The Araguaia River is one of the major rivers of Brazil, though it is equal in volume at its confluence with the Tocantins. It has a total length of 2,627 km. Araguaia means "river of macaws" in the Tupi language; the Araguaia River comes from Goiás-Mato Grosso south borders. From there it flows northeast to a junction with the Tocantins near the town of São João. Along its course, the river forms the border between the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Pará. In the middle of its course the Araguaia splits into two forks; these reunite, forming the Ilha do Bananal, the world's largest river island. The vein of the Javaés forms a broad inland where it pours back into the main Araguaia, a 100,000 hectare expanse of igapós flooded forest, blackwater river channels, oxbow lakes called Cantão, protected by the Cantão State Park; this is one of the biologically richest areas of the eastern Amazon, with over 700 species of birds, nearly 300 species of fish, large populations species such as the giant otter, the black cayman, the world's largest freshwater fish, the pirarucú, the Araguaian river dolphin all occurring within a large area.
A large portion of the Araguaia's course is navigable all year, but the river below the Cantão wetlands is interrupted by rapids. The middle and lower basin of the river is in the Xingu-Tocantins-Araguaia moist forests ecoregion; the combined watershed of Araguaia and Tocantins rivers covers 9.5% of Brazil's national territory. This area is an integral part of the Amazon biome. However, the Araguaia River is not a tributary of the Amazon. "Araguaia" means "River of the Macaws" in the native Tupi language. Its principal tributary is the Rio das Mortes, which rises in the Serra de São Jerônimo, near Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, is navigable to Pará. Other important tributaries include the Bonito, Garcas and the Formoso or Cristalino on the west, the Pitombas, Vermelho and Chavante on the east, it was explored in part by Henri Coudreau in 1897. From 1972 to 1974 this region was the scene of a conflict between left-wing guerrilla movements and forces supporting the military dictatorship. Among the most important settlements on the banks of the Araguaia River are: Barra do Garças Aragarças Aruanã Luiz Alves São Félix do Araguaia Santa Terezinha Araguacema Conceição do Araguaia Xambioá São Geraldo do Araguaia São João do Araguaia Several parts of the river's course are protected by national parks and other reserves like the Emas National Park and the Araguaia National Park.
The Araguaia has "beaches" - bright sandy banks. List of rivers of Goiás South Amazon Ecotones Ecological Corridor Rio Araguaia Hotel, pescaria, passeios ecológicos Araguaia,Luiz Alves, Cristalino hydrographic information Basin map Tocantins state, with Rivers v-Brazil.com Pará state, with Rivers v-Brazil.com Instituto Araguaia Brazilian Ministry of Transport
Suriname known as the Republic of Suriname, is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers, it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo. Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being invaded and contested by European powers from the 16th century coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century; as the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. Suriname was ruled by the Dutch-chartered company Sociëteit van Suriname between 1683 and 1795. In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, is a member of the Caribbean Community. While Dutch is the official language of government, business and education, Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a used lingua franca. Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population; as a legacy of colonization, the people of Suriname are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic and linguistic groups. The name Suriname may derive from an indigenous people called Surinen, who inhabited the area at the time of European contact. British settlers, who founded the first European colony at Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River, spelled the name as "Surinam"; when the territory was taken over by the Dutch, it became part of a group of colonies known as Dutch Guiana.
The official spelling of the country's English name was changed from "Surinam" to "Suriname" in January 1978, but "Surinam" can still be found in English. A notable example is Surinam Airways; the older English name is reflected in the English pronunciation. In Dutch, the official language of Suriname, the pronunciation is, with the main stress on the third syllable and a schwa terminal vowel. Indigenous settlement of Suriname dates back to 3,000 BC; the largest tribes were a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing. They were the first inhabitants in the area; the Carib settled in the area and conquered the Arawak by using their superior sailing ships. They settled in Galibi at the mouth of the Marowijne River. While the larger Arawak and Carib tribes lived along the coast and savanna, smaller groups of indigenous people lived in the inland rainforest, such as the Akurio, Trió, Wayana. Beginning in the 16th century, French and English explorers visited the area. A century Dutch and English settlers established plantation colonies along the many rivers in the fertile Guiana plains.
The earliest documented colony in Guiana was an English settlement named Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River. After that there was another short-lived English colony called Willoughbyland that lasted from 1650 to 1674. Disputes arose between the English for control of this territory. In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of Suriname they had gained from the English; the English were able to keep New Amsterdam, the main city of the former colony of New Netherland in North America on the mid-Atlantic coast. A cultural and economic hub in those days, they renamed it after the Duke of York: New York City. In 1683, the Society of Suriname was founded by the city of Amsterdam, the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, the Dutch West India Company; the society was chartered to defend the colony. The planters of the colony relied on African slaves to cultivate and process the commodity crops of coffee, sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers.
Planters' treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad—historian C. R. Boxer wrote that "man's inhumanity to man just about reached its limits in Surinam"—and many slaves escaped the plantations. With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique culture in the interior, successful in its own right, they were known collectively in English as Maroons, in French as Nèg'Marrons, in Dutch as Marrons. The Maroons developed several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis, as they were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities; these tribes include the Saramaka, Ndyuka or Aukan, Aluku or Boni, Matawai. The Maroons raided plantations to recruit new members from the slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons and supplies, they sometimes killed their families in the raids. The colonists mounted armed campaigns against the Maroons, who escaped through the rain forest, which they knew much better than did the colonis
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
In animal anatomy, a cloaca kloh-AY-kə is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive and urinary tracts of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent. All amphibians, reptiles, a few mammals have this orifice, from which they excrete both urine and feces. Excretory openings with analogous purpose in some invertebrates are sometimes referred to as cloacae. Mating by cloaca is known as cloacal copulation referred to as cloacal kiss; the cloacal region is often associated with a secretory organ, the cloacal gland, implicated in the scent-marking behavior of some reptiles, marsupials and monotremes. The word is from the Latin verb cluo, "to cleanse", thus the noun cloaca, "sewer, drain". Birds reproduce using their cloaca. Birds that mate using this method touch their cloacae together, in some species for only a few seconds, sufficient time for sperm to be transferred from the male to the female. For some birds, such as ostriches, kiwi and some species of swans and ducks, the males do not use the cloaca for reproduction, but have a phallus.
In those, the penis helps ensure. One study has looked into birds. Among fish, a true cloaca is present only in lobe-finned fishes. In lampreys and in some ray-finned fishes, part of the cloaca remains in the adult to receive the urinary and reproductive ducts, although the anus always opens separately. In chimaeras and most teleosts, all three openings are separated. With a few exceptions noted below, mammals have no cloaca. In those that have one, the cloaca is subdivided into separate regions for the anus and urethra; the monotremes possess a true cloaca. In marsupials, the genital tract is separate from the anus, but a trace of the original cloaca does remain externally; this is one of the features of marsupials that suggest their basal nature, as the amniotes from which mammals evolved possessed a cloaca, the earliest animals to diverge into the mammalian class would most have had this feature, too. Unlike other marsupials, marsupial moles have a true cloaca, a fact, used to argue against a marsupial identity for these mammals.
Most adult placental mammals have no remaining trace of the cloaca. In the embryo, the embryonic cloaca divides into a posterior region that becomes part of the anus, an anterior region that has different fates depending on the sex of the individual: in females, it develops into the vestibule that receives the urethra and vagina, while in males it forms the entirety of the penile urethra. However, the tenrecs and golden moles, small placental mammals native to Africa, as well as some shrews retain a cloaca as adults. Being placental animals, humans only have an embryonic cloaca, split up into separate tracts during the development of the urinary and reproductive organs. However, a few human congenital disorders result in persons being born with a cloaca, including persistent cloaca and sirenomelia. In reptiles, the cloaca consists of the urodeum and coprodeum; some species have modified cloacae for increased gas exchange. This is; some turtles those specialized in diving, are reliant on cloacal respiration during dives.
They accomplish this by having a pair of accessory air bladders connected to the cloaca which can absorb oxygen from the water. Various fish, as well as polychaete worms and crabs, are specialized to take advantage of the constant flow of water through the cloacal respiratory tree of sea cucumbers while gaining the protection of living within the sea cucumber itself. At night, many of these species emerge from the anus of the sea cucumber in search of food. Cloaca
The channel-billed toucan is a near-passerine bird in the family Ramphastidae found in Trinidad and in tropical South America as far south as southern Brazil and central Bolivia. Three subspecies are recognized: Yellow-ridged toucan -: Originally described as a separate species. Found in upper Amazonia from western Venezuela to northern Bolivia R. v. vitellinus - Lichtenstein, 1823: Found in Venezuela, the Guianas, northern Brazil and Trinidad Ariel toucan - Vigors, 1826: Originally described as a separate species. Found in central and eastern Brazil south of the Amazon RiverThese subspecies were considered separate species, but all three, along with the citron-throated toucan, will interbreed wherever they meet. However, the subspecies R. v. ariel is closer to R. v. culminatus than to the nominate, are by some considered close to distinct species status. As R. v. ariel was described before R. v. culminatus, if separated they would become Ramphastos ariel ariel and R. a. culminatus. There exists an isolated population in eastern Brazil.
It looks similar to, has traditionally been considered part of, R. v. ariel, but molecular analysis suggests that it has been isolated for a long time and is a yet-undescribed separate subspecies or even species. Like other toucans, the channel-billed has a huge bill, it is 48 cm long with a 9–14 cm bill. It weighs 300–430 g Nominate race: Its upperparts, belly and most of the bill are black, the uppertail and undertail coverts are red; the bare eye-patch and bill base are blue, the throat is white, most of the central breast is yellow-orange fading to white laterally and the lower breast contrasts with a broad transverse red band. The iris is dark brownish, it is found in the north-eastern part of this species' range. Race culminatus: It resembles the nominate, but has a yellow base of the upper mandible and ridge to its bill, orange-yellow uppertail coverts and the throat and breast are white, with just a narrow red band separating the latter from the black belly, it occurs in the south-central part of this species' range.
It is similar to, confused with, Cuvier's toucan. Race ariel: It resembles the nominate, but the base of its bill is yellow, the skin around the pale blue eye is red and the entire throat and chest are orange, it occurs in the south-east Amazon. The unnamed population from the coastal regions of eastern Brazil is identical. Race citreolaemus, it resembles culminatus, but with a clear yellow tinge to the throat, a green tinge to the otherwise yellow culmen, a yellow-orange patch at the base of the bill, a pale bluish iris. It occurs in northern north-western Venezuela. Wherever the distributions of the subspecies meet, individuals with features that are intermediate compared to above described races are common due to hybridization; some of these intermediate populations have sometimes been awarded subspecies status, e.g. theresae for the population in north-eastern Brazil and pintoi for populations in south-central Brazil. Found in forest and woodland. Prefers locally extends into drier regions. In lowlands, but locally to an altitude of 1,700 m.
This species is an arboreal fruit-eater but will take insects, small reptiles and frogs. The call is a croaking "cree-op cree-op cree-op"; the parents are both active in raising the young. The white eggs are laid in a high unlined tree cavity. There is a gestation period of 18 days, the parents both incubate for 15 to 16 days. However, they can be impatient sitters leaving their eggs uncovered for hours at a time. Newborn toucans remain in the nest after hatching, they are blind and naked at birth, their eyes open after about 3 weeks. They have short bills and specialized pads on their heels to protect them from the rough floor of the nest; the feathers do not begin to expand. They are helpless and unable to leave the nest for about 8 weeks, dependent upon both parents to feed them. After this, the young can care for themselves, they begin to leave the nest depending on size. Hilty, Steven L.: Birds of Venezuela. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5 Weckstein, Jason D.: Molecular Phylogenetics of the Ramphastos Toucans: Implications for the Evolution of Morphology and Coloration.
Auk 122: 1191–1209. PDF fulltext. Erratum in Auk 123: 610. Ffrench, Richard. A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago. Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2. Channel-billed Toucan videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection Extensive Gallery on Toucans List of Toucans Toucan videos on the Internet Bird Collection Stamps Channel-billed Toucan photo gallery VIREO
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies; this name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name, one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently.
They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable. To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid." In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have synonyms mentioned as such after the current scientific name, so as to avoid confusion. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names. In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc.
In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl, the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon. However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th