SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

White House Press Secretary

The White House press secretary is a senior White House official whose primary responsibility is to act as spokesperson for the executive branch of the United States government administration with regard to the president, senior aides and executives, as well as government policies. The press secretary is responsible for collecting information about actions and events within the president's administration and issues the administration's reactions to developments around the world; the press secretary interacts with the media, deals with the White House press corps on a daily basis in a daily press briefing. The press secretary serves by the appointment and at the pleasure of the president of the United States. S. Senate, though because of the frequent briefings given to the media, who in turn inform the public, the position is still a prominent non-Cabinet post. Stephanie Grisham is the current press secretary, having replaced Sarah Sanders on July 1, 2019. During the United States' somewhat early years, the White House staff or various White House offices were not as robust as they are today and there was not a single designated staff person or office responsible for managing the relationship between the president and the growing number of journalists and media entities that were covering him.

It was not until after President Abraham Lincoln's administration that Congress formally appropriated funds for a White House staff, which at first consisted of a secretary. Ulysses S. Grant's White House staff numbered six people at a cost of $13,800, though he supplemented with personnel from the War Department. Fifty years under the Coolidge administration, the staff had increased to just fewer than fifty people at a cost of nearly $100,000; as presidents hired more staff, some showed a tendency to pick aides and confidantes who had backgrounds in the field of journalism. One of Abraham Lincoln's private secretaries, John G. Nicolay, had been an editor and owner of a newspaper in Illinois before he worked for the president in the White House. While the modern equivalent of a private or personal secretary to the president of the United States would be more narrowly concerned with the care and feeding of the president, the small size of the White House staff at that point meant that Nicolay interacted with the press in carrying out his duties.

He was asked to verify stories or information that various members of the press had heard. Though the title and establishment of the roles and responsibilities of the press secretary job was still decades in the future, the small and growing White House staff was interacting with a growing number of professional journalists and mass media entities covering the president and the White House. Andrew Johnson was the first president to grant a formal interview request to a reporter, sitting down with Col. Alexander K. McClure from Pennsylvania. Although various presidents and reporters had participated in conversations or dialogues prior to Johnson, the exchanges had been less formal. Prior to the 1880s and the presidency of Grover Cleveland, the relationship between the president, his administration, the small but growing number of newspapers covering him was such that there was little need for a formal plan or designated spokesperson to manage it; the relationship between government and the press was not as inherently adversarial and arms length as in modern times.

In fact, prior to the establishment of the U. S. Government Printing Office, some newspapers were awarded contracts to print government publications and awarded the president with support in exchange. For example, the Gazette of the United States won an early U. S. Treasury was supportive of then-president Washington. In general, though coverage of the president could be harsh and opinionated, newspapers were to some degree extensions of the political party apparatus and subsequently not seen as entities requiring specific, sustained management by the White House or administration; the media had changed by 1884, when Grover Cleveland was elected as president of the United States. Between 1776 and 1884, the United States had quadrupled in size and increased in population from 2.5 million to 56 million. The number of newspaper publications in active circulation had increased from 37 to more than 1,200 dailies, in addition to the many new monthly magazines; the rapid growth in journalism as a booming industry resulted in an increase in reporters covering the activities of the president.

Grover Cleveland married 21-year-old Frances Folsom in 1886. The growing number of reporters and the increasing aggressiveness of their style of coverage led to frustrations when the president and his new bride were unable to rid themselves of reporters who followed them to their honeymoon in Deer Park, Maryland. President Cleveland relied on his private secretary, Daniel Lamont, who had once been an editor of the Albany Argus, to keep the reporters at bay; the controversy surrounding coverage of the trip resulted in a public debate about the balance between the right of the president and his family to privacy and the role of the press in covering the country's most public figure. In an editorial, the New York World defended the right of the press to cover the president at all times: The idea of offending the bachelor sensitiveness of President Cleveland or the maidenly reserve of his bride has been far from anybody's thought... We must insist. At the end of the Cleveland administration, a new feature of press coverage of the Whit

Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University

The Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University is a public state university established in 1997 at Chennai, India by the Government of Tamil Nadu under The Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University Act, 1996, which brought all law colleges in Tamil Nadu under the control of the university, it was named after Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, an Indian jurist and member of the committee which drafted the Constitution of India; the university was inaugurated on 20 September 1997 by former president of India. The university started a law school on its own campus in 2002 as the School of Excellence in Law, Chennai. At the undergraduate level, SOEL has a three-year course leading to a Bachelor of Laws, five-year integrated double-degree courses leading to a combination between a LL. B. and a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Computing, Bachelor of Business Administration, or Bachelor of Computer Application. The Postgraduate Department provides Master of Laws degrees across nine different branches. Chief minister J Jayalalithaa in February 2016 unveiled a state-of-the-art campus for the TN Dr Ambedkar Law University at Perungudi next to Taramani MRTS station.

The new campus has separate blocks for administration and classes, besides a library at a cost of 59.27 crore. The CM opened the facility through video conferencing from her chamber at the Secretariat; the campus has hostel facilities for girls and a playground with gallery. List of Tamil Nadu Government's Law Colleges Official Website

Rebecca Webster

Rebecca Webster is an Australian rules footballer with the Geelong Football Club in the AFL Women's. Webster played with Murray Bushrangers in the TAC Cup and Melbourne University in the VFL Women's competition, she was subsequently drafted with selection number seven by Geelong in the 2018 AFL Women's draft, made her AFLW debut during the first round of the 2019 season, against Collingwood at GMHBA Stadium. She played only four games for Geelong in the 2019 AFLW season, though that year won the club's VFL Women's best and fairest award. Rebecca Webster at AustralianFootball.com