Whistling without the use of an artificial whistle is achieved by creating a small opening with ones lips and blowing or sucking air through the hole. Pucker whistling is the most common form in much Western music, the tongue tip is lowered, often placed behind the lower teeth, and pitch altered by varying the position of the tongue. In particular, the point at which the tongue body approximates the palate varies from near the uvula to near the alveolar ridge, pucker whistling can be done by either only blowing out or blowing in and out alternately. In the only blow out method, a consistent tone is achieved, many expert musical palatal whistlers will substantially alter the position of the lips to ensure a good quality tone. Venetian gondoliers are famous for moving the lips while they whistle in a way that can look like singing, a good example of a palatal whistler is Luke Janssen, winner of the 2009 world whistling competition. Finger whistling or wolf-whistling is harder to control but achieves a piercing volume, in Boitos opera Mefistofele the title character uses it to express his defiance of the Almighty.
Whistling can be produced by blowing air through enclosed, cupped hands or through an external instrument, one of the most well known whistling competitions is the International Whistlers Convention. Since 1973, this event takes place in Louisburg, North Carolina. The awards go to whistlers ranging from international male and female, teenage male and female, according to Guinness World Records, the highest pitch human whistle ever recorded was measured at 4,186 Hz, which corresponds to a C8 musical note. This was done by Michael Stuart in Richmond, Virginia, USA on January 11,2016, the lowest pitch whistle ever recorded was measured at 174.6 Hz, which corresponds to a F3 musical note. This was accomplished by Jennifer Davies of Dachau, Germany on November 6,2005, the most people whistling simultaneously was 853, which was organized at the Spring Harvest event at Minehead, UK on April 11,2014. On La Gomera, one of Spains Canary Islands, a whistled language named Silbo Gomero is still used. Six separate whistling sounds are used to two vowels and four consonants, allowing this language to convey more than 4000 words.
This language allowed people to communicate over distances in the island. It is now taught in school so that it is not lost among the younger generation, another group of whistlers were the Mazateco Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico. Their whistling aided in conveying messages over far distances, but was used in close quarters as a unique form of communication with a variety of tones. Whistling can be used to control trained animals such as dogs, a Shepherds whistle is often used instead. Whistling has long used as a specialized communication between laborers
It is a type of fipple flute, putting it in the same class as the recorder, Native American flute, and other woodwind instruments that meet such criteria. A tin whistle player is called a tin whistler or simply a whistler, the tin whistle is closely associated with Celtic music. The tin whistle in its form is from a wider family of fipple flutes which have been seen in many forms. In Europe such instruments have a long and distinguished history and take various forms, most widely known of these are the recorder, tin whistle, Flabiol and tabor pipe. Almost all primitive cultures had a type of flute and is most likely the first pitched flute type instrument in existence. A possible Neanderthal fipple flute from Slovenia dates from 81, 000-53,000 B. C. a German flute from 35,000 years ago, written sources that describe a fipple-type flute include the Roman and Greek aulos and tibia. In the early Middle Ages peoples of northern Europe were playing the instrument as seen in 3rd-century British bone flutes, and Irish Brehon Law describes flute like instrument.
The term flageolet is still preferred by modern tin whistle who feel this better describes the instrument, as this characterises a wide variety of fipple flutes. Down to 1900, they were marketed as Clarke London Flageolets or Clarke Flageolets. The whistles fingering system is similar to that of the six hole, simple system English flutes, the six hole, diatonic system is used on baroque flutes, and was of course well known before Robert Clarke began producing his tin whistles. Clarkes first whistle, the Meg, was pitched in high A and was made in other keys suitable for Victorian parlour music. The company showed the whistles in The Great Exhibition of 1851, the Clark tin whistle is voiced somewhat on an organ-pipe with a flattened tube forming the lip of the fipple mouthpiece and is usually made from rolled tin sheet or brass. Manufactured tin whistles became available no earlier than 1840, and were mass-produced, as the penny whistle was generally considered a toy it has been suggested that children or street musicians were paid a penny by those who heard them playing the whistle.
However, in reality the instrument was so called because it could be purchased for a penny, the name tin-whistle was coined as early as 1825. But neither the tin whistle nor the penny whistle name seems to have been common until the 20th century, the instrument became popular in several musical traditions namely, Scottish and American traditional music. Due to its affordability the tin whistle was a household instrument. In the second half of the 19th century, some manufacturers such as Barnett Samuel. These had a brass tube
A boatswains call, pipe or bosuns whistle is a pipe or a non-diaphragm type whistle used on naval ships by a boatswain. It is pronounced, and sometimes spelled, bosuns call, the pipe consists of a narrow tube which directs air over a metal sphere with a hole in the top. The player opens and closes the hand over the hole to change the pitch, historically the boatswains call was used to pass commands to the crew when the voice could not be heard over the sounds of the sea. Because of its pitch, it could be heard over the activities of the crew. It is now used in traditional bugle calls such as Evening Colors/Sunset and it is sometimes accompanied by other auditive features such as ruffles and flourishes, voice commands and announcements, or even a gun salute. It is the badge of the Quartermaster, Chief Boatswains Mate. Pipe aboard, Flag-rank officers or an important guest is boarding a Navy ship and this is part of a ceremony called manning the side which includes a party of sailors known as side boys.
It has its origins in the need to hoist visiting senior officers aboard using a chair when the weather was too rough for the use of ladders. The bosun would use his call to direct the side boys in the hoisting of the chair, the following are the commands that are passed with the help of a bosuns pipe. Haul, The most basic of calls, Crews of warships were not allowed to sing work songs or shanties, so the pipe coordinated the sailors. The low note was for the pause and preparatory, the high for pulling on the line, the Side or Away Galley, Descends from the tradition of hoisting officers aboard ship in a chair. It is a combination of haul, and a command to lower and this call remains in use as an honour given to officers when embarking or disembarking. Away Boats, Used to order a ships boats to leave the ships side, Call the Boatswains Mates, The boatswains gang to report. All Hands on Deck, Crews were split into three rotating watches that stood for two to four hours at a time and this call signals the entire crew to assemble on deck.
Word to be Passed, Command for silence, an order to follow, Pipe Down, Dismissal of all the crew not on watch. Ostensibly sailors would sweep up prior to departure in preparation for the following day, Pipe to any meal, Pipe All Hands, followed by long Heave Around, and long Pipe Down. Still, Used to call the crew to attention and this would be done, for example, when two warships meet, the still being piped as the junior ship salutes the senior ship, a less common alternative to the still being piped is a bugle call. Carry On, Used after the still, to dismiss the crew back to their duties, general Call, Piped before an announcement
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening, according to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a player, flutist or, less commonly. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments, as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found, a number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany. These flutes demonstrate that a musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. Flutes, including the famous Bansuri, have been a part of Indian classical music since 1500 BC. A major deity of Hinduism, has been associated with the flute, the English verb flout has the same linguistic root, and the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings.
Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare have been pronounced phonologically impossible or inadmissable, the first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucers The Hous of Fame, today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist, or flautist, or simply a flute player. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quote cited by the Oxford English Dictionary, flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy, like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Other English terms, now obsolete, are fluter and flutenist. The oldest flute ever discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a cave bear. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, the five-holed flute has a V-shaped mouthpiece and is made from a vulture wing bone.
The researchers involved in the officially published their findings in the journal Nature. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels, on announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe. Scientists have suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between Neanderthals and early modern human. A three-holed flute,18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk was discovered in 2004, the earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the Zhou Dynasty and it is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flutes side instead of the top
Baleen is a filter-feeder system inside the mouths of baleen whales. The baleen system works by opening its mouth underwater and taking in water. The whale pushes the water out, and animals such as krill are filtered by the baleen, Baleen is similar to bristles and is made of keratin, the same substance found in human fingernails and hair. Some whales, such as the whale, have longer baleen than others. Other whales, such as the whale, only use one side of their baleen. These baleen bristles are arranged in plates across the jaw of the whale. Baleen is often called whalebone, but that can refer to the normal bones of whales. Depending on the species, a plate can be 0.5 to 3.5 metres long. Its hairy fringes are called baleen hair or whalebone-hair and they are called baleen bristles, which in sei whales are highly calcified, calcification functioning to increase their stiffness. Baleen plates are broader at the gumline, the plates have been compared to sieves or Venetian blinds. The word baleen derives from the Latin bālaena, related to the Greek phalaina – both of which mean whale, the oldest true fossils of baleen are only 15 million years old, but baleen rarely fossilizes, and scientists believe it originated considerably earlier than that.
Baleen is believed to have evolved around thirty years ago, possibly from a hard, gummy upper jaw, like the one a Dalls porpoise has. The transition from teeth to baleen is proposed to have occurred stepwise and it is known that modern mysticetes have teeth initially and develop baleen plate germs in utero, but lose their dentition and have only baleen during their juvenile years and adulthood. However, developing mysticetes do not produce tooth enamel because at some point this trait evolved to become a pseudogene and this is likely to have occurred about 28 million years ago and proves that dentition is an ancestral state of mysticetes. Further research suggests that the baleen of Aetiocetus was arranged in bundles between widely spaced teeth, if true, this combination of baleen and dentition in Aetiocetus would act as a transition state between odontocetes and mysticetes. It would be unlikely for all of these changes to occur at once. Therefore, it is proposed that Oligocene aetiocetids possess both ancestral and descendent character states regarding feeding strategies and this makes them mosaic taxa, showing that either baleen evolved before dentition was lost or that the traits for filter feeding originally evolved for other functions.
It shows that the evolution could have occurred gradually because the state was originally maintained
The First Crusade arose after a call to arms in a 1095 sermon by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, the response to Urbans preaching by people of many different classes across Western Europe established the precedent for Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church. Some were hoping for apotheosis at Jerusalem, or forgiveness from God for all their sins, others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and honour, or find opportunities for economic and political gain. Many modern Historians have polarised opinions of the Crusaders behaviour under Papal sanction, to some it was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy and the Crusades, to the extent that on occasions that the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines.
During the Peoples Crusade thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres, Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance and literature, but the Crusades reinforced the connection between Western Christendom and militarism. Crusade is not a term, instead the terms iter for journey or peregrinatio for pilgrimage were used. Not until the word crucesignatus for one who was signed with the cross was adopted at the close of the century was specific terminology developed. The Middle English equivalents were derived from old French, croiserie in the 13th–15th centuries, croisade appeared in English c1575, and continued to be the leading form till c1760. By convention historians adopt the term for the Christian holy wars from 1095, the Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2.
Usage of the term Crusade may differ depending on the author, pluralists use the term Crusade of any campaign explicitly sanctioned by the reigning Pope. This reflects the view of the Roman Catholic Church that every military campaign given Papal sanction is equally valid as a Crusade, regardless of its cause, generalists see Crusades as any and all holy wars connected with the Latin Church and fought in defence of their faith. Popularists limit the Crusades to only those that were characterised by popular groundswells of religious fervour – that is, only the First Crusade, Medieval Muslim historiographers such as Ali ibn al-Athir refer to the Crusades as the Frankish Wars. The term used in modern Arabic, ḥamalāt ṣalībiyya حملات صليبية, campaigns of the cross, is a loan translation of the term Crusade as used in Western historiography. The Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, the resulting unified polity in the seventh and eighth centuries led to a rapid expansion of Arab power.
This influence stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, tolerance and political relationships between the Arabs and the Christian states of Europe waxed and waned
Fue is the Japanese word for flute, and refers to a class of flutes native to Japan. Fue come in varieties, but are generally high-pitched and made of a bamboo called shinobue. The most popular of the fue is the shakuhachi, fue are traditionally broken up into two basic categories – the transverse flute and the end-blown flute. Transverse flutes are held to the side, with the musician blowing across a hole near one end, end-blown flutes are held vertically, the earliest fue may have developed from pitch pipes called paixiao in Chinese. The gabachi instruments eventually made its way over to Japan from China in the fifth century, soon after the introduction of fue instruments, members of the Fuke sect of Zen Buddhism made normal use of the shakuhachi. These priests of nothingness viewed the instruments as spiritual tools, using them for suizen, modern fue performance may feature a soloist or involve either a chamber or large ensemble of the instruments. Japanese fue include many different varieties of Japanese flute, including the following
This Predynastic era is traditionally equivalent to the final part of the Neolithic period beginning c.6000 BC and corresponds to the Naqada III period. The Predynastic period is divided into cultural periods, each named after the place where a certain type of Egyptian settlement was first discovered. The Late Paleolithic in Egypt started around 30,000 BC, the Nazlet Khater skeleton was found in 1980 and dated in 1982 from nine samples ranging between 35,100 and 30,360 years. This specimen is the only complete human skeleton from the earliest Late Stone Age in Africa. Excavation of the Nile has exposed early stone tools, the earliest of these lithic industries were located within the 100-foot terrace, and were Chellean, primitive Acheulean and an Egyptian form of the Clactonian. Within the 50-foot terrace was developed Acheulean, originally reported as Early Mousterian but since changed to Levalloisean, other implements were located in the 30-foot terrace. The 15- and 10-foot terraces saw a more developed version of the Levalloisean, tools of the Egyptian Sebilian technology and an Egyptian version of the Aterian technology were located.
Some of the oldest known buildings were discovered in Egypt by archaeologist Waldemar Chmielewski along the border near Wadi Halfa. They were mobile structures—easily disassembled and reassembled—providing hunter-gatherers with semi-permanent habitation, Aterian tool-making reached Egypt c.40,000 BC. The Khormusan industry in Egypt began between 40,000 and 30,000 BC, khormusans developed advanced tools not only from stone but from animal bones and hematite. They developed small arrow heads resembling those of Native Americans, the end of the Khormusan industry came around 16,000 B. C. with the appearance of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian. The Halfan culture flourished along the Nile Valley of Egypt and Nubia between 18,000 and 15,000 BC, though one Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC, people survived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing. Greater concentrations of artifacts indicate that they were not bound to seasonal wandering and they are viewed as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry, which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.
The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on specialized hunting, the primary material remains of this culture are stone tools, and a multitude of rock paintings. Qadan peoples developed sickles and grinding stones to aid in the collecting and processing of plant foods prior to consumption. However, there are no indications of the use of these tools after around 10,000 BC, in Egypt, analyses of pollen found at archaeological sites indicate that the Sebilian culture were gathering wheat and barley. It has been hypothesized that the sedentary lifestyle used by farmers led to increased warfare, continued expansion of the desert forced the early ancestors of the Egyptians to settle around the Nile more permanently and adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. The period from 9000 to 6000 BC has left little in the way of archaeological evidence
A train whistle or air whistle is an audible signaling device on a steam locomotive used to warn that the train is approaching, and to communicate with rail workers. Modern locomotives primarily use an air horn instead of a whistle as an audible warning device. However, whistle continues to be used by railroaders in the context of audible signaling, the need for a whistle on a locomotive exists because trains move on fixed rails and thus are uniquely susceptible to collision. This susceptibility is exacerbated by an enormous weight and inertia. Hence a means of warning others of the approach of a train from a distance is necessary, as train whistles are inexpensive compared to other warning devices, the use of loud and distinct whistles became the preferred solution for railway operators. Steam whistles were almost always actuated with a cord that permitted proportional action. Many locomotive operators would have their own style of blowing the whistle, modern locomotives often make use of a push button switch to operate the air horn, eliminating any possibility of altering the horns volume or pitch. A local musical instrument builder was commissioned to provide a steam-powered whistle, the article describes a train collision with a cart, wherein the train used a horn blown by the driver.
Although nobody was injured, the accident was deemed enough to warrant George Stephenson’s personal intervention. Stephenson mounted the whistle on the top of the steam dome. The device was apparently about 18 inches high and had a trumpet shape with a 6-inch diameter at its top or mouth. The company went on to mount similar devices on its other locomotives, there is another account that sets the invention of the steam whistle against the actual opening of the line in 1832, rather than associating it with a specific incident. North American steam locomotive whistles have different sounds from one another and they come in many forms, from tiny little single-note shriekers to larger plain whistles with deeper tones. Even more well known were the multi-chime train whistles, Nathan of New York copied and improved Casey Joness boiler-tube chime whistle by casting the six chambers into a single bell, with open steps on top to save on casting. This whistle is considered the king of train whistles. It is the most copied train whistle in the United States, another very popular American train whistle was, again, a Nathan product.
This was a whistle, with a much shorter bell. This whistle produced a bright G-major 6th chord and, was heavily imitated, the most popular American chime train whistle was the three-note version