Last Glacial Period
The Last Glacial Period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation extending from c. 2,588,000 years ago to present. The definition of the Quaternary as beginning 2.58 Ma is based on the formation of the Arctic ice cap. The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, in the mid-Cenozoic; the term Late Cenozoic Ice Age is used to include this early phase. During this last glacial period there were alternating episodes of glacier retreat. Within the last glacial period the Last Glacial Maximum was 22,000 years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat make it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent. 13,000 years ago, the Late Glacial Maximum began.
The end of the Younger Dryas about 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch, which includes the Holocene glacial retreat. From the point of view of human archaeology, the last glacial period falls in the Paleolithic and early Mesolithic periods; when the glaciation event started, Homo sapiens were confined to lower latitudes and used tools comparable to those used by Neanderthals in western and central Eurasia and by Homo erectus in Asia. Near the end of the event, Homo sapiens migrated into Australia. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived the last glacial period in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover; the last glacial period is sometimes colloquially referred to as the "last ice age", though this use is incorrect because an ice age is a longer period of cold temperature in which year-round ice sheets are present near one or both poles.
Glacials are colder phases within an ice age. Thus, the end of the last glacial period, about 11,700 years ago, is not the end of the last ice age since extensive year-round ice persists in Antarctica and Greenland. Over the past few million years the glacial-interglacial cycles have been "paced" by periodic variations in the Earth's orbit via Milankovitch cycles; the last glacial period is the best-known part of the current ice age, has been intensively studied in North America, northern Eurasia, the Himalaya and other glaciated regions around the world. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas in the Northern Hemisphere and to a lesser extent in the Southern Hemisphere, they have different names developed and depending on their geographic distributions: Fraser, Wisconsinan or Wisconsin, Midlandian, Würm, Mérida, Weichselian or Vistulian, Valdai in Russia and Zyryanka in Siberia, Llanquihue in Chile, Otira in New Zealand. The geochronological Late Pleistocene includes the late glacial and the preceding penultimate interglacial period.
Canada was nearly covered by ice, as well as the northern part of the United States, both blanketed by the huge Laurentide Ice Sheet. Alaska remained ice free due to arid climate conditions. Local glaciations existed in the Rocky Mountains and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and as ice fields and ice caps in the Sierra Nevada in northern California. In Britain, mainland Europe, northwestern Asia, the Scandinavian ice sheet once again reached the northern parts of the British Isles, Germany and Russia, extending as far east as the Taymyr Peninsula in western Siberia; the maximum extent of western Siberian glaciation was reached by 16,000–15,000 BC and thus than in Europe. Northeastern Siberia was not covered by a continental-scale ice sheet. Instead, but restricted, icefield complexes covered mountain ranges within northeast Siberia, including the Kamchatka-Koryak Mountains; the Arctic Ocean between the huge ice sheets of America and Eurasia was not frozen throughout, but like today was only covered by shallow ice, subject to seasonal changes and riddled with icebergs calving from the surrounding ice sheets.
According to the sediment composition retrieved from deep-sea cores there must have been times of seasonally open waters. Outside the main ice sheets, widespread glaciation occurred on the highest mountains of the Alps−Himalaya mountain chain. In contrast to the earlier glacial stages, the Würm glaciation was composed of smaller ice caps and confined to valley glaciers, sending glacial lobes into the Alpine foreland; the [, the highest massifs of the Carpathian Mountains and the Balkanic peninsula mountains and to the east the Caucasus and the mountains of Turkey and Iran were capped by local ice fields or small ice sheets. In the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau, glaciers advanced particularly between 45,000 and 25,000 BC, but these datings are controversial; the formation of a contiguous ice sheet on the Tibetan Plateau is controversial. Other areas of the Northern Hemisphere did not bear extensive ice sheets, but local glaciers in high areas. Parts of Taiwan, for example, were glaciated between 42,250 and 8,680 BCE as well as the Japanese Alps
The Dark Peak is the higher and wilder part of the Peak District in England forming the northern Peak District but extends south into its eastern and western margins. It is in Derbyshire and parts of Staffordshire, Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire, it gets its name because, the underlying limestone is covered by a cap of Millstone Grit which means that in winter the soil is always saturated with water. The land is thus uninhabited moorland plateaux where any depression is filled with sphagnum bogs and black peat; the High Peak is an alternative name for the Dark Peak, but High Peak is the name of an administrative district of Derbyshire which includes part of the White Peak. The areas of Millstone Grit form an'inverted horseshoe' around the lower uncapped limestone areas of the White Peak, enclosing it to the west and east. Hence the Dark Peak is said to cover the higher, northern moors between the Hope Valley and South Pennines, the Western Moors stretching south to near the Churnet Valley, the Eastern Moors southwards towards Matlock.
The Dark Peak is one of 159 National Character Areas defined by Natural England. An area of 31,852 hectares is designated as the Dark Peak Site of Special Scientific Interest, which excludes the separately designated Eastern Moors; the SSSI extends over the borders into West Yorkshire. A large part of the SSSI is included in the South Pennine Moors Special Area of Conservation. Principal upland areas within the Dark Peak include Kinder Scout, Black Hill, the Roaches, Shining Tor and Stanage Edge. Over the years, a number of military aircraft have crashed on the Dark Peak due to a combination of numerous nearby air bases, inexperienced pilots, primitive or faulty equipment and poor visibility; because of the bleakness and emptiness of the high moorlands and the consequent difficulties of recovery, substantial wreckage remains at some sites in remote parts of the moorland, though militarily sensitive materials were removed and salvage teams sometimes gathered debris into piles, or burned or buried it.
There have been reports of ghost planes in the area of a low-flying, propeller-driven plane in difficulty before crashing into the moors. People who recovered items from the crash site were then visited by ghosts. Photos and descriptions of Dark Peak landscapes. Dark Peak Aircraft Wrecks
The Peak District is an upland area in England at the southern end of the Pennines. It is in northern Derbyshire, but includes parts of Cheshire, Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire. An area of great diversity, it is split into the Dark Peak, where most of the moorland is found and the geology is gritstone, the limestone area of the White Peak; the Peak District National Park became the first national park in the United Kingdom in 1951. With its proximity to the cities of Manchester, Stoke-on-Trent and Sheffield, access by road and rail, it attracts millions of visitors every year. Inhabited from the Mesolithic era, evidence exits from the Neolithic and Iron Ages. Settled by the Romans and Anglo-Saxons, the area remained agricultural and mining grew in importance in the medieval era. Richard Arkwright built his cotton mills at the start of the Industrial Revolution. Quarrying became important. Tourism grew after the advent of the railways, visitors attracted by the landscape, spa towns at Buxton and Matlock Bath, Castleton's show caves, Bakewell, the national park's only town.
Tourism remains important for its towns and villages and their varied attractions, country houses and heritage sites. Outside the towns, walking on the extensive network of public footpaths, cycle trails, rock climbing and caving are popular pursuits; the Peak District is at the southern end of the Pennines and much of the area is upland above 1,000 feet. Its high point is Kinder Scout at 2,087 ft. Despite its name, the landscape lacks sharp peaks, is characterised by rounded hills, valleys, limestone gorges and gritstone escarpments; the area rural, is surrounded by conurbations and large urban areas including Manchester, Sheffield and Stoke-on-Trent. The national park has a formal boundary, but the wider Peak District is less well defined; the Dark Peak is uninhabited moorland and gritstone escarpments in the north of the Peak District and its eastern and western margins. It encloses the central and southern White Peak, where most settlements and limestone gorges are located. Three of Natural England's National Character Areas include the landscape.
They cover areas inside the national park, with one including the northern and eastern parts of the Dark Peak and another including the White Peak. The western margins of the Dark Peak are in the South West Peak NCA, where farmland and pastured valleys are found as well as gritstone edges and moorland. Outside the park, some of the outer fringes and foothills are considered to be part of the Peak District, including the Churnet and lower Derwent Valleys; the region is surrounded by lowlands with gritstone moorlands of the South Pennines to the north. The national park covers 555 square miles, including most of the region in Derbyshire and extends into Staffordshire, Greater Manchester and South and West Yorkshire; the park's northern limits are on the A62 road between Huddersfield and Oldham, its southernmost point is on the A52 road near Ashbourne. The park boundaries were drawn to exclude industrial areas. Bakewell and many villages are in the national park; as of 2010, it is the fifth largest national park in Wales.
In the UK, designation as a national park means that planning and other functions are provided by a national park authority with additional planning restrictions that provide enhanced protection against inappropriate development. Land within this national park as in other UK parks is in a mix of private ownership; the National Trust, a charity that conserves historic and natural landscapes, owns about 12% of the land in the national park. Its three estates include ecologically or geologically significant areas at Bleaklow, Derwent Edge, Hope Woodlands, Kinder Scout, the Manifold valley, Mam Tor, Dovedale and Winnats Pass; the park authority owns around 5%, other major landowners include several water companies. Bakewell is the largest settlement and only town in the national park. Castleton is the centre of production of the semi-precious mineral Blue John while the village of Eyam is known for its self-imposed quarantine during the Black Death. Edale is the southern terminus of the Pennine Way, is sometimes considered to be the southern end of the Pennines.
Other villages within the park include Flash, Hartington and Tideswell. The towns of Glossop, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Macclesfield, Ashbourne and Chesterfield are on the fringes of the national park; the spa town of Buxton was developed by the Dukes of Devonshire as a genteel health resort in the 18th century while the spa at Matlock Bath in the valley of the River Derwent was popularised in the Victorian era. Hayfield is at the foot of the highest summit in the area. Other towns and villages fringing the park include Whaley Bridge, Marsden, Stocksbridge, Darley Dale and Wirksworth. Several rivers have their sources on the moorland plateaux of the Dark Peak and the high ridges of the White Peak. Many rivers in the Dark Peak and outer fringes were dammed to create reservoirs for supplying drinking water. Streams were dammed to provide headwater for water driven mills; the reservoirs of the Longdendale Chain were completed in February 1877 to provide compensation water, ensuring a continuous flow along the River Ether
Loess is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment, formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust. Ten percent of the Earth's land area is covered by similar deposits. Loess is an aeolian sediment formed by the accumulation of wind-blown silt in the 20–50 micrometer size range, twenty percent or less clay and the balance equal parts sand and silt that are loosely cemented by calcium carbonate, it is homogeneous and porous and is traversed by vertical capillaries that permit the sediment to fracture and form vertical bluffs. The word loess, with connotations of origin by wind-deposited accumulation, came into English from German Löss, which can be traced back to Swiss German and is cognate with the English word loose and the German word los, it was first applied to Rhine River valley loess about 1821. Loess is homogeneous, friable, pale yellow or buff coherent non-stratified and calcareous. Loess grains are angular with little polishing or rounding and composed of crystals of quartz, feldspar and other minerals.
Loess can be described as a dust-like soil. Loess deposits may become thick, more than a hundred meters in areas of China and tens of meters in parts of the Midwestern United States, it occurs as a blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. Loess stands in either steep or vertical faces; because the grains are angular, loess will stand in banks for many years without slumping. This soil has a characteristic called vertical cleavage which makes it excavated to form cave dwellings, a popular method of making human habitations in some parts of China. Loess will erode readily. In several areas of the world, loess ridges have formed that are aligned with the prevailing winds during the last glacial maximum; these are called "paha ridges" in "greda ridges" in Europe. The form of these loess dunes has been explained by a combination of tundra conditions. Loess comes from the German Löss or Löß, from Alemannic lösch meaning drop as named by peasants and masons along the Rhine Valley.
The term "Löß" was first described in Central Europe by Karl Cäsar von Leonhard who reported yellowish brown, silty deposits along the Rhine valley near Heidelberg. Charles Lyell brought this term into widespread usage by observing similarities between loess and loess derivatives along the loess bluffs in the Rhine and Mississippi. At that time it was thought that the yellowish brown silt-rich sediment was of fluvial origin being deposited by the large rivers, it wasn't until the end of the 19th century that the aeolian origin of loess was recognized the convincing observations of loess in China by Ferdinand von Richthofen. A tremendous number of papers have been published since focusing on the formation of loess and on loess/palaeosol sequences as archives of climate and environment change; these water conservation works were carried out extensively in China and the research of Loess in China has been continued since 1954. Much effort was put into the setting up of regional and local loess stratigraphies and their correlation.
But the chronostratigraphical position of the last interglacial soil correlating to marine isotope substage 5e has been a matter of debate, owing to the lack of robust and reliable numerical dating, as summarized for example in Zöller et al. and Frechen, Horváth & Gábris for the Austrian and Hungarian loess stratigraphy, respectively. Since the 1980s, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence and infrared stimulated luminescence dating are available providing the possibility for dating the time of loess deposition, i.e. the time elapsed since the last exposure of the mineral grains to daylight. During the past decade, luminescence dating has improved by new methodological improvements the development of single aliquot regenerative protocols resulting in reliable ages with an accuracy of up to 5 and 10% for the last glacial record. More luminescence dating has become a robust dating technique for penultimate and antepenultimate glacial loess allowing for a reliable correlation of loess/palaeosol sequences for at least the last two interglacial/glacial cycles throughout Europe and the Northern Hemisphere.
Furthermore, the numerical dating provides the basis for quantitative loess research applying more sophisticated methods to determine and understand high-resolution proxy data, such as the palaeodust content of the atmosphere, variations of the atmospheric circulation patterns and wind systems, palaeoprecipitation and palaeotemperature. According to Pye, four fundamental requirements are necessary for the formation of loess: a dust source, adequate wind energy to transport the dust, a suitable accumulation area, a sufficient amount of time. Periglacial loess is derived from the floodplains of glacial braided rivers that carried large volumes of glacial meltwater and sediments from the annual melting of continental icesheets and mountain icecaps during the spring and summer. During the autumn and winter, when melting of the icesheets and icecaps ceased, the flow of meltwater down these rivers either ceased or was reduced; as a consequence, large parts of the submerged and unvegetated floodplains of these braided rivers dried out and were exposed to the wind.
Because these floodplains consist of sediment containing a high content of glacial
Dovedale is a valley in the Peak District of England. The land is owned by the National Trust, annually attracts a million visitors; the valley was cut by the River Dove and runs for just over 3 miles between Milldale in the north and a wooded ravine near Thorpe Cloud and Bunster Hill in the south. In the wooded ravine, a set of stepping stones cross the river, there are two caves known as the Dove Holes. Dovedale's other attractions include rock pillars such as Ilam Rock, Viator's Bridge, the limestone features Lovers' Leap and Reynard's Cave; the limestone rock that forms the geology of Dovedale is the fossilised remains of sea creatures that lived in a shallow sea over the area during the Carboniferous period, about 350 million years ago. During the two ice ages, the limestone rock was cut into craggy shapes by glacial meltwater, dry caves such as Dove Holes and Reynard's Kitchen Cave were formed; the caves were used as shelters by hunters around 13,000 BCE, Dovedale has seen continuous human activity since.
Around 4,500 years ago Neolithic farmers used the caves as tombs. There is evidence from Reynard's Cave of Bronze Age activity, artifacts found there are displayed at Buxton Museum and Art Gallery. Vikings settled in the area around 800 CE. Local place names such as Thorpe are of Scandinavian origin; these settlements became permanent, Thorpe is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086. Viator's Bridge, a packhorse bridge in Milldale has been in use since the medieval period when silks and flax were transported from nearby Wetton and Alstonefield. Tourism started in the 18th century, Dovedale is now one of the most visited natural tourist sites in Britain. In July 2014 it was announced that a hoard of Late Iron Age and Roman coins has been discovered in Reynard's Kitchen Cave; the 26 coins discovered, which have been declared as "treasure", included three Roman coins that pre-date the Roman invasion of Britain, 20 other gold and silver pieces of Late Iron Age date and thought to derive from the Corieltavi tribe.
National Trust archaeologist Rachael Hall said: "The coins would suggest a serious amount of wealth and power of the individual who owned them." The coins were scheduled to go on display at Buxton Museum in late 2014. The River Dove is 45 miles in length. Charles Cotton's Fishing House, the inspiration for Izaak Walton's The Compleat Angler, stands in the woods by the river. From Hartington to its confluence with the River Manifold at Ilam the River Dove flows through the scenic limestone valley known as Dove Valley, or Dovedale. From Hartington south to Ilam, a distance of eight miles, the Dove flows through Beresford Dale, Wolfscote Dale and Dovedale. Much of the dale is in the ownership of the National Trust's South Peak Estate. Dovedale was acquired in 1934, with successive properties added until 1938, Wolfscote Dale in 1948. Dovedale became a National Nature Reserve in 2006 in recognition that it is "one of England's finest wildlife sites" with diverse plant life and interesting rock formations.
The National Trust became embroiled in controversy in 2010, when in conjunction with Derbyshire County Council it oversaw the renovation of Dovedale's iconic stepping stones. It involved topping all but one of the stones with layers of limestone slabs. At the southern end of Dovedale, at grid reference SK151510 between the villages of Thorpe and Ilam, stands Thorpe Cloud, 942 ft, an isolated limestone hill known as a reef knoll, it provides a viewpoint north up the dale and south across the Midlands plain. Its name "cloud" is a derivation of the Old English word clud which means "hill". On the opposite bank, at grid reference SK141516, is the higher but less isolated Bunster Hill, 1,079 ft, a reef knoll, they were acquired by the National Trust in 1934 for the South Peak Estate. Milldale is a village of stone cottages at the northern end of Dovedale and the main access point to the dale from the north. A corn mill existed until the mid-19th century, its stables are now used as an information hut by the National Trust.
The ancient, narrow packhorse bridge at Milldale had no side walls so that horses with panniers could cross the bridge without being impeded. Izaak Walton, who refers to himself as "Viator", Latin for "traveller", wrote about it in The Compleat Angler: "What’s here, the sign of a bridge? Do you travel in wheelbarrows in this country? This bridge was made for nothing else – why a mouse can hardly go over it, tis not two fingers broad!" From this the bridge acquired the name Viator's Bridge. The bridge has been in use since the medieval period, for packhorses transporting silks and flax from nearby Wetton and Alstonefield, it is listed as an ancient monument. Dovedale is notable for its numerous limestone formations; the most southerly named formation, Dovedale Castle, is a short distance along the river from the stepping stones at Thorpe Cloud. The limestone promontory called; the steps were built by Italian prisoners of war captured in the Second World War and are now maintained by the National Trust and the National Park Authority.
At Lover's Leap, a young woman who believed her lover had been killed in the Napoleonic Wars threw herself from the promontory. Her skirt caught in the branches of a tree as she saved her life; when she got home, she heard. There are other similar legends about Lover's Leap, including one that places the same story in World War II. Opposite Lover's Leap is a limestone formation called the [[Twelve Apostles; the rock spires have been created from hard reef limestone. The National Trust c
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Litton is a village and civil parish in the Peak District of Derbyshire, England. The population at the 2011 Census was 675, it is one mile six miles from Bakewell. The village has a primary school, a public house and a post office run by a co-operative of villagers. There are two churches, one at the east end of the village, Christ Church at the west, on the outskirts of the village on the road to Tideswell. Litton has a well dressing each summer; the display is set on a base of moist clay and the patterns formed from petals, seeds and lichens. When it was first classed as a village in the late 18th century there were only a few houses on the outskirts of Tideswell. On, however, a lead mine was built near Peter's Rock. An obelisk-style cross shaft lies atop steps on the village green; this was the birthplace in 1628 of William Bagshaw, the celebrated Nonconformist divine called the “Apostle of the Peak”. Litton Village Website