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White Australia policy

The term White Australia policy was used to encapsulate a set of historical policies that aimed to forbid people of non-European ethnic origin Asians and Pacific Islanders from immigrating to Australia, starting in 1901. Governments progressively dismantled such policies between 1949 and 1973. Competition in the gold fields between British and Chinese miners, labour-union opposition to the importation of Pacific Islanders into the sugar plantations of Queensland, reinforced demands to eliminate or minimise low-wage immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands. From the 1850s colonial governments imposed restrictions on family members joining Chinese miners in Australia; the colonial authorities levied a special tax on Chinese immigrants that other immigrants were exempted from. Towards the end of the 19th century labour unions pushed to stop Chinese immigrants working in the furniture and market garden industries. Australian furniture had to be labelled "Made with Chinese Labour". Soon after Australia became a federation in January 1901, the federal government of Edmund Barton passed the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901, drafted by the man who would become Australia's second Prime Minister, Alfred Deakin.

The passage of this bill marked the commencement of the White Australia Policy as Australian federal government policy. Subsequent acts further strengthened the policy up to the start of the Second World War; these policies gave British migrants preference over all others through the first four decades of the 20th century. During the Second World War, Prime Minister John Curtin reinforced the policy, saying "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."Successive governments dismantled the policy in stages after the conclusion of the Second World War, with the encouragement of first non-British, non-white immigration, allowing for a large multi-ethnic post-war program of immigration. The Menzies and Holt Governments dismantled the policies between 1949 and 1966, the Whitlam Government passed laws to ensure that race would be disregarded as a component for immigration to Australia in 1973.

In 1975 the Whitlam Government passed the Racial Discrimination Act, which made racially-based selection criteria unlawful. In the decades since, Australia has maintained large-scale multi-ethnic immigration; as of 2018, Australia's migration program allows people from any country to apply to migrate to Australia, regardless of their nationality, culture, religion, or language, provided that they meet the criteria set out in law. The discovery of gold in Australia in 1851 led to an influx of immigrants from all around the world; the colony of New South Wales had a population of just 200,000 in 1851, but the huge influx of settlers spurred by the gold rushes transformed the Australian colonies economically and demographically. Over the next 20 years, 40,000 Chinese men and over 9,000 women immigrated to the goldfields seeking prosperity. Gold brought great wealth but new social tensions. Multi-ethnic migrants came to New South Wales in large numbers for the first time. Competition on the goldfields resentment among white miners towards the successes of Chinese miners, led to tensions between groups and a series of significant protests and riots, including the Buckland riot in 1857 and the Lambing Flat riots between 1860 and 1861.

Governor Hotham, on 16 November 1854, appointed a Royal Commission on Victorian goldfields problems and grievances. This led to restrictions being placed on Chinese immigration and residency taxes levied from Chinese residents in Victoria from 1855 with New South Wales following suit in 1861; these restrictions remained in force until the early 1870s. Reference does not support the argument of this paragraph Melbourne Trades Hall was opened in 1859 with Trades and Labour Councils and Trades Halls opening in all cities and most regional towns in the following forty years. During the 1880s Trade unions developed among shearers and stevedores, but soon spread to cover all blue-collar jobs. Shortages of labour led to high wages for a prosperous skilled working class, whose unions demanded and got an eight-hour day and other benefits unheard of in Europe. Australia gained a reputation as "the working man's paradise." Some employers tried to undercut the unions by importing Chinese labour. This produced a reaction which led to all the colonies restricting Chinese and other Asian immigration.

This was the foundation of the White Australia Policy. The "Australian compact", based around centralised industrial arbitration, a degree of government assistance for primary industries, White Australia, was to continue for many years before dissolving in the second half of the 20th century; the growth of the sugar industry in Queensland in the 1870s led to searching for labourers prepared to work in a tropical environment. During this time, thousands of "Kanakas" were brought into Australia as indentured workers; this and related practices of bringing in non-white labour to be cheaply employed was termed "blackbirding" and refers to the recruitment of people through trickery and kidnappings to work on plantations the sugar cane plantations of Queensland and Fiji. In the 1870s and 1880s, the trade union movement began a series of protests against foreign labour, their arguments were that Asians and Chinese took jobs away from white men, worked for "substandard" wages, lowered working conditions and refused unionisation.

Objections to these arguments came lar


Danthonia is a genus of Eurasian, North African, American plants in the grass family. Members of this genus are sometimes referred to as oatgrass, but that common name is not restricted to this genus. Other common names include wallaby grass. Australian species have since been reclassified into Rytidosperma. SpeciesDanthonia alpina Vest – central + southern Europe. M. Peterson & Rúgolo – Bolivia, Argentina Danthonia araucana Phil. – Chile Danthonia boliviensis Renvoize – Bolivia Danthonia × breviaristata Vierh – France, Austria, Czech Rep, Romania Danthonia breviseta Hack. – Rio de Janeiro Danthonia californica Bol. – BC ALB SAS WA OR CA NV ID UT MT WY SD CO AZ NM. Desv. – Argentina, Chile incl Juan Fernández Is Danthonia cirrata Hack. & Arechav. – Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay Danthonia compressa Austin – mountain oatgrass, flattened oatgrass, slender oatgrass – eastern North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia + Ontario Danthonia decumbens DC. – common heath grass – Europe, North Africa, Caucasus Danthonia domingensis Hack.

& Pilg. – Hispaniola, Jamaica Danthonia holm-nielsenii Laegaard – Ecuador Danthonia intermedia Vasey – timber oatgrass, intermediate oatgrass – western United States, Russian Far East Danthonia malacantha Pilg. – Chile incl Juan Fernández Is Danthonia melanathera Bernardello – Argentina Danthonia montevidensis Hack. & Arechav. – Brazil, Uruguay Danthonia parryi Scribn. – ALB SAS CO MT WY NM Danthonia rhizomata Swallen – Brazil, Uruguay Danthonia rugoloana Sulekic – Salta Danthonia secundiflora J. Presl – from Mexico to Uruguay Danthonia sericea Nutt. – eastern + central United States Danthonia spicata Roem. & Schult. – poverty oatgrass poverty grass – from Alaska + Greenland to Veracruz Danthonia unispicata Munro ex Macoun – onespike oatgrass – ALB BC SAS WA ID MT OR WY SD UT NV CAFormerly includedA number of species which were classified under Danthonia are now included in Amphibromus, Austrodanthonia, Joycea, Monachather, Notodanthonia, Plinthanthesis, Rytidosperma or Schismus

1917 San Diego mayoral election

The 1917 San Diego mayoral election was held on April 3, 1917 to elect the mayor for San Diego. The election became known as the "Smokestacks vs. Geraniums" election because the dominant issue was whether the City's development should focus on planning and beautification or job creation and factories. In the primary election Louis J. Wilde, advocating for "smokestacks", George Marston, derided as "Geranium George" by his opponents, received the most votes and advanced to the runoff. Wilde was elected mayor with a majority of the votes. Louis J. Wilde, banker George Marston, department store owner and mayoral candidate in 1913 Charles H. Bartholomew, retired postmaster Incumbent Mayor Edwin M. Capps declined to run for re-election, leaving an open seat; the main challengers for the open seat were local department store owner and philanthropist George Marston, a Progressive, banker Louis J. Wilde, a Republican. Contesting the race was retired postmaster Charles Bartholomew. Marston had run for mayor in 1913 advocating for planned expansion of the city and projects that would lead to a beautiful and prosperous city rather focusing on commerce and industry.

In the intervening years, he had played a large role in shepherding through the Panama–California Exposition. In the 1917 campaign, Marston once again emphasized planned growth. In his campaign, he advocated for city planning, energy conservation, building and pollution controls on industrial development, he supported the growth of the military industry, chiefly the navy and the Marine Corps, since he did not consider this to be industrial growth. Marston's campaign had the backing of influential city leaders such as John D. Spreckels, E. W. Scripps, Albert Spalding. In contrast to Marston, Wilde campaigned on a promise of increased industry in San Diego, he campaigned for the labor vote, arguing that increased industry would lead to good jobs and good wages. Wilde billed himself as the "Smokestack Candidate" and labeled his opponent "Geranium George", giving the election its nickname. Wilde campaigned more aggressively than Marston, for example threatening that if Marston won the Salt Lake Railroad would never arrive in San Diego.

Marston refused to respond to these accusations. On March 20, 1917, Wilde received the highest number of votes in the primary election, followed by Marston. In the April 3, 1917 runoff between the top-two candidates, Wilde received a majority and was elected mayor

The Living and the Dead (2006 film)

The Living and the Dead is a 2006 British drama film written and directed by Simon Rumley, starring Leo Bill, Kate Fahy and Roger Lloyd-Pack. Donald Brocklebank is a man of aristocratic background living in fear of bankruptcy in a country manor house, his wife, requires constant care, as does his schizophrenic son James. When Donald leaves the two alone in a bid to solve their definite financial collapse, James's condition begins to worsen, he believes he is able to look after his sick mother rather than nurse Mary, sent by Donald. He neglects taking his prescribed medicine and locks the nurse out of the house, leaving his mother with nothing to do but weep. James, believing that more medicine will make you better faster than the prescribed amount, force feeds his mother large quantities of her pills, nearly killing her. Police make their way into the house, relieving Nancy of her son's care. Due to the medication overdose she has an emergency operation which seems to cure her of her ailments.

James goes on to begin hallucinating from not taking his medication, while Nancy recovers from her illness. In a fit of rage, James stabs his mother before stabbing and wounding his father. Shortly before Nancy's funeral, Donald passionately supports his son, provoking hostility from the rest of the family. At the funeral, James believes he rushes over to hug her. In James' eyes, she stabs her son several times, though everyone else sees James taking the knife he killed his mother with into his own stomach; the film ends with Donald bearing the same condition as his son, being cared for in his own home. He is taken away. Leo Bill as James Brocklebank Roger Lloyd-Pack as Donald Brocklebank Kate Fahy as Nancy Brocklebank Sarah Ball as Nurse Mary Neil Conrich as Policeman Richard Wills-Cotton as nurse Mike Alan Perrin as Nurse Bob Richard Syms as Vicar Hilary Hodsman as Auntie Pat Critical reception for The Living and the Dead was positive and the film holds a rating of 90% "fresh" on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 10 reviews.

Fantastic Fest Jury Award for Best Actor at the Fantastic Fest Fantastic Fest Jury Award for Best Director at the Fantastic Fest Fantastic Fest Jury Award for Best Make-Up at the Fantastic Fest Fantastic Fest Jury Award for Best Picture at the Fantastic Fest Fantastic Fest Jury Award for Best Supporting Actress at the Fantastic Fest The Living and the Dead on IMDb

Nong Khayang District

Nong Khayang is a district of Uthai Thani Province, northern Thailand. Nong Luang was an important border checkpoint since the Ayutthaya Era. In 1917 when the government changed the district status khwaeng to amphoe as in other provinces, Nong Luang was a district of Uthai Thani Province; the following year the district office of Nong Luang was moved to Noen Po and the district renamed Nong Khayang. Neighboring districts are Nong Chang, Thap Than, Mueang Uthai Thani of Uthai Thani Province; the district is divided into nine sub-districts. Nong Khayang is a township. There are a further five tambon administrative organizations. Nong Khayang district history

Obert Skye

Obert Skye is the pseudonym of Robert Farrell Smith. He is a bestselling American children's writer known for the Leven Thumps series, the Pillage trilogy, The Creature from My Closet series, he is the author of Witherwood Reform School and Beyond Foo. Skye is known for novels that emphasize the power of imagination and importance of discovering the impossible in the mundane; the Obert Skye pen name, used to further "research" on the world of Foo in Leven Thumps and the existence of dragons in Pillage, is “all about imagination” and “thinking bigger and beyond the books.” Imagination is one of the most powerful things in the world, according to Skye. “What doesn’t it make better?” he asks. “It makes school better. Imagination makes life more textured. Skye attended school in parts of Europe, he has written commercials and novels. He has traveled to all fifty states talking with schools and libraries and any cluster of people who are kind enough to listen about writing and imagination. Leven Thumps series The Creature from My Closet series Pillage series The Leven Thumps Series—Simon & Schuster/Shadow Mountain Publishing Leven Thumps and the Gateway to Foo Leven Thumps and the Whispered Secret Leven Thumps and he Eyes of the Want Leven Thumps and the Wrath of Ezra Leven Thumps and the Ruins of Alder Professor Winsnicker’s Guide to the Well-Mannered SycophantThe Creature from My Closet Series—Macmillan Publishing Wonkenstein Potterwookie Pinocula Katfish Lord of the Hat BatneezerPillage Trilogy—Shadow Mountain Publishing Pillage Choke Ambush The PillagyBeyond Foo—Shadow Mountain Publishing The Return of the Lithens The Deception of DreamsWitherwood Reform School Witherwood Reform School Lost and FoundGeeked Out—Macmillan Publishing Geeked Out Bigger, Nerdier Mutant Bunny Island—Harper Collins Volume one Volume two Wizard For Hire—Shadow Mountain Publishing Wizard for Hire Apprentice Needed Obert Skye at the MLCA Database Obert Skye at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Obert Skye at Library of Congress Authorities, with 22 catalog records