White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Ange
Paul R. Pillar is an academic and 28-year veteran of the Central Intelligence Agency, serving from 1977 to 2005, he is now a non-resident senior fellow at Georgetown University's Center for Security Studies, as well as a nonresident senior fellow in the Brookings Institution's Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence. He was a visiting professor at Georgetown University from 2005 to 2012, he is a contributor to The National Interest. Pillar earned an A. B. degree from Dartmouth College, received the B. Phil from Oxford University and an M. A. and Ph. D. from Princeton University. Prior to joining the CIA in 1977, Pillar served as a U. S. Army Reserves officer in Vietnam, on active duty from 1971 to 1973. At the CIA, Pillar served in a variety of positions, including Executive Assistant to Director of Central Intelligence William H. Webster, he became chief of analysis at the Agency's Counterterrorist Center in 1993. By 1997 he was the Center's deputy director, but in summer 1999 he suffered a clash of styles with Cofer Black.
Soon after, Pillar left the Center. His 1990 and early 1991 experience were described in a 2006 interview, in which he spoke of the CIA role in assessing Iraq in preparation for the 1991 war. At that time, according to Pillar, the intelligence community judged that Iraq had active programs for development of weapons of mass destruction. "One of the revelations after the invasion and after the inspections began in Iraq was that some of those programs had gone farther than had been believed. The intelligence community had undershot, if you will, in its assessment of just how far along on the nuclear program, the Iraqis had been". Pillar notes, "I did not receive any requests from a policy-maker on Iraq until about a year into the war... policymakers decided "My goodness, this shows us how much we might not know." And as people like the vice president and others reminded in the lead-up to the Operation Iraqi Freedom, "We don't know what we don't know." "He was a Federal Executive Fellow at the Brookings Institution from 1999-2000.
From 2000 to 2005, Pillar worked at the National Intelligence Council as the national intelligence officer for the Near East and South Asia, "responsible for production and coordination throughout the U. S. Intelligence Community of National Intelligence Estimates and other Community assessments". After December 2004, the National Intelligence Council, to which national intelligence officers report, moved from the CIA to the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Paul Pillar, National Intelligence Officer for the Middle East between 2000 and 2005, wrote, in Foreign Affairs, "Intelligence affects the nation's interests through its effect on policy. No matter how much the process of intelligence gathering itself is fixed, the changes will do no good if the role of intelligence in the policymaking process is not addressed... But a few steps, based on the recognition that the intelligence-policy relationship is indeed broken, could reduce the likelihood that such a breakdown will recur."
He emphasized the need for "a clear delineation between intelligence and policy", suggesting that the United Kingdom sets an example "where discussion of this issue has been more forthright, by declaring once and for all that its intelligence services should not be part of public advocacy of policies still under debate. In the UK, Prime Minister Tony Blair accepted a commission of inquiry's conclusions that intelligence and policy had been improperly commingled in such exercises as the publication of the "dodgy dossier", the British counterpart to the United States' Iraqi WMD white paper"; the National Intelligence Council, its National Intelligence Officers, act as an intelligence "think tank", consult with experts outside government. Pillar has been criticized for leaking the NIC's advice to President George W. Bush in the course of such consultations. Pillar suggested that an American equivalent of the issues "should take the form of a congressional resolution and be seconded by a statement from the White House.
Although it would not have legal force, such a statement would discourage future administrations from attempting to pull the intelligence community into policy advocacy. It would give some leverage to intelligence officers in resisting any such future attempts." Pillar criticized Congress both for not using the intelligence made available to it, as well as not asking questions about information not provided to them. The proper relationship between intelligence gathering and policymaking separates the two functions.... Congress, not the administration, asked for the now-infamous October 2002 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq's unconventional weapons programs, although few members of Congress read it; as the national intelligence officer for the Middle East, I was in charge of coordinating all of the intelligence community's assessments regarding Iraq. While there is a CIA "politicization ombudsman", Pillar described the function as informally defined, listening to internal concern about politicization, summarizing this for senior CIA officials.
While he believes the intelligence oversight committees should have an important role, "the heightened partisanship that has bedeviled so much other work on Capitol Hill has had an inhibiting effect in this area". In the Foreign Affai
Craig Harbour is an abandoned settlement in Qikiqtaaluk, Canada. It is located on Ellesmere Island, on the north shore of Jones Sound, 55 km southeast of Grise Fiord. In 1922, a Royal Canadian Mounted Police detachment was established at Craig Harbour, named in honour of Dr. John D. Craig, expedition commander; the site was selected as Smith Island protected the harbour from moving pack ice, the nearby mouth of Jones Sound made the harbour's navigation accessible. The outpost was closed in the 1930s, re-opened in 1951 at the start of the Cold War. List of communities in Nunavut