The White Ensign, at one time called the St George's Ensign due to the simultaneous existence of a cross-less version of the flag, is an ensign flown on British Royal Navy ships and shore establishments. It consists of a red St George's Cross on a white field with the Union Flag in the upper canton; the White Ensign is flown by yachts of members of the Royal Yacht Squadron and by ships of Trinity House escorting the reigning monarch. In addition to the United Kingdom, several other nations have variants of the White Ensign with their own national flags in the canton, with the St George's Cross sometimes being replaced by a naval badge omitting the cross altogether. Yachts of the Royal Irish Yacht Club fly a white ensign with an Irish tricolour in the first quadrant and defaced by the crowned harp from the Heraldic Badge of Ireland; the Flag of the British Antarctic Territory and the Commissioners' flag of the Northern Lighthouse Board place the Union emblem in the first quarter of a white field, omitting the overall red St George's Cross, but are not ensigns for use at sea.
English naval ensigns were first used during the 16th century, were striped in green and white, but other colours were used to indicate different squadrons, including blue and tawny brown.. There was a St George's Cross in the upper canton, or sewn across the field as on the modern White Ensign; these striped ensigns continued in use under the Stuart kings: the Naval ensign of 1623 is described as having "15 horizontal stripes alternately blue and yellow with a Cross of St George in the canton". This design fell out of use after 1630, with the introduction of the Red and Blue ensigns; the use of stripes continued in the red and white of both the flag of the Honourable East India Company, adopted in 1600, of the 1775 Grand Union Flag that formed the basis for the modern flag of the United States of America, the red and blue striped ensign that serves as the flag of Hawaii. The first recognisable White Ensign appears to have been in use during the 16th century, consisting of a white field with a broad St George's cross, a second St. George's cross in the canton.
By 1630 the white ensign consisted of a white field, with a small St George's cross in the canton, consistent with the red and blue ensigns of the time. In 1707, the St. George's cross was reintroduced to the flag as a whole, though not as broad as before, the Union Flag was placed in the canton. There was a version of this flag without the overall St George's cross, which appears to have been for use in home waters only, though this flag appears to have fallen out of use by 1720. In 1801, after the Act of Union 1800, the flag was updated to include the new Union Flag in the canton, so took on the form as used today; the blue field of the Union Flag was darkened at this time at the request of the Admiralty, in the hope that the new flags would not require replacing as as the previous design, due to fading of the blue. Throughout this period, the proportions of the flags changed. In 1687, the Secretary of the Admiralty, Samuel Pepys, instructed that flags be of the ratio 11:18. In the early 18th century, the breadth of cloth had been reduced to 10 inches, so the flags became 5:9.
In 1837, the breadth was reduced for the final time to 9 inches, giving the current ratio of 1:2. Throughout this period in the history of the Royal Navy, the White Ensign was one of three ensigns in use, with each one being assigned to one of the three squadrons of the navy, according to its colour. Ships flew the colour of ensign corresponding to the squadron to which they were attached, in turn determined by the seniority of the admiral under whose command the ship sailed. In 1864 the Admiralty decided to end the ambiguity caused by the Red Ensign being both a civil ensign and a naval ensign, the White Ensign was reserved to the Royal Navy. Royal Navy ships and submarines wear the White Ensign at all times when underway on the surface; the White Ensign may be worn on a gaff, may be shifted to the starboard yardarm when at sea. When alongside, the White Ensign is worn at the stern, with the Union Jack flag flown as a jack at the bow, during daylight hours; the White Ensign is worn at the mastheads when Royal Navy ships are dressed on special occasions such as the Queen's birthday, may be be worn by foreign warships when in British waters when dressed in honour of a British holiday or when firing a salute to British authorities.
The White Ensign may be worn by the boats of commissioned ships. Yachts of the Royal Yacht Squadron and the Trinity House vessels when escorting the British Monarch are permitted to wear the White Ensign. On land, the White Ensign is flown at all naval shore establishments, including all Royal Marines establishments. Permission has been granted to some other buildings with naval connections to fly the White Ensign; this includes the St Martin-in-the-Fields Anglican Church in Trafalgar Square, the parish church of the Admiralty. The Ensign is displayed on the Cenotaph alongside the Union Jack flag and the Royal Air Force Ensign, in memory of the dead in the World Wars. Special permission was granted to any individual or body to fly
The Gold Star for Bravery, post-nominal letters GSB, was instituted by the President of the Republic of South Africa in April 1996. It was awarded to veteran cadres of the Azanian People's Liberation Army, the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress, who had distinguished themselves during the "struggle" by performing acts of exceptional bravery in great danger; the Azanian People's Liberation Army was the para-military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress. It was established in 1961 to wage an armed "struggle" against the Nationalist government inside South Africa. On 27 April 1994, the Azanian People's Liberation Army was amalgamated with six other military forces into the South African National Defence Force; the Gold Star for Bravery, post-nominal letters GSB, was instituted by the President of South Africa in April 1996. It is the senior award of a set of three decorations for bravery, along with the Bravery Star in Silver and the Star for Conspicuous Leadership; the Azanian People's Liberation Army's military decorations and medals were modeled on those of the Republic of South Africa and these three decorations are the approximate equivalents of the Honoris Crux Gold, the Honoris Crux and the Pro Virtute Decoration.
The decoration could be awarded to veteran cadres of the Azanian People's Liberation Army who had distinguished themselves during the "struggle" by performing acts of exceptional bravery in great danger. The position of the Gold Star for Bravery in the official military and national orders of precedence was revised upon the institution of a new set of honours on 27 April 2003, but it remained unchanged, as it had been until 26 April 2003. Azanian People's Liberation Army Official APLA order of precedence: Succeeded by the Bravery Star in Silver. South African National Defence Force Official SANDF order of precedence: Preceded by the Honoris Crux Gold of the Republic of South Africa. Succeeded by the Star for Bravery in Gold of Umkhonto we Sizwe. Official national order of precedence: Preceded by the Woltemade Cross for Bravery, Gold of the Republic of South Africa. Succeeded by the Star for Bravery in Gold of Umkhonto we Sizwe. ObverseThe Gold Star for Bravery is a pair of silver-gilt five-pointed stars, superimposed one on the other, to fit inside a circle with a diameter of 38 millimetres and displaying a gold lion on a white enameled centre roundel.
RibbonThe ribbon is 32 millimetres wide and red, with a 12 millimetres wide white band in the centre. Conferment of the Gold Star for Bravery was discontinued upon the institution of a new set of military honours on 27 April 2003
SS Sea Owl was a Type C3-S-A2-based troop transport built during World War II for operation by the War Shipping Administration which saw service in the European Theater of Operations. At times mistakenly termed USAT Sea Owl, she shared her name with a Balao-class submarine USS Sea Owl, commissioned on 17 July 1944. SS Sea Owl was one of an undetermined number of "Sea" prefixed C3-S-A2 transports built by Ingalls Shipbuilding and Western Pipe and Steel Company between 1943 and 1945, she was sold in 1947 to Isthmian Lines and operated commercially as the SS Steel Scientist until 1971. SS Sea Owl was laid down 22 July 1943 as a Type C3-S-A2 ship for the U. S. Maritime Commission as MC hull 407 by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corporation of Pascagoula, Mississippi, she was launched on 17 December 1943, converted to a 2,156 troop transport by Ingalls for operation by the War Shipping Administration. She was delivered to the WSA 6 June 1944, which contracted ship handling to the American Export Lines.
As a transport allocated to the U. S. Army SS Sea Owl was crewed by United States Merchant Marines, protected by a contingent of the US Naval Armed Guards, had a complement of the US Army Transportation Corps aboard for troop administration. SS Sea Owl's shakedown cruise was from Pascagoula to New York City, followed by a steam to Newport News, Virginia, to pick up her first troop complement, an Army battalion headed for Naples. Units transported by the Sea Owl included: The 55th Armored Engineer Battalion of the 10th Armored Division, departed New York POE 12 September 1944, arrived Cherbourg France, 23 September. 289th Engineer Combat Battalion, departed New York 22 October 1944, arrived Bristol, England, 1 November 1944. 1240th Engineer Combat Battalion. 1251st Engineer Combat Battalion. 385th Infantry Regiment, left Boston POE 23 November 1944, arrived Southampton 4 December 1944. 661st Tank Destroyer Battalion of the 63rd Infantry, left New York 9 January 1945, arrived Le Harve, France 23 January 1945.
57th Fighter Group, departed Naples 6 August 1945, headed for deployment in the Pacific Theater. Just before the Panama Canal the Japanese surrendered was announced and the Sea Owl turned around and arrived in Boston on 18 August 1945. 644th Tank Destroyer Battalion, 82nd Airborne Division, France to Newport News, late 1945. The SS Sea Owl was used to transport German POWs to the United States. Sea Owl was transferred to the Maritime Commission in 1946. A $282,00 contract for conversion into a cargo ship was awarded to J. K. Welding Co. of Yonkers, NY, to be completed in 70 calendar days. In 1947 she was sold to Isthmian Lines of New York. Beginning in 1947 it operated in Isthmian service as SS Steel Scientist hauling cargoes from Asia principally to U. S. Gulf ports carrying jute, gunnie sacks and other materials, she was sold to Taiwan Shipbreakers, arrived at Kaohsiung 9 July 1971 and scrapped during that month. Operation Magic Carpet
William Carlin is an English former professional footballer who played as a central midfielder. During his career, he made over 400 appearances in the Football League, scoring 74 times, he began his career with his hometown club Liverpool, making one appearance for the club in 1959, before joining Halifax Town in 1962. He joined Carlisle United in 1964 and went on to make over 100 appearances in all competitions for the club, helping them win the Third Division in 1965. After one season with Sheffield United, Carlin was persuaded to join Derby County by manager Brian Clough and went on to play a pivotal role in the Rams Second Division title winning side during the 1968–69 season and played one season in the First Division for the club, he finished his career with spells at Leicester City, Notts County and Cardiff City. Standing at five foot and four inches and weighing less than 10 stone, Carlin became well known for his diminutive size and his tenacity on the pitch, being described by Brian Clough as "a belligerent, aggressive little Scouser".
Having represented England at schoolboy level, Carlin began at his hometown club, the club he supported, joining the side in 1956 before signing a professional contract two years in May 1958. The following season, Carlin was handed his professional debut for the club in the Second Division at the age of 19, playing in a 2–2 draw with Brighton & Hove Albion on 10 October 1959, he remained at Anfield until 1962 but did not make any further appearances for the club and was sold to Division Three side Halifax Town in August 1962 for a fee of £1,500. At Halifax, Carlin was relegated for the first time in his career during his first season at the club, dropping into the Fourth Division, but made his name as a midfield schemer before joining Carlisle United in 1964 for a fee of £10,000. After clashing with coach Dick Young, Carlin soon settled with the Cumbrians and credited Young with "making a real man of me", he helped Carlisle win promotion to the Second Division, despite suffering a broken leg during the 1965–66 season, before joining Sheffield United in 1967 for £40,000, signing a five-year contract with the Blades, where he spent one season before attracting the interest of Derby County, whose manager Brian Clough had followed his progress for several years and had attempted to buy Carlin during his time with Carlisle but had been charged by the Football Association after making an illegal approach to him.
When Carlisle had sold Carlin to Sheffield United, Clough had furiously stated "Carlisle have sold a player for a certain fee when we were prepared to top it". Carlin refused to meet Clough to discuss a transfer but was convinced to meet Clough by Sheffield United manager Arthur Rowley, who told Carling that it would be "rude" to ignore the meeting. Carlin accepted the move after his wife Marie declared her wish to move away from Sheffield. Carlin travelled to Derby the following day and the transfer was completed for a fee of £63,000. Rowley had been unimpressed with Carlin during his time in charge and believed he had "got one over" on Clough having described Carlin as "an over-aggressive and slow midfielder who couldn't keep his mouth shut". Carlin made his debut for the Rams in a 2–2 draw with Hull City, scoring one of his sides goals. After winning another promotion, scoring the goal that sealed promotion in the 1968–69 season, Carlin helped Derby establish themselves as a force in the First Division under Brian Clough.
After spells playing for Leicester City and Notts County, he moved to Cardiff City in November 1973, being brought in by his former Leicester boss Frank O'Farrell. He made his debut during a 1–0 victory over Bolton Wanderers and was instrumental in helping the club avoid relegation, his final professional appearance coming in the final game of the season against Crystal Palace that decided which of the two sides would be relegated, before deciding to retire at the end of the season. After retiring from football, Carlin ran a bar in Spain, he retired to the area of Allestree in Derbyshire. In April 2011, Carlin's house was targeted by burglars who broke into his home using a spade and stole his winners medal from the 1968–69 season with Derby County and the gold commemorative bracelet, awarded to each player. Carlisle United Football League Third Division winner: 1964–65Derby County Football League Second Division winner: 1968–69
Shelter Cove is a 17-acre beach neighborhood at the southerly edge of Pacifica, California consisting of seventeen rustic rental cottages. It was a recreational beach and popular San Francisco tourist destination–Shelter Cove was a picnic day stop along the Ocean Shore Railroad during its heyday, through the Prohibition Era up until the 1940s. A restaurant and bar, the Clipper Ship, operated at Shelter Cove for many years during this period. Since the access road washed out during a 1983 storm, this neighborhood and beach is accessible only by footpath or boat. Public access to the Shelter Cove beach from this road and footpath was closed in 1975; the Shelter Cove beach has been a center of attention as result of a public beach access prescriptive easement complaint lodged with the California Coastal Commission. On March 19, 2008 the City of Pacifica filed a court action to force the maintenance of the footpath and hillside from risk of landslide. On January 20, 2009 the planning commission of Pacifica gave permission to current owner Arno Rohloff to repair a staircase to the property since the footpath has fallen into the sea.
Shelter Cove is owned by Arno Rohloff since July 1997, with prior owners from the 1960s until 1997 were Charles Pavka and Mary Pavka. Coastal Records Project photo. Pacifica Riptide, Shelter Cove. California Coastal Commission prescriptive easement application "Shelter Cove". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 19 January 1981. Retrieved 2009-11-08
Thomas Duff was an Australian businessman and politician, a Nationalist Party member of the Legislative Assembly of Western Australia from 1918 to 1921. Duff was born in Melbourne to Robert Duff, he arrived in Western Australia in 1890 living in Perth and moving to Kalgoorlie in 1893 during the gold rush. He floated a gold mine in 1895, was employed as a building inspector. Duff purchased a farming property in Merredin in 1904, he became the licensee of the Merredin Hotel in 1907, from 1912 was a part-owner of the Merredin Mercury, a local newspaper. He floated three more gold mines around that time, two in Marvel Loch and one in Westonia. At the 1917 state election, Duff contested the seat of Avon, but was defeated by Tom Harrison of the Country Party, he moved to Cottesloe in the year, made a second run for parliament at the 1918 Claremont by-election, finishing with 54.3 percent of the two-party-preferred vote. Duff did not re contest Claremont at the 1921 state election, subsequently returned to Merredin.
He retired in 1936 and returned to Perth, where he died in June 1949, aged 79. He had married Esther Mary Markwell in 1895, with whom he had two children