The study of networks has emerged in diverse disciplines as a means of analyzing complex relational data. The earliest known paper in this field is the famous Seven Bridges of Königsberg written by Leonhard Euler in 1736, eulers mathematical description of vertices and edges was the foundation of graph theory, a branch of mathematics that studies the properties of pairwise relations in a network structure. The field of graph theory continued to develop and found applications in chemistry, in the 1930s Jacob Moreno, a psychologist in the Gestalt tradition, arrived in the United States. He developed the sociogram and presented it to the public in April 1933 at a convention of medical scholars, Moreno claimed that before the advent of sociometry no one knew what the interpersonal structure of a group precisely looked like. The sociogram was a representation of the structure of a group of elementary school students. The boys were friends of boys and the girls were friends of girls with the exception of one boy who said he liked a single girl and this network representation of social structure was found so intriguing that it was printed in The New York Times.
The sociogram has found many applications and has grown into the field of network analysis. Probabilistic theory in network science developed as an offshoot of graph theory with Paul Erdős, for social networks the exponential random graph model or p* is a notational framework used to represent the probability space of a tie occurring in a social network. In 1998, David Krackhardt and Kathleen Carley introduced the idea of a meta-network with the PCANS Model and they suggest that all organizations are structured along these three domains, Individuals and Resources. Their paper introduced the concept that networks occur across multiple domains and this field has grown into another sub-discipline of network science called dynamic network analysis. More recently other network science efforts have focused on mathematically describing different network topologies, duncan Watts reconciled empirical data on networks with mathematical representation, describing the small-world network. Although many networks, such as the internet, appear to maintain this aspect, the U. S. military first became interested in network-centric warfare as an operational concept based on network science in 1996.
As a result, the BAST issued the NRC study in 2005 titled Network Science that defined a new field of research in Network Science for the Army. Under the tutelage of Dr. Moxley and the faculty of the USMA, in order to better instill the tenets of network science among its cadre of future leaders, the USMA has instituted a five-course undergraduate minor in Network Science. In 2006, the U. S. S. and UK, the goal of the alliance is to perform basic research in support of Network- Centric Operations across the needs of both nations. Often, networks have certain attributes that can be calculated to analyze the properties & characteristics of the network and these network properties often define network models and can be used to analyze how certain models contrast to each other. Many of the definitions for terms used in network science can be found in Glossary of graph theory. The density D of a network is defined as a ratio of the number of edges E to the number of edges, given by the binomial coefficient
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in 1494, practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms accounting and financial reporting are often used as synonyms, Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting, management accounting, external auditing, and tax accounting. Accounting information systems are designed to support accounting functions and related activities, Accounting is facilitated by accounting organizations such as standard-setters, accounting firms and professional bodies. Financial statements are audited by accounting firms, and are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. GAAP is set by various standard-setting organizations such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board in the United States, as of 2012, all major economies have plans to converge towards or adopt the International Financial Reporting Standards.
The history of accounting is thousands of old and can be traced to ancient civilizations. By the time of the Emperor Augustus, the Roman government had access to detailed financial information, double-entry bookkeeping developed in medieval Europe, and accounting split into financial accounting and management accounting with the development of joint-stock companies. The first work on a double-entry bookkeeping system was published in Italy, both the words accounting and accountancy were in use in Great Britain by the mid-1800s, and are derived from the words accompting and accountantship used in the 18th century. In Middle English the verb to account had the form accounten, which was derived from the Old French word aconter, which is in turn related to the Vulgar Latin word computare, meaning to reckon. The base of computare is putare, which meant to prune, to purify, to correct an account, hence, to count or calculate. The word accountant is derived from the French word compter, which is derived from the Italian.
Accountancy refers to the occupation or profession of an accountant, particularly in British English, Accounting has several subfields or subject areas, including financial accounting, management accounting, auditing and accounting information systems. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of a financial information to external users of the information, such as investors. It calculates and records business transactions and prepares financial statements for the users in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. GAAP, in turn, arises from the agreement between accounting theory and practice, and change over time to meet the needs of decision-makers. This branch of accounting is studied as part of the exams for qualifying as an actuary. It is interesting to note that two professionals and actuaries, have created a culture of being archrivals
A sale is the exchange of a commodity or money as the price of a good or a service. Sales is activity related to selling or the amount of goods or services sold in a time period. The seller or the provider of the goods or services completes a sale in response to an acquisition, requisition or an interaction with the buyer at the point of sale. There is a passing of title of the item, and the settlement of a price, the seller, not the purchaser generally executes the sale and it may be completed prior to the obligation of payment. In common law countries, sales are governed generally by the common law, a person or organization expressing an interest in acquiring the offered item of value is referred to as a potential buyer, prospective customer or prospect. Buying and selling are understood to be two sides of the coin or transaction. Both seller and buyer engage in a process of negotiation to consummate the exchange of values, the exchange, or selling, process has implied rules and identifiable stages.
It is implied that the process will proceed fairly and ethically so that the parties end up nearly equally rewarded. Sometimes, sellers have to use their own experiences when selling products with appropriate discounts, from a management viewpoint it is thought of as a part of marketing, although the skills required are different. Sales often forms a separate grouping in a structure, employing separate specialist operatives known as salespersons. Selling is considered by many to be a sort of persuading art, selling is the profession-wide term, much like marketing defines a profession. Recently, attempts have been made to understand who is in the sales profession. There are many articles looking at marketing, promotions, two common terms used to describe a salesperson are Farmer and Hunter. The reality is that most professional sales people have a little of both, a hunter is often associated with aggressive personalities who use aggressive sales technique. In terms of sales methodology a hunter refers to a person whose focus is on bringing in and this process is called sales capturing.
An example is a commodity such as a long distance sales person, shoe sales person. Their job is to find and convert buyers, a sales farmer is someone who creates sales demand by activities that directly influence and alter the buying process. Many believe that the focus of selling is on the agents involved in the exchange between buyer and seller
Mudsill theory is a sociological term indicating the proposition that there must be, and always has been, a lower class for the upper classes to rest upon. The term derives from a mudsill, the lowest threshold that supports the foundation for a building, efforts to reduce class or racial inequality, under this theory, inevitably run counter to civilization itself. Many saw the argument as a justification for exploitation. It was directly used to advocate slavery in the rhetoric of others pre-Civil War Democrats, abraham Lincoln argued forcefully against the mudsill theory, particularly in a speech in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1859, where he delineated its incompatibility with Free Soil. In his view, mudsill advocates conclude that all laborers are necessarily either hired laborers, or slaves, since to them, nobody labors unless somebody else, mudsillers believed that these laborers were fatally fixed in their status. Northern soldiers fighting in the Western Theater of the Civil War turned this derogatory term into one of self pride, as in Western Mudsill
Knowledge workers are workers whose main capital is knowledge. Examples include software engineers, pharmacists, engineers, public accountants, Knowledge work can be differentiated from other forms of work by its emphasis on non-routine problem solving that requires a combination of convergent and creative thinking. But despite the amount of research and literature on knowledge work, mosco and McKercher outline various viewpoints on the matter. It should thus be acknowledged that the knowledge worker can be quite broad in its meaning. Knowledge workers spend 38% of their time searching for information and they are often displaced from their bosses, working in various departments and time zones or from remote sites such as home offices and airport lounges. As businesses increase their dependence on technology, the number of fields in which knowledge workers must operate has expanded dramatically. Managing knowledge workers can be a difficult task, most knowledge workers prefer some level of autonomy, and do not like being overseen or managed.
Those who manage knowledge workers are often knowledge workers themselves, or have been in the past, projects must be carefully considered before assigning to a knowledge worker, as their interest and goals will affect the quality of the completed project. Knowledge workers must be treated as individuals, the manner in which each of the creative applications is applied is dependent on the role of the creative workers. This type of work includes a combination of skill sets or ‘creative knowledge work capacities. Other sector-related creative applications include a connection in the advertising sector. Creative workers require abilities and aptitudes, linking these abilities and capacities are collaborative ways of working, which the findings from this study have identified. The two modes of working ranged from individual to collaborative where a worker might be doing either or both depending on the specific activity, the abilities to traverse between these two work modes alongside the relevant creative application are part of the complexity of this style of working.
Creative workers require an understanding of forms of knowledge. These are related to such as those from the humanities. Creative knowledge workers require technical-related knowledge such as mathematics and computer sciences, in the IT software sector, technical knowledge of software languages is especially significant for programmers as ascertained in the findings. The technical know-how for a creative director relates only to the understanding of the possibilities of technologies in order to capitalise on the technical wizardry, the technical specialists are required to execute the creative directors vision. As ascertained in the findings, there was other non-disciplinary knowledge, interviewees mentioned tacit experiences from their past work and life experiences, which they used to draw upon in performing their creative knowledge work
An architect is someone who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. The terms architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture. In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms architect, throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the gentleman architect. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600.
The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals, until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only qualified people with appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant body, such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. To practice architecture implies the ability to independently of supervision. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses, in the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. However, design is the force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client, the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them.
The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building, throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, the architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client to ascertain all the requirements, often the full brief is not entirely clear at the beginning, entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make proposals to the client which may rework the terms of the brief
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships. Marketing is used to create the customer, to keep the customer, with the customer as the focus of its activities, it can be concluded that Marketing is one of the premier components of Business Management - the other being Innovation. Other services and management activities such as Operations, Human Resources, Law, the term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to a market to buy or sell goods or services. The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as the management process responsible for identifying and satisfying customer requirements profitably, a similar concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value. Marketing practice tended to be seen as an industry in the past. The overall process starts with marketing research and goes through market segmentation, business planning and execution, ending with pre and it is related to many of the creative arts.
The marketing literature is adept at re-inventing itself and its vocabulary according to the times, the term marketing concept pertains to the fundamental premise of modern marketing. This concept proposes that in order to satisfy its organizational objectives and marketing concepts are directly related. An orientation, in the context, relates to a perception or attitude a firm holds towards its product or service. There exist several common orientations, A firm employing a product orientation is chiefly concerned with the quality of its own product, a firm would assume that as long as its product was of a high standard, people would buy and consume the product. A firm using a sales orientation focuses primarily on the selling/promotion of a particular product, this entails simply selling an already existing product, and using promotion techniques to attain the highest sales possible. Such an orientation may suit scenarios in which a firm holds dead stock, or otherwise sells a product that is in high demand, a firm focusing on a production orientation specializes in producing as much as possible of a given product or service.
Thus, this signifies a firm exploiting economies of scale, until the minimum efficient scale is reached, a production orientation may be deployed when a high demand for a product or service exists, coupled with a good certainty that consumer tastes do not rapidly alter. The marketing orientation is perhaps the most common used in contemporary marketing. It involves a firm essentially basing its marketing plans around the marketing concept, the marketing orientation often has three prime facets, which are, A firm in the market economy can survive by producing goods that persons are willing and able to buy. Consequently, ascertaining consumer demand is vital for a firms future viability, in this sense, a firms marketing department is often seen as of prime importance within the functional level of an organization. Information from a marketing department would be used to guide the actions of other departments within the firm. As an example, a department could ascertain that consumers desired a new type of product
The term Engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning cleverness and ingeniare, meaning to contrive, devise. Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the wedge, wheel, each of these inventions is essentially consistent with the modern definition of engineering. The term engineering is derived from the engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engineer originally referred to a constructor of military engines. In this context, now obsolete, a referred to a military machine. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, the word engine itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep, as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC.
Ancient Greece developed machines in both civilian and military domains, the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed, the first steam engine was built in 1698 by Thomas Savery. The development of this gave rise to the Industrial Revolution in the coming decades. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. The inventions of Thomas Newcomen and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to mechanical engineering. The development of specialized machines and machine tools during the revolution led to the rapid growth of mechanical engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the father of civil engineering.
He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, harbours and he was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime and his lighthouse remained in use until 1877 and was dismantled and partially rebuilt at Plymouth Hoe where it is known as Smeatons Tower. The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of engineer for the first time with a count of 2,000, there were fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U. S. before 1865. In 1870 there were a dozen U. S. mechanical engineering graduates, in 1890 there were 6,000 engineers in civil, mining and electrical. There was no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics established at Cambridge until 1875, the theoretical work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of electronics
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Further, the operational analysis is used in the British military, as an intrinsic part of capability development, management. In particular, operational analysis forms part of the Combined Operational Effectiveness and Investment Appraisals and it is often considered to be a sub-field of applied mathematics. The terms management science and decision science are used as synonyms. Operation research is concerned with determining the maximum or minimum of some real-world objective. Originating in military efforts before World War II, its techniques have grown to concern problems in a variety of industries, nearly all of these techniques involve the construction of mathematical models that attempt to describe the system. Because of the computational and statistical nature of most of these fields, OR has ties to computer science.
In the decades after the two wars, the techniques were more widely applied to problems in business, industry. Early work in research was carried out by individuals such as Charles Babbage. Percy Bridgman brought operational research to bear on problems in physics in the 1920s, modern operational research originated at the Bawdsey Research Station in the UK in 1937 and was the result of an initiative of the stations superintendent, A. P. Rowe. Rowe conceived the idea as a means to analyse and improve the working of the UKs early warning radar system, initially, he analysed the operating of the radar equipment and its communication networks, expanding to include the operating personnels behaviour. This revealed unappreciated limitations of the CH network and allowed action to be taken. Scientists in the United Kingdom including Patrick Blackett, Cecil Gordon, Solly Zuckerman, other names for it included operational analysis and quantitative management. During the Second World War close to 1,000 men and women in Britain were engaged in operational research, about 200 operational research scientists worked for the British Army.
Patrick Blackett worked for different organizations during the war. In 1941, Blackett moved from the RAE to the Navy, after first working with RAF Coastal Command, in 1941, blacketts team at Coastal Commands Operational Research Section included two future Nobel prize winners and many other people who went on to be pre-eminent in their fields. They undertook a number of analyses that aided the war effort. Convoys travel at the speed of the slowest member, so small convoys can travel faster and it was argued that small convoys would be harder for German U-boats to detect
A lawyer is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, counselor or solicitor or chartered legal executive. The role of the lawyer varies greatly across legal jurisdictions, in practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine who is recognized as being a lawyer. As a result, the meaning of the lawyer may vary from place to place. In Australia, the lawyer is used to refer to both barristers and solicitors. In Canada, the word lawyer refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called barristers and solicitors, however, in Quebec, civil law advocates often call themselves attorney and sometimes barrister and solicitor in English. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the activities that may only be performed by a person who is entitled to do so pursuant to the Act. Lawyer is not a protected title, in India, the term lawyer is often colloquially used, but the official term is advocate as prescribed under the Advocates Act,1961.
In Scotland, the word refers to a more specific group of legally trained people. It specifically includes advocates and solicitors, in a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law. It is never used to refer to patent agents or paralegals, in fact, there are regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have terms for the analogous concept. In most countries, particularly civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners. Several countries that originally had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, in countries with fused professions, a lawyer is usually permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a clients case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the province of the barrister in England.
However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved, in England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, and barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts
Finance is a field that deals with the study of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty, Finance can be defined as the science of money management. Finance aims to price assets based on their level and their expected rate of return. Finance can be broken into three different sub-categories, public finance, corporate finance and personal finance. g, health and property insurance and saving for retirement. Personal finance may involve paying for a loan, or debt obligations, net worth is a persons balance sheet, calculated by adding up all assets under that persons control, minus all liabilities of the household, at one point in time. Household cash flow totals up all the sources of income within a year. From this analysis, the financial planner can determine to what degree, adequate protection, the analysis of how to protect a household from unforeseen risks. These risks can be divided into the following, property, disability, some of these risks may be self-insurable, while most will require the purchase of an insurance contract.
Determining how much insurance to get, at the most cost effective terms requires knowledge of the market for personal insurance, business owners, professionals and entertainers require specialized insurance professionals to adequately protect themselves. Since insurance enjoys some tax benefits, utilizing insurance investment products may be a piece of the overall investment planning. Tax planning, typically the income tax is the single largest expense in a household, managing taxes is not a question of if you will pay taxes, but when and how much. Government gives many incentives in the form of tax deductions and credits, most modern governments use a progressive tax. Typically, as ones income grows, a marginal rate of tax must be paid. Understanding how to take advantage of the tax breaks when planning ones personal finances can make a significant impact in which it can save you money in the long term. Investment and accumulation goals, planning how to accumulate enough money - for large purchases, major reasons to accumulate assets include, purchasing a house or car, starting a business, paying for education expenses, and saving for retirement.
Achieving these goals requires projecting what they will cost, and when you need to withdraw funds that will be necessary to be able to achieve these goals, a major risk to the household in achieving their accumulation goal is the rate of price increases over time, or inflation. Using net present value calculators, the planner will suggest a combination of asset earmarking. In order to overcome the rate of inflation, the investment portfolio has to get a higher rate of return, managing these portfolio risks is most often accomplished using asset allocation, which seeks to diversify investment risk and opportunity
In English-speaking countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs non-agricultural manual labour. Often something is physically being built or maintained, in contrast, the white-collar worker typically performs work in an office environment and may involve sitting at a computer or desk. A third type of work is a worker whose labour is related to customer interaction, entertainment. Many occupations blend blue, white or pink industry categorizations, blue-collar work is often paid hourly wage-labor, although some professionals may be paid by the project or salaried. There is a range of payscales for such work depending upon field of specialty. Industrial and manual workers wear durable canvas or cotton clothing that may be soiled during the course of their work. Navy and light blue colors conceal potential dirt or grease on the clothing, helping him or her to appear cleaner. For the same reason, blue is a color for boilersuits which protect a workers clothing. Some blue collar workers have uniforms with the name of the business or the name embroidered or printed on it.
Historically the popularity of the color blue among manual labourers contrasts with the popularity of white shirts worn by people in office environments. The blue collar/white collar color scheme has socio-economic class connotations, this distinction has become blurred with the increasing importance of skilled labour, and the relative increase in low-paying white-collar jobs. The term blue collar was first used in reference to trades jobs in 1924, Alden, a higher level academic education is often not required for many blue-collar jobs. However, certain fields may require specialized training, licensing or certification as well as a school diploma or GED. With the information revolution, Western nations have moved towards a service, many manufacturing jobs have been offshored to developing nations which pay their workers lower wages. This offshoring has pushed formerly agrarian nations to industrialized economies and concurrently decreased the number of jobs in developed countries. Due to this economic osmosis, the rust belt has experienced high unemployment, blue-collar can be used as an adjective to describe the environment of the blue-collar worker such as a blue-collar neighborhood, restaurant, or bar