Owens Valley is the now-arid valley of the Owens River in eastern California in the United States, to the east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the White Mountains and Inyo Mountains on the west edge of the Great Basin. The mountain peaks on either side reach above 14,000 feet in elevation, while the floor of the Owens Valley is about 4,000 feet, making the valley one of the deepest in the United States; the Sierra Nevada casts the valley in a rain shadow, which makes Owens Valley "the Land of Little Rain." The bed of Owens Lake, now a predominantly dry endorheic alkali flat, sits on the southern end of the valley. The valley provides water to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, the source of one-third of the water for Los Angeles, is infamous as the scene of one of the fiercest and longest-running episodes of the California Water Wars; these episodes inspired aspects of the 1974 film Chinatown. As well, the now-arid nature of the valley is due to LADWP depleting the water of the region. For example, Owens Lake was emptied by 1926, only 13 years after LA began diverting water.
Towns in the Owens Valley include Bishop, Lone Pine and Big Pine. The major road in the Owens Valley is U. S. Route 395. About three million years ago, the Sierra Nevada Fault and the White Mountains Fault systems became active with repeated episodes of slip earthquakes producing the impressive relief of the eastern Sierra Nevada and White Mountain escarpments that bound the northern Owens Valley-Mono Basin region. Owens Valley is a graben—a downdropped block of land between two vertical faults—the westernmost in the Basin and Range Province, it is part of a trough which extends from Oregon to Death Valley called the Walker Lane. The western flank of much of the valley has large moraines coming off the Sierra Nevada; these unsorted piles of rock and dust were pushed to where they are by glaciers during the last ice age. An excellent example of a moraine is on State Route 168; this graben was formed by a long series of earthquakes, such as the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake, that have moved the graben down and helped move the Sierra Nevada up.
The graben is much larger. The topmost part of this escarpment is exposed at Alabama Hills; the Owens Valley has many mini-volcanoes, such as Crater Mountain in the Big Pine volcanic field. Smaller versions of the Devils Postpile, can be found, by Little Lake; the valley contains plants adapted to alkali flat habitat. One of these, the Owens Valley checkerbloom, is endemic to Owens Valley; the valley was inhabited in late prehistoric times by the Timbisha in the extreme south end around Owens Lake and by the Mono tribe in the central and northern portions of the valley. The Timbisha speak the Timbisha language, classified in the Numic branch of Uto-Aztecan language family; the closest related languages are Comanche. The Eastern Mono speak a dialect of the Mono language, Numic but is more related to Northern Paiute; the Timbisha presently live in Death Valley at Furnace Creek although most families have summer homes in the Lone Pine colony. The Eastern Mono live in several colonies from Lone Pine to Bishop.
Trade between Native Americans of the Owens Valley and coastal tribes such as the Chumash has been indicated by the archaeological record. On May 1, 1834, Joseph R. Walker entered Owens Valley at the mouth of Walker Pass. Walker and his group of 52 men traveled up the valley on their way back to the Humboldt Sink, back up the Humboldt River to the Rocky Mountains. In 1845, John C. Fremont named the Owens valley and lake for Richard Owens, one of his guides. Camp Independence was established on Oak Creek nearby modern Independence, California, on July 4, 1862, during the Owens Valley Indian War. From 1942 to 1945, during World War II, the first Japanese American Internment camp operated in the valley at Manzanar near Independence, California. In the early 20th century, the valley became the scene of a struggle between local residents and the city of Los Angeles over water rights. William Mulholland, superintendent of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, planned the 223-mile Los Angeles Aqueduct, completed in 1913, which diverted water from the Owens River.
The water rights were acquired in a deceitful manner splitting water cooperatives and pitting neighbors against one another. In 1924, local farmers were fed up with the purchases and erupted in violence, sabotaging parts of the water system. Los Angeles acquired a large portion of the water rights to over 300,000 acres of land in the valley completely diverting the inflows of water away from Owens Lake. Gary Libecap of the University of California, Santa Barbara observed that the price that Los Angeles was willing to pay to other water sources per acre-foot of water was far higher than what the farmers received. Farmers who resisted the pressure from Los Angeles until 1930 received the highest price for their land. However, the sale of their land brought the farmers more income than if they had kept the land for farming and ranching. None of the sales were made under threat of eminent domain; as a result of these acquisitions, the lake subsequently dried up complet
Mono County, California
Mono County is a county located in the east central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,202. Making it the fifth-least populous county in California; the county seat is Bridgeport. The county is located east of the Sierra Nevada between Nevada; the only incorporated town in the county is Mammoth Lakes, located at the foot of Mammoth Mountain. Other locations, such as June Lake, are famous as skiing and fishing resorts. Located in the middle of the county is Mono Lake, a vital habitat for millions of migratory and nesting birds; the lake is located in a wild natural setting, with pinnacles of tufa arising out of the salty and alkaline lake. Located in Mono County is Bodie, the official state gold rush ghost town, now a California State Historic Park. Mono County was formed in 1861 from parts of Calaveras and Mariposa counties. Parts of the county's territory were given to Inyo County in 1866; the county is named after Mono Lake which, in 1852, was named for a Native American Paiute tribe, the Mono people, who inhabited the Sierra Nevada from north of Mono Lake to Owens Lake.
The tribe's western neighbors, the Yokut, called them monachie, meaning "fly people" because they used fly larvae as their chief food staple and trading article. Archeologists know nothing about the first inhabitants of the county, as little material evidence has been found from them; the Kuzedika, a band of Paiute, had been there many generations by the time the first anglophones arrived. The Kuzedika were hunter-gatherers and their language is a part of the Shoshone language. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,132 square miles, of which 3,049 square miles is land and 83 square miles is water; the highest point in Mono County is White Mountain Peak which, at 14,252 feet, is the third-highest peak in California. Inyo National Forest Toiyabe National Forest Granite Mountain Wilderness The 2010 United States Census reported that Mono County had a population of 14,202; the racial makeup of Mono County was 11,697 White, 47 African American, 302 Native American, 192 Asian, 11 Pacific Islander, 1,539 from other races, 414 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,762 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,853 people, 5,137 households, 3,143 families residing in the county; the population density was 4/sq mi. There were 11,757 housing units at an average density of 4/sq mi; the racial makeup of the county was 84.2% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.5% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. 17.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.4% were of German, 12.6% Irish and 11.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 84.0% spoke English and 15.1% Spanish as their first language. There were 5,137 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 121.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 126.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,992, the median income for a family was $50,487. Males had a median income of $32,600 versus $26,227 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,422. About 6.3% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over. In November 2008, Mono County was one of just three counties in California's interior in which voters rejected Proposition 8 to ban gay marriage; the county's voters rejected Proposition 8 by 55.5 percent to 44.5 percent. The other interior counties in which Proposition 8 failed to receive a majority of votes were neighboring Alpine County and Yolo County.
Mono County is in California's 8th congressional district, represented by Republican Paul Cook. In the state legislature Mono is in the 5th Assembly district, held by Republican Frank Bigelow, the 8th Senate district, held by Republican Tom Berryhill; the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. U. S. Route 6 U. S. Route 395 State Route 108 State Route 120 State Route 167 State Route 182 State Route 270 Eastern Sierra Transit Authority operates intercity bus service along U. S. 395, as well as local services in Mammoth Lakes. Service extends south to Lancaster and north to Reno, Nevada. Yosemite Area Regional Transit System runs along U. S. 395 from Mammoth Lakes to Lee Vining before entering Yosemite National Park. General aviation airports in Mono County include Bryant Field near Bridgeport, Mammoth Yosemite Airport and Lee Vining Airport. In December 2008, Mammoth Yosemite Airport began commercial air service to Los Angeles International Airport on a seasonal basis.
The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Mono County.† county seat List of sch
The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
Mount Morgan (Inyo County, California)
Mount Morgan is a mountain located in northwestern Inyo County, California, in the John Muir Wilderness of the Inyo National Forest. Morgan stands within the endorheic watershed of Owens Lake, now a dry lake since its main source of water, the Owens River, was diverted to supply Los Angeles; the west and north sides of Mt. Morgan drain into Rock Creek, thence into the Owens River; the east and south sides of Morgan drain into Morgan Creek, thence into Pine Creek, into lower Rock Creek. Morgan can be accessed by trail from Rock Creek Canyon, above Tom's Place on 395, its trailhead is at the far end of the lake. The trail is well marked the first 4 miles to Francis Lake. From there it is a scramble up rocky slopes for 2 miles to the summit. In 1878 members of the Wheeler Survey, who made the first ascent in about 1870, named the mountain for one of its members, J. H. Morgan of Alabama. List of mountain peaks of California "Mount Morgan". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
Retrieved 2009-08-12. "Mount Morgan". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2012-04-01
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Mount Shasta is a active volcano at the southern end of the Cascade Range in Siskiyou County, California. At an elevation of 14,179 feet, it is the second-highest peak in the Cascades and the fifth-highest in the state. Mount Shasta has an estimated volume of 85 cubic miles, which makes it the most voluminous stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc; the mountain and surrounding area are part of the Shasta–Trinity National Forest. Mount Shasta is connected to its satellite cone of Shastina, together they dominate the landscape. Shasta rises abruptly to tower nearly 10,000 feet above its surroundings. On a clear winter day, the mountain can be seen from the floor of the Central Valley 140 miles to the south; the mountain has attracted the attention of poets and presidents. It is dormant; the mountain consists of four overlapping volcanic cones that have built a complex shape, including the main summit and the prominent satellite cone of 12,330 ft Shastina, which has a visibly conical form. If Shastina were a separate mountain, it would rank as the fourth-highest peak of the Cascade Range.
Mount Shasta's surface is free of deep glacial erosion except, for its south side where Sargents Ridge runs parallel to the U-shaped Avalanche Gulch. This is the largest glacial valley on the volcano. There are seven named glaciers on Mount Shasta, with the four largest radiating down from high on the main summit cone to below 10,000 ft on the north and east sides; the Whitney Glacier is the longest, the Hotlum is the most voluminous glacier in the state of California. Three of the smaller named glaciers occupy cirques near and above 11,000 ft on the south and southeast sides, including the Watkins and Mud Creek glaciers; the oldest-known human settlement in the area dates to about 7,000 years ago. At the time of Euro-American contact in the 1820s, the Native American tribes who lived within view of Mount Shasta included the Shasta, Modoc, Atsugewi, Klamath and Yana tribes; the historic eruption of Mount Shasta in 1786 may have been observed by Lapérouse, but this is disputed. Although first seen by Spanish explorers, the first reliably reported land sighting of Mount Shasta by a European or American was by Peter Skene Ogden in 1826.
In 1827, the name "Sasty" or "Sastise" was given to nearby Mount McLoughlin by Ogden. An 1839 map by David Burr lists the mountain as Rogers Peak; this name was dropped, the name Shasta was transferred to present-day Mount Shasta in 1841 as a result of work by the United States Exploring Expedition. Beginning in the 1820s, Mount Shasta was a prominent landmark along what became known as the Siskiyou Trail, which runs at Mount Shasta's base; the Siskiyou Trail was on the track of an ancient trade and travel route of Native American footpaths between California's Central Valley and the Pacific Northwest. The California Gold Rush brought the first Euro-American settlements into the area in the early 1850s, including at Yreka and Upper Soda Springs; the first recorded ascent of Mount Shasta occurred after several earlier failed attempts. In 1856, the first women reached the summit. By the 1860s and 1870s, Mount Shasta was the subject of literary interest. In 1854 John Rollin Ridge titled a poem "Mount Shasta."
A book by California pioneer and entrepreneur James Hutchings, titled Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California, contained an account of an early summit trip in 1855. The summit was achieved by John Muir, Josiah Whitney, Clarence King, John Wesley Powell. In 1877, Muir wrote a dramatic popular article about his surviving an overnight blizzard on Mount Shasta by lying in the hot sulfur springs near the summit; this experience was inspiration to Kim Stanley Robinson's short story "Muir on Shasta". The 1887 completion of the Central Pacific Railroad, built along the line of the Siskiyou Trail between California and Oregon, brought a substantial increase in tourism and population into the area around Mount Shasta. Early resorts and hotels, such as Shasta Springs and Upper Soda Springs, grew up along the Siskiyou Trail around Mount Shasta, catering to these early adventuresome tourists and mountaineers. In the early 20th century, the Pacific Highway followed the track of the Siskiyou Trail to the base of Mount Shasta, leading to still more access to the mountain.
Today's version of the Siskiyou Trail, Interstate 5, brings thousands of people each year to Mount Shasta. From February 13–19, 1959, the Mount Shasta Ski Bowl obtained the record for the most snowfall during one storm in the U. S. with a total of 15.75 feet. Mount Shasta was declared a National Natural Landmark in December 1976; the lore of some of the Klamath Tribes in the area held that Mount Shasta is inhabited by the Spirit of the Above-World, who descended from heaven to the mountain's summit at the request of a Klamath chief. Skell fought with Spirit of the Below-World, who resided at Mount Mazama by throwing hot rocks and lava representing the volcanic eruptions at both mountains. Italian settlers arrived in the early 1900s to work in the mills as stonemasons and established a strong Catholic presence in the area. Many other faiths have been attracted to Mount Shasta over the years—more than any other Cascade volcano. Mount Shasta City and Dunsmuir, small towns near Shas
Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin. The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California, although the Carson Range spur lies in Nevada; the Sierra Nevada is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, is 70 miles across east-to-west. Notable Sierra features include the largest alpine lake in North America; the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks; the character of the range is shaped by its ecology. More than one hundred million years ago during the Nevadan orogeny, granite formed deep underground; the range started to uplift four million years ago, erosion by glaciers exposed the granite and formed the light-colored mountains and cliffs that make up the range.
The uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by tectonic forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra; the Sierra Nevada has a significant history. The California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855. Due to inaccessibility, the range was not explored until 1912; the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a small but important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevada's elevation increases from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to heights of about 14,000 feet at its crest 50–75 miles to the east; the east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment. Unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift; the Sierra Nevada's irregular northern boundary stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass to the North Fork Feather River.
It represents where the granitic bedrock of the Sierra Nevada dives below the southern extent of Cenozoic igneous surface rock from the Cascade Range. It is bounded on the west by California's Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province; the southern boundary is at Tehachapi Pass. Physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division; the California Geological Survey states that "the northern Sierra boundary is marked where bedrock disappears under the Cenozoic volcanic cover of the Cascade Range." The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean at San Francisco. The northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River; the southern third of the range is drained by the Kings, Kaweah and Kern rivers, which flow into the endorheic basin of Tulare Lake, which overflows into the San Joaquin during wet years.
The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower. From north to south, the Susan River flows into intermittent Honey Lake, the Truckee River flows from Lake Tahoe into Pyramid Lake, the Carson River runs into Carson Sink, the Walker River into Walker Lake. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California; the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the peaks range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet; the crest near Lake Tahoe is 9,000 feet high, with several peaks approaching the height of Freel Peak. Farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell; the Sierra rises to 14,000 feet with Mount Humphreys near Bishop, California. Near Lone Pine, Mount Whitney is at 14,505 feet, the highest point in the contiguous United States. South of Mount Whitney, the elevation of the range dwindles.
The crest elevation is 10,000 feet near Lake Isabella, but south of the lake, the peaks reach to only a modest 8,000 feet. There are several notable geographical features in the Sierra Nevada: Lake Tahoe is a large, clear freshwater lake in the northern Sierra Nevada, with an elevation of 6,225 ft and an area of 191 sq mi. Lake Tahoe lies between a spur of the Sierra. Hetch Hetchy Valley, Yosemite Valley, Kings Canyon, Kern Canyon are examples of many glacially-scoured canyons on the west side of the Sierra. Yosemite National Park is filled with notable features such as waterfalls, granite domes, high mountains and meadows. Groves of Giant Sequoia