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White Sea

The White Sea is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia. It is surrounded by Karelia to the west, the Kola Peninsula to the north, the Kanin Peninsula to the northeast; the whole of the White Sea is under Russian sovereignty and considered to be part of the internal waters of Russia. Administratively, it is divided between Arkhangelsk and Murmansk oblasts and the Republic of Karelia; the major port of Arkhangelsk is located on the White Sea. For much of Russia's history this was Russia's main centre of international maritime trade, conducted by the Pomors from Kholmogory. In the modern era it became an important Soviet submarine base; the White Sea–Baltic Canal connects the White Sea with the Baltic Sea. The White Sea is one of the four seas named in English after common colour terms—the others being the Black Sea, the Red Sea, the Yellow Sea; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of the White Sea as "A line joining Svyatoi Nos and Cape Kanin".

There are four main gulfs on the White Sea. These bays connect with the funnel-shaped opening to the Barents Sea via a narrow strait called "Gorlo". Kandalaksha Gulf lies in the western part of the White Sea. On the south, Onega Bay receives the Onega River. To the southeast, the Dvina Bay receives the Northern Dvina River at the major port of Arkhangelsk. On the east side of the'gorlo', opposite to the Kola Peninsula, is Mezen Bay, it receives the Kuloy River. Other major rivers flowing into the sea are the Vyg, Umba and Ponoy; the seabed of the central part and Dvina Bay is covered in silt and sand, whereas the bottom of the northern part, the Kandalaksha Gulf and Onega Bay is a mixture of sand and stones. Ice age deposits emerge near the sea shores. Northwestern coasts are tall and rocky but the slope is much weaker at the southeastern side; the White Sea contains a large number of islands. The main island group is the Solovetsky Islands, located in the middle of the sea, near the entrance to Onega Bay.

Kiy Island in Onega Bay is significant due to a historic monastery. Velikiy Island, located close to the shore, is the largest island in the Kandalaksha Gulf; the White Sea is a water-filled depression in the block of a continental shelf known as the Baltic Shield. Its bottom is uneven and contains the Kandalaksha Hollow in the northwest and the Solovetsky Islands in the south; the Onega Bay has many small underwater elevations. The opening and the gorlo of the sea are rather shallow, with depths about 50 metres or less. In addition, there is an underwater ridge in the northern part of the gorlo, resulting in maximum depths of 40 metres in that part; this hinders water exchange between the Barents seas. The exchange is however assisted by the tides, which are semidiurnal, with the amplitude increasing from 1 metre on the south to 10 metres in Mezen Bay. Currents are rather weak in the open seas with the speed below 1 km/h, but they strengthen in the bays; the tidal waves are much faster than the regular currents and reach the speeds of 9 km/h in Mezen Bay, 3.6 km/h in Onega Bay and 1.3 km/h in the Kandalaksha Gulf.

Rivers bring annually about 215 km3 of fresh water, on average to the Onega and Dvina bays. The Northern Dvina River alone may contribute up to 171 km3 in some years, with the Mezen, Onega and Vyg rivers adding up to 38.5, 27.0, 12.5 and 11.5 km3, respectively. About 40% of this volume is brought during the snow melting in May, the inflow is minimal in February–March; this inflow lowers the sea level that promotes the water exchange with the Barents Sea. As a result, about 2,000 km3 and 2,200 km3 flow in and out of the White Sea, respectively; the inflow of fresh water in spring decreases the surface salinity in the top 5–10 metre layer to 23‰ in the eastern and 26–27‰ in the western parts of the sea, reaching 10–12‰ in Dvina Bay. Storms are the strongest in October–November. However, small sea depths reduce the wave height to the average of 1 metre, sometimes reaching 3–5 metres; the sea is quiet in July–August. The climate varies between moderate continental with frequent fogs and clouds. Winds are predominantly southwestern in winter with speeds of 4–8 m/s.

They bring cold air from the south, establishing the temperature of about −15 °C over most of the sea. The northern part is warmer at about −9 °C, sometimes reaching −6 °C, due to the warm air masses from the Atlantic. Arctic anticyclones, change winds to the northeastern ones, bringing much colder weather with temperatures of about −25 °C. Summers are cold and humid, with northeastern winds and frequent rains. Average July temperatures are 8–10 °C. Occasional southeastern winds bring warm air from Europe, raising the temperature to 17–19 °C and sometimes to 30 °C. Annual precipitations increase from 282 mm in the north 529 in the south. In winter, from October–November to May–June, the sea freezes, with the average January water temperatures of −1.9 °C in the north, between −1.3 and −1.7 °С in the centre, between −0.5 and −0.7 °С in the bays. These variations are due to the distribution of water salinity across the sea, which increases from 24–26‰ in the centre to 30.5‰ in the gorlo, reaching 34.0–34.5‰ toward the Barents Sea.

The freezing period varies from

Karl Sabbagh

Karl Sabbagh is a Palestinian-British writer and television producer. His work is non-fiction writing pieces: he has written books about historical events and produced documentaries for both British and American broadcasters. Karl Sabbagh was born in England in the early 1940s, his father was the Palestinian Christian broadcaster Isa Sabbagh, at the time working for the BBC Arabic Service. His parents divorced soon after he was born, his father lived in the United States, but Karl remained in England with his mother. Sabbagh's book Palestine interweaves a history of Palestine from the 18th century, with an account of his paternal family, who were prominent christian members of Palestinian society in Galilee throughout that period, settled in the town of Safad from at least the beginning of the 19th century; the book includes a critical account of the Zionist settlement and eventual takeover of Palestine in the first half of the 20th century. In September 2019, Sabbagh was jailed for 45 months and sentenced to sign the sex offenders register for life after being convicted of grooming a 14 year old girl.

The Living Body. Skyscraper: The Making of a Building Magic or Medicine?: An Investigation of Healing & Healers Twenty-First-Century Jet: The Making and Marketing of the Boeing 777 A Rum Affair: A True Story Of Botanical Fraud Power into Art The Riemann Hypothesis: The Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics Palestine: A Personal History Your Case is Hopeless: Bracing Advice From the Boy's Own Paper Remembering our Childhood: How Memory Betrays Us The Hair of the Dog and Other Scientific Surprises The Trials of Lady Jane Douglas Antisemitism Wars: How the British Media Failed Their Public ISBN 9781911072362 Palestinian Christians Bibliographical information from the British Library Catalogue and Library of Congress Catalog

Antonio De Rosso

Antonio De Rosso was an Italian priest and Christian leader who successively belonged to various Christian denominations. After initial priestly service in the Catholic Church, he changed several affiliations, he became Eastern Orthodox bishop, founder of the Orthodox Church in Italy, Metropolitan of Ravenna and Italy, Archbishop of L'Aquila. He was associated with various independent jurisdictions. Main goal of his religious activity was to create a national church in Italy, he was born in 1941 in a Roman Catholic family. In 1968, he was ordained priest of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Vittorio Veneto, by Bishop Albino Luciani, who became Pope John Paul I. By 1983, he had left the Catholic Church, associating himself in succession with several Christian denominations, he converted to Eastern Orthodoxy, entering into communion with the Old Calendarist movement. In 1986, he became bishop of Aprilia and Latium, under the jurisdiction of Metropolitan Kyprianos Koutsoumpas of Oropos and Fili, leader of the Old Calendarist Orthodox Church of Greece.

In 1991 he founded the Orthodox Church in Italy, aspiring to create a national church in his country. In 1993, he tried to enter into communion with the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, presented himself to Metropolitan Simeon, head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Eparchy of Western Europe. Failing to achieve canonical recognition, he turned to the newly formed Alternative Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. In 1995, he became a Bishop of Ravenna and Italy, in 1997 he was raised to the rank of a Metropolitan of Ravenna and Italy, becoming a member of the Alternative Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, as the head of the autonomous Orthodox Church in Italy. Metropolitan Antonio was in communion with leaders of several other non-canonical jurisdictions, including Patriarch Filaret Denysenko of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Mihailo Dedeić of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church. In January 2009, he moved his seat to L'Aquila, took the title Archbishop of L'Aquila, but fell ill and died on 20 February 2009.

After his death, his Orthodox Church in Italy was divided between two fractions. First fraction was headed by his associate, Archbishop Basilio Grillo-Miceli, who created the Orthodox Church of Italy. Second fraction was organized as an association in memory of its deceased primate, joined the Nordic Catholic Church. Eastern Orthodoxy in Italy