the production of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, a protected variety of buffalo mozzarella. Ricotta Romana is made from the whey of sheep milk. Fresh ricotta can be subject to extra processing to produce variants which have a much longer shelf life; these production methods include salting, baking and further fermentation. Ricotta salata is a pressed, salted and aged variety of the cheese, it is firm and used for grating or shaving. Ricotta salata is sold in wheels, decorated by a delicate basket-weave pattern. Ricotta infornata is produced by placing a large lump of soft ricotta in the oven until it develops a brown charred crust, sometimes until it becomes sandy brown all the way through.
Ricotta infornata is popular in Sardinia and Sicily, is sometimes called ricotta al forno. Ricotta affumicata is similar to ricotta infornata and is produced by placing a lump of soft ricotta in a smoker until it develops a grey crust and acquires a charred wood scent of oak or chestnut wood, although, in Friuli, beech wood is used, with the addition of juniper and herbs. Ricotta forte known as ricotta scanta, is produced from leftovers of any combination of cow, goat, or sheep milk ricotta; these are allowed to age for about a year, during which the cheese is mixed every two or three days to prevent the growth of mold. Salt is added as well; the end result is a soft and creamy brown paste which has a pungent and piquant taste. It is sold in glass jars, it is mixed with tomato sauces for pasta, or added to vegetable dishes. Like mascarpone in northern Italian cuisine, ricotta is a favorite component of many Italian desserts, such as cheesecakes and cannoli. A variety of different cookies include ricotta as
Brunost is a common, Norwegian name for mysost, a family of cheese-related foods made with whey, and/or cream. It is used to just refer to the Gudbrandsdalsost type, the most popular variety. Brunost is produced and consumed in Norway, it is regarded as one of the country's most iconic foodstuffs, is considered an important part of Norwegian gastronomical and cultural identity and heritage. Boiling down whey to create a soft, brown spread has been common in the Scandinavian countries since time immemorial. An archeological find from September 2016 in central Jutland has determined that a cheese residue on pottery from circa 650 B. C. is a type of cheese brunost. However, the creation of the modern, fatty brunost is attributed to the milkmaid Anne Hov from the rural valley of Gudbrandsdalen. In the second half of the 1800s, Gudbrandsdalen was suffering economically due to falling profits from grain and butter sales. While working at the Valseter mountain farm near Gålå in 1863, Anne Hov came up with the idea of adding cream to the whey when boiling, to boil it down in an iron pot until the fluid content was reduced to less than 80 percent, creating a firmer, more cheese-like product.
She called it feitost. The name changed into fløtemysost; the product caught on, was soon produced and consumed in the area. This variety is the second most popular type in Norway; when Hov married and moved to Rusthågå farm in Nord-Fron, she started larger-scale production and invented a variety where she added goat's milk to the mix for a more pronounced taste. The local trader Ole Kongsli liked it so much he thought there might be a market for the product in the capital, Oslo, he started exporting it to his business contacts in Oslo under the name Gudbrandsdalsost, it became so successful that it contributed to the economy of the region, thus helping Gudbrandsdalen out of recession. In 1933, aged 87, Hov received the King's Medal of Merit for her contributions to Norwegian cuisine and economy. In modern times, the world's largest producer of brunost is the Norwegian dairy co-operative Tine, who market a total of 13 varieties, as well as three types of prim and three types of pultost; the second-largest is Norwegian dairy company Synnøve Finden, which market two varieties of brunost, as well as two varieties of prim.
There are a number of smaller, artisanal producers in Norway and in the US. Mysost are a family of cheese-related foods made with milk and/or cream; the main ingredient, whey, is a byproduct of the cheese making process, it is what is left when the cheese is removed from the milk. Therefore, brunost is not technically cheese, it does not taste like cheese. However, it is produced by cheese makers, is sold and consumed in the same way as cheese; therefore it is regarded as a cheese, despite factually being the exact opposite. The texture is firm, but softer than Gouda cheese, for example, lends itself well to cutting and shaping, it does not crumble like hard cheeses. The taste is sweet, best described as caramel-like, but with a tang, more noticeable in the variants that contain goat's milk; the variant Ekte Geitost contains only whey and goat's milk, has an intense, Chèvre-like taste that cuts the sweetness. Brunost is made by boiling a mixture of milk and whey for several hours so that the water evaporates.
The heat turns the milk sugars into caramel, which gives the cheese its characteristic brown colour and sweetness. It is ready for consumption as soon as it is refrigerated. Low-fat varieties are made by increasing the proportion of whey to cream. In Norway, Brunost is divided into two types: those that contain only cow's cream and/or milk, the ones that contain some proportion of goat's milk; the latter type is called Geitost or Gjetost. Varieties that do not contain any cow's milk are called Ekte Geitost. Technically, the name "true goat's cheese" is misleading, since goat cheese is uncommon in Norway, is called Hvit geitost to avoid confusion. By far the most popular variety is the Gudbrandsdalsost, which contains a mixture of cow and goat milk and whey. Heidal cheese is a type of Gudbrandsdalsost. In Norway it is so common that people just refer to it as "Brunost" or "Geitost", assuming that unless otherwise specified, Gudbrandsdalsost will be provided; this variety is the most popular internationally, in the US it is referred to just as "Gjetost".
The second most popular variety is the Fløtemysost, which has a milder taste due to the lack of goat's milk. The third most popular type is the Ekte geitost. Related to brunost are prim or messmör, a soft, sweet spread sold in tubes all across the Nordic countries; this is the original, ancient product made by boiling whey for a shorter period of time than brunost, not adding milk or cream. In Norway, pultost is traditionally made from byproducts of the brunost-making process, has a distinctive flavour. Brunost is used as a topping for sandwiches and biscuits, it is common in the traditional Norwegian matpakke, a common Norwegian lunch—sandwiches are packed in a lunch box in the morning, a
Bovine serum albumin
Bovine serum albumin is a serum albumin protein derived from cows. It is used as a protein concentration standard in lab experiments; the nickname "Fraction V" refers to albumin being the fifth fraction of the original Edwin Cohn purification methodology that made use of differential solubility characteristics of plasma proteins. By manipulating solvent concentrations, pH, salt levels, temperature, Cohn was able to pull out successive "fractions" of blood plasma; the process was first commercialized with human albumin for medical use and adopted for production of BSA. The full-length BSA precursor protein is 607 amino acids in length. An N-terminal 18-residue signal peptide is cut off from the precursor protein upon secretion, hence the initial protein product contains 589 amino acid residues. An additional six amino acids are cleaved to yield the mature BSA protein that contains 583 amino acids. Physical properties of BSA: Number of amino acid residues: 583 Molecular weight: 66,463 Da isoelectric point in water at 25 °C: 4.7 Extinction coefficient of 43,824 M−1cm−1 at 279 nm Dimensions: 140 × 40 × 40 Å pH of 1% Solution: 5.2-7 Optical Rotation: 259: -61°.
Because BSA is a small, moderately non-reactive protein, it is used as a blocker in immunohistochemistry. During immunohistochemistry, the process that uses antibodies to identify antigens in cells, tissue sections are incubated with BSA blockers to bind nonspecific binding sites; this binding of BSA to nonspecific binding sites increases the chance that the antibodies will bind only to the antigens of interest. The BSA blocker improves sensitivity by decreasing background noise as the sites are covered with the moderately non-reactive protein. During this process, minimization of nonspecific binding of antibodies is essential in order to acquire the highest signal to noise ratio. BSA is used as a nutrient in cell and microbial culture. In restriction digests, BSA is used to stabilize some enzymes during the digestion of DNA and to prevent adhesion of the enzyme to reaction tubes, pipette tips, other vessels; this protein does not affect other enzymes. BSA is commonly used to determine the quantity of other proteins, by comparing an unknown quantity of protein to known amounts of BSA.
BSA is used because of its ability to increase signal in assays, its lack of effect in many biochemical reactions, its low cost, since large quantities of it can be purified from bovine blood, a byproduct of the cattle industry. Another use for BSA is that it can be used to temporarily isolate substances that are blocking the activity of the enzyme, needed, thus impeding polymerase chain reaction. Acceptable daily intake Protein allergy Human serum albumin Serum albumin Serum+Albumin,+Bovine at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings