click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

White Terror (Taiwan)

In Taiwan, the White Terror was the suppression of political dissidents following the February 28 Incident. The period of martial law lasted for 38 years and 57 days from 19 May 1949 to 15 July 1987. Taiwan's period of martial law had been the longest period of martial law in the world at the time it was lifted, but has since been surpassed by the incumbent Syrian 48-year period of martial law, which lasted from 1963 to 2011; the term "White Terror" in its broadest meaning refers to the entire period from 1947 to 1987. Around 140,000 Taiwanese were imprisoned during this period, of whom from about 3,000 to 4,000 were executed for their real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang government led by Chiang Kai-shek. Most actual prosecutions, took place in 1950–1953. Most of those prosecuted were labeled by the Kuomintang as "bandit spies", meaning spies for Chinese communists, punished as such; the KMT imprisoned Taiwan's intellectual and social elite out of fear that they might resist KMT rule or sympathize with communism.

For example, the Formosan League for Reemancipation was a Taiwanese independence group established in 1947 which the KMT believed to be under communist control, leading to its members being arrested in 1950. The World United Formosans for Independence was persecuted for similar reasons. However, other prosecutions did not have such clear reasoning. A large number of the White Terror's other victims were mainland Chinese, many of whom owed their evacuation to Taiwan to the KMT. After having come unaccompanied to Taiwan, these refugees to Taiwan were considered more disposable than local Taiwanese. Many of the mainland Chinese who survived the White Terror in Taiwan, like Bo Yang and Li Ao, moved on to promote Taiwan's democratization and the reform of the Kuomintang. In 1969, future president Lee Teng-hui was detained and interrogated for more than a week by the Taiwan Garrison Command, which demanded to know about his "communist activities" and told him "killing you at this moment is as easy as crushing an ant to death."

Three years he was invited to join the cabinet of Chiang Ching-kuo. Fear of discussing the White Terror and the February 28 Incident decreased with the lifting of martial law in 1987, culminating in the establishment of an official public memorial and an apology by President Lee Teng-hui in 1995. In 2008, President Ma Ying-jeou addressed a memorial service for the White Terror in Taipei. Ma apologized to the victims and their family members on behalf of the government, expressed the hope that Taiwan would never again experience a similar tragedy. 1949: 713 Penghu incident or the Shantung student refugee incident, where secondary school students, refugees from Shandong province, were conscripted by force as child soldiers on July 13. 1952: Chungli Yimin Middle School incident 1952: Luku incident 1953: Aborigine leaders Tang Shou-jen and Kao Yi-sheng are arrested and executed in 1954. 1960: Arrest of Lei Chen, publisher of the Free China Journal 1961: Su Tung-chi case 1968: Arrests of writers Chen Yin-chen and Chiu Yen-liang, who supported independence 1972: Trials of Huang Chi-nan and Chung Chien-hsun 1979: Eight pro-democracy activists are arrested following a riot on December 10 known as the Kaohsiung Incident.

1980: The mother and twin daughters of democracy activist Lin Yi-hsiung are stabbed to death on Feb. 28. 1981: Professor Chen Wen-chen is found dead on July 3 after a long interrogation session with government officials. 1984: Journalist Henry Liu is assassinated at his home in Daly City, California for writings disparaging President of the Republic of China, Chiang Ching-kuo. Since the lifting of martial law in 1987, the government has set up the 228 Incident Memorial Foundation, a civilian reparations fund supported by public donations for the victims and their families. Many descendants of victims remain unaware that their family members were victims, while many of the families of victims from Mainland China did not know the details of their relatives' mistreatment during the riot; those who have received compensation more than two times are still demanding a trial of the still-living soldiers who were responsible for death of their loved ones. Hou Hsiao-hsien's A City of Sadness, the first movie dealing with the February 28 incident, won the Golden Lion at the 1989 Venice Film Festival.

The 2009 thriller Formosa Betrayed relates the incident as part of the motivation behind Taiwan independence activist characters. The 2019 horror film Detention, an adaptation of the eponymous video game, deals with a group of students and teachers who are arrested for political reasons during White Terror. Taiwanese-American Julie Wu's novel The Third Son describes the event and its aftermath from the viewpoint of a Taiwanese boy. In her 2013 novel, The 228 Legacy, author Jennifer J. Chow brings to light the emotional ramifications for those who lived through the events yet suppressed their knowledge out of fear, it focuses on how there was such an impact that it permeated throughout multiple generations within the same family. Shawna Yang Ryan's novel Green Island tells the story of the incident as it affects three generations of a Taiwanese family. Ken Liu's The Paper Menagerie & Other Short Stories includes a short story titled The Literomancer which references the 228 incident from the perspective of a young American girl who had moved to Taiwan, asks both her father, who works on an American military base, a neighbor, old man named Mr. Kan about the incident.

It develops on these two different perspectives throughout the story, becoming progressively darker. In 2017, Taiwane

KT (energy)

KT is the product of the Boltzmann constant, k, the temperature, T. This product is used in physics as a scale factor for energy values in molecular-scale systems, as the rates and frequencies of many processes and phenomena depend not on their energy alone, but on the ratio of that energy and kT, that is, on E / kT. For a system in equilibrium in canonical ensemble, the probability of the system being in state with energy E is proportional to e−ΔE / kT. More fundamentally, kT is the amount of heat required to increase the thermodynamic entropy of a system, in natural units, by one nat. E / kT therefore represents an amount of entropy per molecule, measured in natural units. In macroscopic scale systems, with large numbers of molecules, RT value is used. RT is the product of the molar gas constant, R, the temperature, T; this product is used in physics as a scaling factor for energy values in macroscopic scale, as many processes and phenomena depend not on the energy alone, but on the ratio of energy and RT, i.e. E/RT.

The SI units for RT are joules per mole. It differs from kT only by a factor of the Avogadro constant, NA, its dimension is energy or ML2T−2, expressed in SI units as joules: kT = RT/NA Atkins' Physical Chemistry, 9th ed. by P. Atkins and J. dePaula, Oxford University Press

Latvian Riflemen Soviet Divisions

Latvian Riflemen Soviet Divisions were military formations of the Red Army during World War II created in 1941 and consisting of ethnic Latvians. After the occupation of Latvia in June 1940 the annihilation of the Latvian Army began; the army was renamed People’s Army and in September–November 1940- Red Army’s 24th Territorial Rifle Corps. In September the corps contained 24,416 men but in autumn more than 800 officers and about 10,000 instructors and soldiers were discharged; the arresting of soldiers continued in the following months. In June 1941, the entire Territorial Corps was sent to Litene camp. Before leaving the camp, Latvians drafted in 1939 were demobilised, replaced by about 4000 Russian soldiers from area around Moscow. On June 10, the corps senior officers were sent to Russia where they were arrested and most of them shot. On June 14 at least 430 officers were sent to Gulag camps. After German attack to Soviet Union, from June 29 to July 1 more 2080 Latvian soldiers were demobilsed, fearing that they might turn their weapons against the Russian commissars and officers.

Many soldiers and officers deserted and when the corps crossed the Latvian border only about 3000 Latvian soldiers remained. On July 1940, 1st and 2nd workers regiments were formed in Estonia from Latvian workers guard battalions and other active duty soldiers, who at the beginning of German attack, fled from Latvia to Estonia. 1st Latvian Workers Regiment was formed on July 18, 1941. Their strength was about 900 men, and, subordinate to 8th Army, 10th Rifle Corps. In the beginning the regiment guarded the Corps rear lines and fought with Estonian and Latvian Destruction battalions, but joined in battles against the Army Group North; the regiment suffered heavy losses, at the end of July transferred to Gogland Island and to Kotlin Island. From the left over regiment was formed Latvian Battalion, part of the Red Army's 10th Rifle Division, 62nd Regiment; the Latvian battalion had only 283 soldiers. By riflemen, Germans battalions destroyed them and the remaining part retreated to Leningrad, Peterhof to be placed in 76th Latvian Riflemen Regiment.

2nd Regiment was formed July 15 in Estonia. The Regiment's strength was about 1,200 soldiers. In Estonia, the regiment suffered heavy losses was surrounded, but broke out and fought in the Leningrad Oblast until October 20. On September 4 the regiment transferred to 76th Latvian Rifle Regiment. On October 22 on account of heavy losses the regiment was disbanded January 1942 and the leftover soldiers were transferred to other Latvian Rifle Divisions. See 201st Motor Rifle Division and 43rd Guards Rifle Division. See 308th Rifle Division Regiment was organized on February 18, 1942; that was subordinate to Moscow Military District, placed at Gorokhovets. Commander was P. Alksnis-Dreimanis H. Šponbergs. Regiment trained and placed with 201st Division, Second Army and Latvian partisans, gave cadets to the forming of the Latvian Air Regiment. Latvian Riflemen name was given to its aviation squadron; this squadron belonged to 1st Air Army, 303rd Division, 18th Guard Aviation Regiment, joined in battles for Briańsk, Western Front and 3rd Belorussian Front.

The Latvian Riflemen name was given to a column. On August 16, 1942 they formed a Latvian Separate Reserve Riflemen Regiment in the Gorokhovets region as 246th Tank Brigade; this tank unit joined in the Battle of Stalingrad and the Prague Offensive. 1st Latvian Bomber Aviation Regiment was founded September 1943. Until July 12, 1943, it was the 24th Latvian Aviation Squadron; this Regiment supported the XXIV Latvian Territorial Corps. 1st Latvian Bomber Regiment contained assigned reserve units. Their commander was an Estonian. On September 28, 1943, the regiment joined the Northwestern Front, 6th Air Army, 242nd Bomber Division; the Regiment was attached to other air force units, with a greater part in night bombing. The Latvian Air Regiment joined the operations in the Baltic region. On August 9, 1944, the Regiment transferred to 1st Rēzekne Latvian Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, it transferred to 322nd Rēzekne Latvian Night Bomber Aviation Regiment. Battle orders to the regiment included the Courland Pocket.

Overall they flew 6,475 combat missions. Following the Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944 mobilisation of persons born between 1903 and 1926 began in Eastern Latvia in July 27 and in Riga on November 3. According to Soviet sources, a total of 50,000 Latvian citizens were mobilised in combatant units by the end of the war; however many Latvians evaded deserted. By January 1945, 2214 soldiers had deserted and by February 1529 soldiers had been sent to Gulag camps; the Latvian Division in Soviet Army continued operating in Latvia after the war until 1956

James Balfour (architect)

James Balfour was a Canadian architect. Son of Peter Balfour, Hamilton alderman and carpenter. Educated in Hamilton. Studied architecture with the famous firm of Peddie and Kniver in Edinburgh, Scotland. Before returning to Hamilton he worked in New York City for several years. First professional mention of Balfour in Hamilton is in the 1876-7 city directory; the house still standing at 250 James Street South was one of his early designs. His larger buildings were of the Romanesque style, revived around 1870 by Henry Hobson Richardson of the United States. Tuckett Mansion, on corner of King & Queen, now forms a portion of the complex known as the Scottish Rite. Completed in 1896 for George Elias Tuckett, founder of Tuckett Tobacco and the 27th mayor of Hamilton, City Hall on corner of James & York Boulevard, both in Hamilton, Ontario. Balfour was successful outside of Hamilton. In 1878-1882 designed and oversaw construction of an all-girl school, Alma College and the additions, which were destroyed by a fire on May 28, 2008.

In March 1887 he won the design competition for the Detroit Institute of Fine Arts. MapArt Golden Horseshoe Atlas - Page 657 - Grids A122. Jean Rosenfeld. James Balfour a Victorian architect from Hamilton, Canada. Thesis--York University, 1991. ISBN 0-315-65742-1, ISBN 978-0-315-65742-7 OCLC 28016498 3. Heritage Matters. Ontario Heritage Foundation. Volume 6 Issue 3 2008

Joseph Gibbs (cricketer)

Joseph Arthur Gibbs was an English cricketer who made ten first-class appearances between 1891 and 1896. He played five first-class matches for Somerset, appeared for the Marylebone Cricket Club and I Zingari, he published a number of books, including A Cotswold Village. Gibbs was educated at Eton College, Christ Church, Oxford, he spent two years with the family banking firm in London before moving to Ablington, near Cirencester in 1892, where he lived as the squire of a small estate at Ablington Manor. He died of sudden heart failure in 1899, aged only 31. While at Oxford, Gibbs played in a one-day, single innings match against Eton College, opening the batting and scoring 10 runs, claiming two wickets as Eton beat them by seven wickets; the next summer he played two matches during their successful 1890 season. During these matches, he averaged 25, his first-class debut came in the following season, after Somerset's readmission to the first-class game. Playing against Lancashire at the County Ground, Gibbs made six in both innings during a nine wicket defeat.

That was his only first-class appearance of the season, his next coming eleven months playing for H Hewett's XII against Cambridge University. He followed this up with two matches for I Zingari in Ireland, a further two for the Marylebone Cricket Club at Lord's. During the English winter of 1892–93, Gibbs travelled to Ceylon and India as part of Lord Hawke's tour. Gibbs' top-score on the tour was 14, although he bowled, he failed to take any wickets. During his only first-class match of the tour, against Bombay, Gibbs caught his Somerset team-mate John Trask in Bombay's second innings. Gibbs made his highest score in first-class cricket, 75 against Oxford University for Somerset only a week after making a pair for the MCC; the last of his five first-class appearances for Somerset was in June 1894, in which he scored seven runs in his only innings of the match. His highest recorded score came two years playing in a one-day, single-innings match for the MCC against Dulwich. Opening the batting, Gibbs made 178 of the MCC's 358 runs.

In his work, A Cotswold Village, Gibbs describes county cricket as being "a little over done", believing the time demands of the game, playing two three-day matches each week through the summer, too great. He thinks that an amateur who has received a good education, composed of public-school followed by university is wasting this education if they send the majority of the week playing cricket each year. Despite this belief, he is in favour of some amateurs remaining in the game, to "prevent the further development of professionalism." Gibbs hypothesises that the "abnormal extent" of the development of cricket was due to the peaceful times that he lived in, but that in times of war, Englishmen would be glad of the useful lessons in courage and coolness that sport taught them. Joseph Gibbs at CricketArchive Joseph Gibbs at ESPNcricinfo Works by Joseph Arthur Gibbs at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Joseph Gibbs at Internet Archive

Lists of cities in Europe

This is a list of lists of cities in Europe. Lists of countries includes countries that fall to at least some extent within European geographical boundaries according to certain definitions. List of European cities by population within city limits List of urban areas in Europe List of metropolitan areas in Europe List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits List of urban areas in the European Union List of European Union cities proper by population density Gibraltar List of places in the Isle of Man Cities of present-day nations and states Europe List of cities by continent List of cities in Africa List of cities in Asia List of cities in Europe List of cities in North America List of cities in Oceania List of cities in South America List of villages in Europe by country Lists of cities Most Ancient European Towns Network