Matthew Boulton was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt. In the final quarter of the 18th century, the partnership installed hundreds of Boulton & Watt steam engines, which were a great advance on the state of the art, making possible the mechanisation of factories and mills. Boulton applied modern techniques to the minting of coins, striking millions of pieces for Britain and other countries, supplying the Royal Mint with up-to-date equipment. Born in Birmingham, he was the son of a Birmingham manufacturer of small metal products who died when Boulton was 31. By Boulton had managed the business for several years, thereafter expanded it consolidating operations at the Soho Manufactory, built by him near Birmingham. At Soho, he adopted the latest techniques, branching into silver plate and other decorative arts, he became associated with James Watt when Watt's business partner, John Roebuck, was unable to pay a debt to Boulton, who accepted Roebuck's share of Watt's patent as settlement.
He successfully lobbied Parliament to extend Watt's patent for an additional 17 years, enabling the firm to market Watt's steam engine. The firm installed hundreds of Boulton & Watt steam engines in Britain and abroad in mines and in factories. Boulton was a key member of the Lunar Society, a group of Birmingham-area men prominent in the arts and theology. Members included Erasmus Darwin, Josiah Wedgwood and Joseph Priestley; the Society met each month near the full moon. Members of the Society have been given credit for developing concepts and techniques in science, manufacturing and transport that laid the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution. Boulton founded the Soho Mint, he sought to improve the poor state of Britain's coinage, after several years of effort obtained a contract in 1797 to produce the first British copper coinage in a quarter century. His "cartwheel" pieces were well-designed and difficult to counterfeit, included the first striking of the large copper British penny, which continued to be coined until decimalisation in 1971.
He retired in 1800, though continuing to run his mint, died in 1809. His image appears alongside his partner James Watt on the Bank of England's current Series F £50 note. Birmingham had long been a centre of the ironworking industry. In the early 18th century the town entered a period of expansion as iron working became easier and cheaper with the transition from charcoal to coke as a means of smelting iron. Scarcity of wood in deforested England and discoveries of large quantities of coal in Birmingham's county of Warwickshire and the adjacent county of Staffordshire speeded the transition. Much of the iron was forged in small foundries near Birmingham in the Black Country, including nearby towns such as Smethwick and West Bromwich; the resultant thin iron sheets were transported to factories around Birmingham. With the town far from the sea and great rivers and with canals not yet built, metalworkers concentrated on producing small valuable pieces buttons and buckles. Frenchman Alexander Missen wrote that while he had seen excellent cane heads, snuff boxes and other metal objects in Milan, "the same can be had cheaper and better in Birmingham".
These small objects came to be known as "toys", their manufacturers as "toymakers". Boulton was a descendant of families from around Lichfield, his great-great-great-great grandfather, Rev. Zachary Babington, having been Chancellor of Lichfield. Boulton's father named Matthew and born in 1700, moved to Birmingham from Lichfield to serve an apprenticeship, in 1723 he married Christiana Piers; the elder Boulton was a toymaker with a small workshop specialising in buckles. Matthew Boulton was born in 1728, their third child and the second of that name, the first Matthew having died at the age of two in 1726; the elder Boulton's business prospered after young Matthew's birth, the family moved to the Snow Hill area of Birmingham a well-to-do neighbourhood of new houses. As the local grammar school was in disrepair Boulton was sent to an academy in Deritend, on the other side of Birmingham. At the age of 15 he left school, by 17 he had invented a technique for inlaying enamels in buckles that proved so popular that the buckles were exported to France reimported to Britain and billed as the latest French developments.
On 3 March 1749 Boulton married Mary Robinson, a distant cousin and the daughter of a successful mercer, wealthy in her own right. They lived with the bride's mother in Lichfield, moved to Birmingham, where the elder Matthew Boulton made his son a partner at the age of 21. Though the son signed business letters "from father and self", by the mid-1750s he was running the business; the elder Boulton retired in 1757 and died in 1759. The Boultons had three daughters in the early 1750s. Mary Boulton's health deteriorated, she died in August 1759. Not long after her death Boulton began to woo her sister Anne. Marriage with a deceased wife's sister was forbidden by ecclesiastical law, though permitted by common law. Nonetheless, they married on 25 June 1760 at Rotherhithe. Eric Delieb, who wrote a book on Boulton's silver, with a biographical sketch, suggests that the marriage celebrant, Rev. James Penfold, an impoverished curate, was bribed. Boulton advised another man, seeking to wed his late wife's sister: "I advise you to say nothing of your intentions but to go and snugly to Scotland or some obscure corner of London, suppose Wapping, there take lod
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the US, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system; the Industrial Revolution led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company.
The development of trade and the rise of business were major causes of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth; some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries. GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. Although the structural change from agriculture to industry is associated with the Industrial Revolution, in the United Kingdom it was almost complete by 1760.
The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. Eric Hobsbawm held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred between 1760 and 1830. Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and textiles in France. An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the original innovations of the Industrial Revolution, such as mechanized spinning and weaving and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth.
Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. These new innovations included new steel making processes, mass-production, assembly lines, electrical grid systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of advanced machinery in steam-powered factories; the earliest recorded use of the term "Industrial Revolution" seems to have been in a letter from 6 July 1799 written by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, announcing that France had entered the race to industrialise. In his 1976 book Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for "Industry": "The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century." The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was becoming more common by the late 1830s, as in Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui's description in 1837 of la révolution industrielle.
Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society". However, although Engels wrote in the 1840s, his book was not translated into English until the late 1800s, his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose 1881 lectures gave a detailed account of the term; some historians, such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts, have argued that the economic and social changes occurred and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among some historians; the commencement of the Industrial Revolution is linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around 500.
The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40. The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50. Large gains in productivity occurred in spinning and weaving of w
Watt steam engine
The Watt steam engine, alternatively known as the Boulton and Watt steam engine, was the first practical steam engine and was one of the driving forces of the industrial revolution. James Watt developed the design sporadically from 1763 to 1775 with support from Matthew Boulton. Watt's design saved more fuel compared to earlier designs that they were licensed based on the amount of fuel they would save. Watt never ceased developing the steam engine, introducing double-acting designs and various systems for taking off rotary power. Watt's design became synonymous with steam engines, it was many years before new designs began to replace the basic Watt design; the first steam engines, introduced by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, were of the "atmospheric" design. Steam was introduced into a cylinder, cooled by a spray of water; this caused the steam to condense. Atmospheric pressure on the top pushed the piston down. Watt noticed that the water spray cooled the cylinder itself, it required significant amounts of heat to warm it back up to the point where steam could enter the cylinder without condensing again.
Watt addressed this by adding a separate water-filled cylinder, opened once the main cylinder was filled. The steam entered the secondary cylinder and condensed, drawing remaining steam from the main cylinder to continue the process; the end result was the same cycle as Newcomen's design, but without any cooling of the main cylinder, ready for another stroke. Watt worked on the design over a period of several years, introducing the condenser and improvements to every part of the design, notably a lengthy series of trials on ways to seal the piston in the cylinder. All of these changes produced a more reliable design which used half as much coal to produce the same amount of power; the new design was introduced commercially in 1776, with the first example sold to the Carron Company ironworks. Watt continued working to improve the engine, in 1781 introduced a system using a sun and planet gear to turn the linear motion of the engines into rotary motion; this made it useful not only in the original pumping role, but as a direct replacement in roles where a water wheel would have been used previously.
This was a key moment in the industrial revolution, since power sources could now be located anywhere instead of, as needing a suitable water source and topography. Boulton began developing a multitude of machines that made use of this rotary power, developing the first modern industrialized factory, the Soho Foundry, which in turn produced new steam engine designs. Watt's early engines were like the original Newcomen designs in that they used low-pressure steam and most of the action was caused by atmospheric pressure, due to safety concerns. Looking to improve on their performance, Watt began considering the use of higher-pressure steam, as well as designs using multiple cylinders in both the double-acting concept and the multiple-expansion concept; these double-acting engines required the invention of the parallel motion, which allowed the piston rods of the individual cylinders to move in straight lines, keeping the piston true in the cylinder, while the walking beam end moved through an arc, somewhat analogous to a crosshead in steam engines.
In 1698, the English mechanical designer Thomas Savery invented a pumping appliance that used steam to draw water directly from a well by means of a vacuum created by condensing steam. The appliance was proposed for draining mines, but it could only draw fluid up 25 feet, meaning it had to be located within this distance of the mine floor being drained; as mines became deeper, this was impractical. It consumed a large amount of fuel compared with engines; the solution to draining deep mines was found by Thomas Newcomen who developed an "atmospheric" engine that worked on the vacuum principle. It employed a cylinder containing a movable piston connected by a chain to one end of a rocking beam that worked a mechanical lift pump from its opposite end. At the bottom of each stroke, steam was allowed to enter the cylinder below the piston; as the piston rose within the cylinder, drawn upward by a counterbalance, it drew in steam at atmospheric pressure. At the top of the stroke the steam valve was closed, cold water was injected into the cylinder as a means of cooling the steam.
This water created a partial vacuum below the piston. The atmospheric pressure outside the engine was greater than the pressure within the cylinder, thereby pushing the piston into the cylinder; the piston, attached to a chain and in turn attached to one end of the "rocking beam", pulled down the end of the beam, lifting the opposite end of the beam. Hence, the pump deep in the mine attached to opposite end of the beam via ropes and chains was driven; the pump pushed, rather than pulled the column of water upward, hence it could lift water any distance. Once the piston was at the bottom, the cycle repeated; the Newcomen engine was more powerful than the Savery engine. For the first time water could be raised from a depth of over 150 feet; the first example from 1712 was able to replace a team of 500 horses, used to pump out the mine. Seventy-five Newcomen pumping engines were installed at mines in Britain, Holland and Russia. In the next fifty years only a few small changes were made to the engine design.
It was a great advancement. While Newcomen engines brought practical benefits, they were inefficient in terms of the use of energy to power them; the system of alternately sending jets of steam cold water into the cylinder meant that the walls of the cylinder were alte
Bank of England note issues
The Bank of England, now the central bank of the United Kingdom, has issued banknotes since 1694. In 1921 The Bank of England gained a legal monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, a process that started with the Bank Charter Act of 1844 when the ability of other banks to issue notes was restricted. Banknotes were hand-written. Notes were printed from 1855. Since 1970, the Bank of England's notes have featured portraits of British historical figures. Of the eight banks authorised to issue banknotes in the UK, only the Bank of England can issue banknotes in England and Wales, where its notes are legal tender. Bank of England notes are not legal tender in Scotland and Northern Ireland, but are accepted there along with the respective countries' national banknotes. There are four different denominations of notes – £5, £10, £20 and £50; each value has its own distinct colour scheme and the size of each note increases in length and width as the value increases. These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre.
For table standards, see the banknote specification table. Source: Bank of England website All current Bank of England banknotes are printed by contract with De La Rue at Debden, Essex, they include the printed signature of the Chief Cashier of the Bank of England and depict Elizabeth II in full view, facing left. On the left hand side of the £20 and £50 notes there is a hidden watermark, featuring the Queen facing right; the £5 and £10 polymer notes do not contain a watermark. More recent issues include the EURion constellation; this is a pattern of yellow circles. They are identified by photocopiers. Elizabeth II has appeared on all the notes issued since Series C in 1960; the custom of depicting historical figures on the reverse began in 1970 with Series D, designed by the bank's first permanent artist, Harry Eccleston. In 2015, the Bank of England launched a public competition to nominate historic personalities with links to the visual arts for a future redesign of the £20 banknote; the Governor of the Bank of England asked the public to "think beyond the obvious" when nominating suggestions, with over 29,700 nominations made.
In September 2015 the Bank of England announced that the next £20 note will be printed on polymer, rather than cotton paper. This was followed by an announcement in April 2016 that Adam Smith will be replaced by artist J. M. W. Turner on the next £20 note which will enter circulation in 2020. Images on the reverse of the new note will include a 1799 self-portrait of Turner, a representation of his painting The Fighting Temeraire, the quotation "Light is therefore colour" from an 1818 lecture by him, a copy of Turner's signature as made on his will. On 13 October 2018, the Bank of England announced that the next £50 note will be printed on polymer, rather than cotton paper. Members of the public have been invited to nominate a scientist to feature on it; the Bank of England has not always had a monopoly of note issue in Wales. Until the middle of the 19th century, private banks in Great Britain and Ireland were free to issue their own banknotes, notes issued by provincial banking companies were in circulation.
Over the years, various Acts of Parliament were introduced by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to increase confidence in banknotes in circulation by limiting the rights of banks to issue notes. The Bank of England gained a monopoly of note issue in England and Wales. Attempts to restrict banknote issue by banks other than the Bank of England began in 1708 and 1709, when Acts of Parliament were passed which prohibited banking companies of more than six partners or shareholders. Notes under 1 guinea & 5 guineas were prohibited in the 1770s and thereafter all the provincial banks were established by the more substantial merchants, landed gentry etc of a town and district. Gold shortages in the 18th century, caused by the Seven Years' War and war with Revolutionary France, began to affect the supply of gold bullion reserves, giving rise to the "Restriction Period"; the result was that the Bank was unable to pay out gold for its notes, at the same time began to issue lower denominations £1 and £2 notes in place of gold guineas, that were hoarded as so was the case in time of war.
Confidence in the value of banknotes was affected, except during 1809–11 and 1814–15 under the extreme conditions of war. The Country Bankers’ Act 1826 allowed some joint-stock banks outside London to issue notes, allowed the Bank of England to open branches in major provincial cities, enabling better distribution of its notes. With the passing of the Bank Notes Act 1833, Bank of England notes over £5 in value were first given the status of "legal tender" in England and Wales guaranteeing the worth of the Bank's notes and ensuring public confidence in the notes in times of crisis or war; the Currency and Bank Notes Act 1954 extended the definition of legal tender to ten shilling and £1 notes. The Bank of England ten-shilling note was withdrawn in 1969 and the £1 was removed from circulation in 1988, leaving a legal curiosity in Scots law whereby there is now no paper legal tender in Scotland; the Bank Charter Act 1844 began the process which gave the Bank of England exclusive note-issuing powers.
Under the Act, no new banks could start issuing notes, note-issuing banks in England and Wales were barred from expanding their no
Samuel Whitbread (1720–1796)
Samuel Whitbread was an English brewer and Member of Parliament. In 1742, he established a brewery that in 1799 became Whitbread & Co Ltd. Samuel Whitbread was born at Cardington in Bedfordshire, the seventh of eight children, he became an apprentice to a London brewer, John Witman. Whitbread became rich and bought Lord Torrington's Southill Park, Elstow Manor, other substantial property; when he died on 11 June 1796, The Gentleman's Magazine speculated that he was "worth over a million pounds". Whitbread went into partnership with Thomas Shewell in 1742, investing £2,600 in two of Shewell's small breweries, the Goat Brewhouse and a brewery in Brick Lane. Demand for the strong, black porter meant the business had to move to larger premises in Chiswell Street in 1750. Starting over, Whitbread invested in all the latest technology to industrialize production, storing the beer in large vats; the brewery was one of the first to employ a steam engine. By 1760, it had become the second largest brewery in London.
Five years Whitbread bought out Shewell for £30,000. By the end of the century, Whitbread's business was London's biggest producer of beer, producing 202,000 barrels in 1796. In May 1787 the brewery was visited by King George Queen Charlotte. Whitbread was appointed High Sheriff of Hertfordshire for 1767–68 and elected Member of Parliament for Bedford in 1768, held the seat until 1790, represented Steyning from 1792 to 1796, he was an early supporter for the abolition of slavery, took part in some of the anti-slavery debates of 1788 in the House of Commons. Whitbread married firstly Harriet Hayton, by whom he had two daughters, one of whom, Emma Maria Elizabeth Whitbread, married Henry St John, 13th Baron St John of Bletso, one son, the politician, Samuel Whitbread; the other daughter, married James Gordon MP. He married secondly Lady Mary Cornwallis, by whom he had one daughter, Mary Whitbread, who married Sir George Grey, 1st Baronet, 3rd son of Charles Grey, Lord Howick
A pump is a device that moves fluids, or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism, consume energy to perform mechanical work moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps. Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers. In the medical industry, pumps are used for biochemical processes in developing and manufacturing medicine, as artificial replacements for body parts, in particular the artificial heart and penile prosthesis; when a casing contains only one revolving impeller, it is called a single-stage pump.
When a casing contains two or more revolving impellers, it is called a double- or multi-stage pump. In biology, many different types of chemical and biomechanical pumps have evolved. Mechanical pumps may be placed external to the fluid. Pumps can be classified by their method of displacement into positive displacement pumps, impulse pumps, velocity pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps and valveless pumps. There are two basic types of pumps: centrifugal. Although axial-flow pumps are classified as a separate type, they have the same operating principles as centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing that trapped volume into the discharge pipe; some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses; the volume is constant through each cycle of operation.
Positive displacement pumps, unlike centrifugal or roto-dynamic pumps, theoretically can produce the same flow at a given speed no matter what the discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant flow machines. However, a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases prevents a constant flow rate. A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump, because it has no shutoff head like centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve continues to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line increases until the line bursts, the pump is damaged, or both. A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary; the relief valve can be external. The pump manufacturer has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves; the internal valve is used only as a safety precaution. An external relief valve in the discharge line, with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank provides increased safety.
A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to the mechanism used to move the fluid: Rotary-type positive displacement: internal gear, shuttle block, flexible vane or sliding vane, circumferential piston, flexible impeller, helical twisted roots or liquid-ring pumps Reciprocating-type positive displacement: piston pumps, plunger pumps or diaphragm pumps Linear-type positive displacement: rope pumps and chain pumps These pumps move fluid using a rotating mechanism that creates a vacuum that captures and draws in the liquid. Advantages: Rotary pumps are efficient because they can handle viscous fluids with higher flow rates as viscosity increases. Drawbacks: The nature of the pump requires close clearances between the rotating pump and the outer edge, making it rotate at a slow, steady speed. If rotary pumps are operated at high speeds, the fluids cause erosion, which causes enlarged clearances that liquid can pass through, which reduces efficiency. Rotary positive displacement pumps fall into three main types: Gear pumps – a simple type of rotary pump where the liquid is pushed between two gears Screw pumps – the shape of the internals of this pump is two screws turning against each other to pump the liquid Rotary vane pumps – similar to scroll compressors, these have a cylindrical rotor encased in a shaped housing.
As the rotor orbits, the vanes trap fluid between the rotor and the casing, drawing the fluid through the pump. Reciprocating pumps move the fluid using one or more oscillating pistons, plungers, or membranes, while valves restrict fluid motion to the desired direction. In order for suction to take place, the pump must first pull the plunger in an outward motion to decrease pressure in the chamber. Once the plunger pushes back, it will increase the pressure chamber and the inward pressure of the plunger will open the discharge valve and release the fluid into the delivery pipe at a high velocity. Pumps in this category range from simplex, with one cylinder, to in some cases quad cylinders, or more. Many reciprocating-type pumps are triplex cylinder, they can be either single-acting with suction during one direction of piston motion and discharge on the other, or double-acting with suction and discharge in both directions. The pumps can be powered manually, by air or steam
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear