White South Africans or European South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial or ethnic groups of Europe. In linguistic and historical terms, they are divided into the Afrikaans-speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company's original settlers, known as Afrikaners, the Anglophone descendants of predominantly British colonists. In 2016, 57.9% were native Afrikaans speakers, 40.2% were native English speakers, 1.9% spoke another language as their mother tongue, such as Portuguese or German. White South Africans are by far the largest European-descended population group in Africa. White South Africans differ from other White African groups, because they have a sense of separate cultural identity, as in the case of the Afrikaners, who established a distinct language and faith; the history of White settlement in South Africa started in 1652 with the settlement of the Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch East India Company under Jan van Riebeeck. Despite the preponderance of officials and colonists from the Netherlands, there were a number of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution at home and German soldiers or sailors returning from service in Asia.
The Cape Colony remained under Dutch rule for two more centuries, after which it was annexed by the United Kingdom around 1806. At that time, South Africa was home to about 26,000 people of European descent, a relative majority of whom were still of Dutch origin. However, beginning in 1818 thousands of British immigrants arrived in the growing Cape Colony, looking to join the local workforce or settle directly on the frontier. About a fifth of the Cape's original Dutch-speaking white population migrated eastwards during the Great Trek in the 1830s and established their own autonomous Boer republics further inland; the population of European origin continued increasing in the Cape as a result of immigration, by 1865 had reached 181,592 people. Between 1880 and 1910, there was an influx of immigrants arriving from Eastern Europe, including many Lithuanian Jews. An influx of Arabs Lebanese, began arriving to South Africa in the late 19th century; the first nationwide census in South Africa was held in 1911 and indicated a white population of 1,276,242.
By 1936, there were an estimated 2,003,857 white South Africans, by 1946 the number had reached 2,372,690. The country began receiving tens of thousands of European immigrants, namely from Germany, the Netherlands and the territories of the Portuguese Empire during the mid to late twentieth century. South Africa's white population increased to over 3,408,000 by 1965, reached 4,050,000 in 1973, peaked at 5,044,000 in 1990; the number of white South Africans resident in their home country began declining between 1990 and the mid-2000s as a result of increased emigration. Today, white South Africans are considered to be the last major white population group of European ancestry on the African continent, due in part to the mass exodus of colonialists from most other African states during regional decolonisation. Whites continue to play a role across the political spectrum; the current number of white South Africans is not known, as no recent census has been measured, although the overall percentage of up to 9% of the population represents a decline, both numerically and proportionately, since the country's first non-racial elections in 1994.
Just under a million white South Africans are living as expatriate workers abroad, which forms the majority of South Africa's brain drain. Under the Population Registration Act of 1950, each inhabitant of South Africa was classified into one of several different race groups, of which White was one; the Office for Race Classification defined a white person as one who "in appearance is a white person, not accepted as a coloured person. Many criteria, both physical and social were used when the board decided to classify someone as white or coloured; this was extended to all those considered the children of two White persons, regardless of appearance. The Act was repealed on 17 June 1991. In Employment Equity Act of 1994, legislation propagates employment of black South Africans. Black Economic Empowerment legislation further empowerers blacks as the government considers ownership, employment and social responsibility initiatives, which empower black South Africans, as important criteria when awarding tenders.
However, private enterprises adheres to this legislation voluntarily. Some reports indicate a growing number of whites suffering from poverty compared to the pre-apartheid years and attribute this to such laws — over 350,000 Afrikaners may be classified as poor, with some research claiming that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival. This, combined with a wave of violent crime, has led to vast numbers of Afrikaners and English-speaking South Africans leaving the country. Since 1994, there has been significant emigration of white people from South Africa. There are thus large Afrikaner and English-speaking South African communities in the United Kingdom and other developed countries. Between 1995 and 2005, more than one million South Africans emigrated, citing violent and racially motivated black on white crime as the main reason, as well as the lack of employment opportunities for whites. In recent decades, there has been a steady proportional decli
Adam Norbert Hałaciński is a Polish diplomat. Hałaciński graduated from German studies at the University of Warsaw, he has been studying at the University of Warsaw Faculty of Journalism and Political Science, Polish Institute of International Affairs, the Diplomatic Academy of Vienna. In 1989, he joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland. Between 1993 and 1999 he was at the Permanent Representation to the OSCE in Vienna, in 1998 Poland was chairing the Organization. After the posting he was working at the Department of Central and Southern Europe and, as a director, at the Department of Western Europe. Afterwards, he was seputy director of the Department of Europe responsible for cooperation with Western European countries, establishing the International Visegrad Fund. Following his work as deputy ambassador to Austria, he was deputy director of the Department of Europe, head of the Department of Central and Southern Europe. From 2010 to 2014 Hałaciński was serving as the ambassador to the Kingdom of Sweden.
Between 2015 and 2016 he was the Minister's Plenipotentiary for the Preparation of 2016 NATO Summit. From April 2017 he has been heading the Security Policy Department. On 31 October 2019, he was appointed Permanent Representative to the OSCE, he took the post on 20 January 2020, three days presented the credetials to the OSCE Secretary General Thomas Greminger. Besides Polish, Hałaciński speaks English and Swedish. Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta
Moniruzzaman known as Mohāmmada Manirujjāmāna, Maniruzzaman is a retired Professor of Linguistics at the University of Chittagong, Bangladesh. His publications include eight edited books, he was awarded the 2015 Bangla Academy Literary Award in the Research category. Maniruzzaman took his early schooling in Naihati and Kolkata. In 1947 before the Partition of India, his family returned to his father's ancestral village of Adiabad, in Raipura Upazila, now in Narsingdi District, where he matriculated from Adiabad Islamia High School in 1953 and was admitted to St. Gregory College. Financial hardship due to the death of his father forced him to withdraw from the college in 1957, he obtained a BA with Honours in Bengali in 1960 from University of Dhaka, an MA in 1961. His PhD work was conducted under a scholarship at the Central Institute of Indian Languages, supervised by Debi Prasanna Pattanayak, the title of his thesis is Controlled historical reconstruction based on five Bengali dialects. Maniruzzaman worked as a teacher in a number of degree colleges between 1961 and 1968, before joining the Bengali Department of Chittagong University in 1968, where he continued teaching until 2008, except for a break to complete his PhD, to work as a Visiting Lecturer at the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing in Mysore.
Maniruzzaman has served as Dean of the Faculty of Arts, University of Chittagong, as Executive Director of the Nazrul Institute, Dhaka. Since retirement he worked as a part-time teacher at Dhaka University. Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Jahangir Tareque 1994. Bangla Academy Bengali-English dictionary; the Academy, Dhaka. ISBN 9840731408
La Pobla de Lillet is a municipality in the comarca of the Berguedà in Catalonia. It is located in the upper valley of the Llobregat river and is linked to Guardiola de Berguedà by Road B-402; the town is home to a park designed by Antoni Gaudí in the 1900s. Other sights include the 15th-century bridge, the Sanctuary of Falgars and remains of the late 13th-century fortress; the Ferrocarril Turístic de l'Alt Llobregat is a 600 mm gauge tourist railway that runs from the narrow gauge railway museum at La Pobla de Lillet to the cement museum at Clot del Moro. Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona: Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3. ISBN 84-87135-02-1. Official website Government data pages
Hannah Mary Bardell is a Scottish National Party politician who has served as the Member of Parliament for Livingston in West Lothian, Scotland since the 2015 general election. She has been the SNP Spokesperson for Digital, Culture and Sport since May 2018. Bardell was born on 1 June 1983 in Livingston, she attended the University of Stirling. Bardell served as the National Union of Students' women's officer, her first jobs were with STV Glasgow and GMTV London, where she became an assistant producer of The Sunday Programme, a current affairs series. After first meeting Alex Salmond in 2007, Bardell joined the SNP's election campaign for the 2007 Scottish Parliament election. For three years, she worked for Ian Hudghton MEP in his constituency office. Bardell worked for the US State Department in their Edinburgh Consulate. Before joining the oil and gas industry with Subsea 7 for Oil & Gas Service company Stork as Head of Communications & Marketing for the UK, Africa & Norway, she left the oil & gas industry after only 3 years, in acrimonious circumstances, having admitted to having voluntarily signed a non-disclosure agreement on leaving her position with Stork after allegations of bullying.
She refused to state whether any payment was made to her in relation to the NDA. Bardell contested the Livingston seat for the SNP in the 2015 UK general election, her mother, Lis Bardell had finished in second place for the SNP in the same constituency at the 2010 UK general election. Bardell was elected with 32,736 votes, a majority of 16,843 votes over the sitting Labour Party MP, Graeme Morrice, overturning a Labour majority of 10,791 votes at the 2010 general election. Bardell became Shadow SNP Westminster Group Leader in October 2015 and latterly was Spokesperson for Small Business and Innovation, she was re-elected at the 2017 UK general election, with a reduced majority of 3,878 votes. In November 2018, the Commons Speaker reprimanded Bardell for playing football in the ancient debating chamber of the House of Commons at Westminster. Bardell is one of 32 LGBT MPs in the House of Commons. Following the 2015 general election, she said: "I only came out to myself and to my family during the election.
I chose not to say anything publicly because I had just got elected and I didn't want it to be one of the first things I said about myself as an MP". Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Hannah Bardell on Twitter SNP profile SNP MP Guardian profiles Sunday Post SNP MP profiles
The Wannier functions are a complete set of orthogonal functions used in solid-state physics. They were introduced by Gregory Wannier. Wannier functions are the localized molecular orbitals of crystalline systems; the Wannier functions for different lattice sites in a crystal are orthogonal, allowing a convenient basis for the expansion of electron states in certain regimes. Wannier functions have found widespread use, for example, in the analysis of binding forces acting on electrons; these functions are used in the analysis of excitons and condensed Rydberg matter. Although, like localized molecular orbitals, Wannier functions can be chosen in many different ways, the original and most common definition in solid-state physics is as follows. Choose a single band in a perfect crystal, denote its Bloch states by ψ k = e i k ⋅ r u k where uk has the same periodicity as the crystal; the Wannier functions are defined by ϕ R = 1 N ∑ k e − i k ⋅ R ψ k,where R is any lattice vector. This includes N different values of k, spread out uniformly through the Brillouin zone.
Since N is very large, the sum can be written as an integral according to the replacement rule: ∑ k ⟶ N Ω ∫ BZ d 3 k where "BZ" denotes the Brillouin zone, which has volume Ω. On the basis of this definition, the following properties can be proven to hold: For any lattice vector R', ϕ R = ϕ R + R ′ In other words, a Wannier function only depends on the quantity; as a result, these functions are written in the alternative notation ϕ:= ϕ R The Bloch functions can be written in terms of Wannier functions as follows: ψ k = 1 N ∑ R e i k ⋅ R ϕ R,where the sum is over each lattice vector R in the crystal. The set of wavefunctions ϕ R is an orthonormal basis for the band in question. ∫ crystal ϕ R ∗ ϕ R ′ d 3 r = 1 N ∑ k, k ′ ∫ crystal e i k ⋅ R ψ k ∗ e − i k ′ ⋅ R ′ ψ k ′ d 3 r = 1 N ∑ k, k ′ e i k ⋅ R e − i k ′ ⋅ R ′ δ k, k