Whigs (British political party)

The Whigs were a political faction and a political party in the parliaments of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with the Tories; the Whigs' origin lay in constitutional opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic; the Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels; the Whigs purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy; the first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.

Both parties began as loose groupings or tendencies, but became quite formal by 1784 with the ascension of Charles James Fox as the leader of a reconstituted Whig Party, arrayed against the governing party of the new Tories under William Pitt the Younger. Both parties were founded on rich politicians more than on popular votes; the Whig Party evolved during the 18th century. The Whigs drew support from the emerging industrial reformists and mercantile class, while the Tories drew support from farmers, imperial military spending and, royalists. However, by the first half of the 19th century the Whig programme came to encompass the supremacy of Parliament and free trade and acceleration of the completion of Catholic equal rights, the abolition of slavery and expansion of the franchise; the 19th century Whig support for Catholic emancipation was a complete reversal of the party's historic anti-Catholic position in the late 17th century. The term "Whig" was short for "whiggamor", a term meaning "cattle driver" used to describe western Scots who came to Leith for corn.

In the reign of Charles I the term was used during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms to refer derisively to a radical faction of the Scottish Covenanters who called themselves the "Kirk Party". It was applied to Scottish Presbyterian rebels who were against the King's Episcopalian order in Scotland; the term "Whig" entered English political discourse during the Exclusion Bill crisis of 1678–1681 when there was controversy about whether or not King Charles II's brother, should be allowed to succeed to the throne on Charles's death. "Whig" was a term of abuse applied to those who wanted to exclude James on the grounds that he was a Roman Catholic. The fervent Tory Samuel Johnson joked that "the first Whig was the Devil"."The court party reproached their antagonists with their affinity to the fanatical conventiclers in Scotland, who were known by the name of Whigs: The country party found a resemblance between the courtiers and the popish banditti in Ireland, to whom the appellation of Tory was affixed.

And after this manner, these foolish terms of reproach came into general use. Under Lord Shaftesbury's leadership, the Whigs in the Parliament of England wished to exclude the Duke of York from the throne due to his Roman Catholicism, his favouring of monarchical absolutism, his connections to France, they believed the heir presumptive, if allowed to inherit the throne, would endanger the Protestant religion and property. The first Exclusion Bill was supported by a substantial majority on its second reading in May 1679. In response, King Charles prorogued Parliament and dissolved it, but the subsequent elections in August and September saw the Whigs' strength increase; this new parliament did not meet for thirteen months, because Charles wanted to give passions a chance to die down. When it met in October 1680, an Exclusion Bill was introduced and passed in the Commons without major resistance, but was rejected in the Lords. Charles dissolved Parliament in January 1681, but the Whigs did not suffer serious losses in the ensuing election.

The next Parliament first met in March at Oxford, but Charles dissolved it after only a few days, when he made an appeal to the country against the Whigs and determined to rule without Parliament. In February, Charles had made a deal with the French King Louis XIV, who promised to support him against the Whigs. Without Parliament, the Whigs crumbled due to government repression following the discovery of the Rye House Plot; the Whig peers, the Earl of Melville, the Earl of Leven, Lord Shaftesbury, Charles II's illegitimate son the Duke of Monmouth, being implicated, fled to and regrouped in the United Provinces. Algernon Sidney, Sir Thomas Arms

The Gatehouse, Monmouth

The Gatehouse known as The Gate House, is a public house located next to Monnow Bridge in Monmouth, Wales. The pub was known as the Barley Mow until it changed its name in 1993, it is the only public house in Monmouth located beside a river. The pub has seated balcony and a function room; the building was established as a public house by 1812, when a women's friendly society met in the building once a month. The women paid small amounts into a fund which they withdrew in times of being unable to work due to childbirth, accidents or old age. In 1822, William Jones became the licensee of the house "known as the Barley Mow", from that point on he and his family ran the pub until the last quarter of the 19th century. In 1887 the Loyal Trafalgar Lodge of Druids Friendly Society had their Jubilee Dinner at the Barley Mow with over 100 guests, at which point Mr Teague was the landlord. Licensees included the Wakin and Harley families. By 1939, Ind Coope & Allsopp supplied Burton Ales to the pub. A row of three cottages stood between Monnow Bridge and the Barley Mow, but these were demolished in the 1950s.

Heather Hurley, in her book The Pubs of Monmouth and The Wye Valley, thought that these three cottages may have been the site of a former pub called The Dolphin between 1721 and 1858. That area is now The Gatehouse's beer garden, with a balcony over looking the River Monnow and Monnow Bridge. In Keith Kissack's 2003 book on Monmouth and its Buildings he suggested that it was one of the best known inns in Monmouth for some 200 years; the vicar of Overmonnow in 1883 said that the Mayor had acted disgracefully, at the Barley Mow, when the Mayor and 21 Elite men of the town had managed to drink 48 bottles of champagne, as well as some other wines while at the Mayors Luncheon

Luke Him Sau

Luke Him Sau was a Chinese architect who practiced in the early and mid twentieth century. During the late 1920s, Luke was one of the first Chinese students to be trained at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, studied under Eric Rawlsham Jarrett, Charles Stanley White, Stephen Rowland Pierce and Eric Leslie Bird. Luke is regarded as a key member of the first generation of Chinese architects, worked on projects in Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Taiwan. In the early 1940s, he was a member of the Five United, an architectural practice formed by a disparate group of Chinese architects who had studied at British universities. Between 1945 and 1948, he was head of the urban planning committee for Greater Shanghai, he returned before the communist takeover in mainland China. There, his practice was called HS Luke & Associates, renamed in 1950 as PAPRO – Progressive Architecture, Planning & Research Organisation, he was a foundation member of the Hong Kong Society of Architects in 1956.

Bank of China, Yates Road, Shanghai Bank of China, Nanjing branch Bank of China, Qingdao branch Bank of China, Suzhou branch Villa for T. V. Soong, Red Cliff Village, Chongqing Sea Charm Residence, Repulse Bay, Hong Kong So Uk housing estate, Hong Kong South Sea Textile Limited Company Office, Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong Tonnochy Road Commercial Building, Hong Kong Repulse Bay Towers Luke Him Sau Architectural Collection