A white dwarf called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed of electron-degenerate matter. A white dwarf is dense: its mass is comparable to that of the Sun, while its volume is comparable to that of Earth. A white dwarf's faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored thermal energy; the nearest known white dwarf is Sirius B, at 8.6 light years, the smaller component of the Sirius binary star. There are thought to be eight white dwarfs among the hundred star systems nearest the Sun; the unusual faintness of white dwarfs was first recognized in 1910. The name white dwarf was coined by Willem Luyten in 1922. White dwarfs are thought to be the final evolutionary state of stars whose mass is not high enough to become a neutron star, that of about 10 solar masses; this includes over 97% of the other stars in the Milky Way. After the hydrogen-fusing period of a main-sequence star of low or medium mass ends, such a star will expand to a red giant during which it fuses helium to carbon and oxygen in its core by the triple-alpha process.
If a red giant has insufficient mass to generate the core temperatures required to fuse carbon, an inert mass of carbon and oxygen will build up at its center. After such a star sheds its outer layers and forms a planetary nebula, it will leave behind a core, the remnant white dwarf. White dwarfs are composed of carbon and oxygen. If the mass of the progenitor is between 8 and 10.5 solar masses, the core temperature will be sufficient to fuse carbon but not neon, in which case an oxygen–neon–magnesium white dwarf may form. Stars of low mass will not be able to fuse helium, hence, a helium white dwarf may form by mass loss in binary systems; the material in a white dwarf no longer undergoes fusion reactions, so the star has no source of energy. As a result, it cannot support itself by the heat generated by fusion against gravitational collapse, but is supported only by electron degeneracy pressure, causing it to be dense; the physics of degeneracy yields a maximum mass for a non-rotating white dwarf, the Chandrasekhar limit—approximately 1.44 times M☉—beyond which it cannot be supported by electron degeneracy pressure.
A carbon–oxygen white dwarf that approaches this mass limit by mass transfer from a companion star, may explode as a type Ia supernova via a process known as carbon detonation. A white dwarf is hot when it forms, but because it has no source of energy, it will cool as it radiates its energy; this means that its radiation, which has a high color temperature, will lessen and redden with time. Over a long time, a white dwarf will cool and its material will begin to crystallize, starting with the core; the star's low temperature means it will no longer emit significant heat or light, it will become a cold black dwarf. Because the length of time it takes for a white dwarf to reach this state is calculated to be longer than the current age of the universe, it is thought that no black dwarfs yet exist; the oldest white dwarfs still radiate at temperatures of a few thousand kelvins. The first white dwarf discovered was in the triple star system of 40 Eridani, which contains the bright main sequence star 40 Eridani A, orbited at a distance by the closer binary system of the white dwarf 40 Eridani B and the main sequence red dwarf 40 Eridani C.
The pair 40 Eridani B/C was discovered by William Herschel on 31 January 1783. In 1910, Henry Norris Russell, Edward Charles Pickering and Williamina Fleming discovered that, despite being a dim star, 40 Eridani B was of spectral type A, or white. In 1939, Russell looked back on the discovery: I was visiting my friend and generous benefactor, Prof. Edward C. Pickering. With characteristic kindness, he had volunteered to have the spectra observed for all the stars — including comparison stars —, observed in the observations for stellar parallax which Hinks and I made at Cambridge, I discussed; this piece of routine work proved fruitful — it led to the discovery that all the stars of faint absolute magnitude were of spectral class M. In conversation on this subject, I asked Pickering about certain other faint stars, not on my list, mentioning in particular 40 Eridani B. Characteristically, he sent a note to the Observatory office and before long the answer came that the spectrum of this star was A.
I knew enough about it in these paleozoic days, to realize at once that there was an extreme inconsistency between what we would have called "possible" values of the surface brightness and density. I must have shown that I was not only puzzled but crestfallen, at this exception to what looked like a pretty rule of stellar characteristics; the spectral type of 40 Eridani B was described in 1914 by Walter Adams. The white dwarf companion of Sirius, Sirius B, was next to be discovered. During the nineteenth century, positional measurements of some stars became precise enough to measure small changes in their location. Friedrich Bessel used position measurements to determine that the stars Sirius and Procyon were changing their positions periodically. In 1844 he predicted that both stars had unseen companions: If we were to regard Sirius and Procyon as double stars, the change of their motions would not surprise us, but light is no real property of mass
Subterranean Jungle is the seventh studio album by the American punk rock band the Ramones, released by Sire Records on February 23, 1983. The album appealed to a hardcore punk rock style rather than featuring several pop oriented pieces; the recording sessions saw disputes between band members because many of them were dealing with alcohol addiction, or, in bassist Dee Dee Ramone's case, other drugs. The album begins with two cover songs, features a third on Side 2. Lyrics circle various themes, while the structuring of the songs shifted towards hard rock, psychedelic rock; the album was deemed by critics to be an attempt to retreat to the band's roots and received positive reviews. Subterranean Jungle was not successful commercially, peaking at number 83 on the US Billboard 200 and failing to chart internationally; the singles released from the album did not chart either. This is the last album by the band to feature Marky Ramone on drums until the 1989 album Brain Drain. Unlike previous albums, Subterranean Jungle shifted the band's sound output focus towards getting back to their punk rock roots, rather than trying to expand fan-base by releasing more pop-oriented songs.
This change is due to guitarist Johnny Ramone obtaining more priority over the style choice. Johnny felt as though the band needed to "be focused and stop worrying about getting played and just make a good record." Since lead singer Joey Ramone was not given as much stylistic freedom, the album lacks the sense of pop-influence which previous releases had contained and instead was shaped by Johnny's hard rock background. Johnny obtained more control over the musical style because the band members experienced conflict amongst themselves rooted in each member—excluding Johnny—facing issues with addiction. Both Joey and drummer Marky Ramone were dealing with alcoholism, while bassist Dee Dee Ramone was addicted to cocaine and was undergoing psychotherapeutic treatment. Since the Ramones' previous two releases had producers which proved disappointing to the members, they were skeptical of the upcoming producer. Marky relates: "I hated the production, I hated the producer."The artwork for Subterranean Jungle features an image of the band inside a subway car.
The photograph was taken by George DuBose at the subway station on 57th Street and Sixth Avenue in Manhattan. This cover concept was designed by Dubose, who suggested that since the B Sixth Avenue Express train stopped at the empty station for about 20 minutes. In the photograph, Marky is featured peering out the subway window—Marky was positioned this way after Johnny asked DuBose to do so because "they were kicking him out of the band, but he didn't know it yet." Marky recalled that he "liked that shot, but knew something was up." "I was lying on my bed, watching Kojak when Joey calls me and says,'Mark, I feel bad about this, but, uh, you can't be in the band anymore.' I deserved it. Joey was okay about the others, forget it. No one called me after that. If it was today, Joey would've said,'Why don't we take off for a month and you get sober?' But I didn't want to tell Joey or the band about my being in rehab, because I would've been admitting my guilt." The internal conflicts during recording sessions would cause band members to fire Marky during the album's recording substituting him with drummer Billy Rogers on "Time has Come Today."
Johnny recounts, "We were having trouble with Mark because his drinking problem was bad. So we did "Time Has Come Today" with a different drummer, Billy Rogers, from Walter Lure's band." "Time Has Come Today" became the Ramones' only song to involve three drummers: Marky Ramone on the album credits, Billy Rogers on recording and Richie Ramone on the music video. The album opens with two cover songs. Subterranean Jungle is the first Ramones' release to begin with a song not written by the band—this track list structure was criticized by author Everett True, who said that it was "disorientating." Johnny thought that the fact that the album featured three covers was a bad idea, saying, "we shouldn't have, but I was happy with the guitar sound on it." The album's third track, "Outsider", was written by Dee Dee and, in 2002, it was covered by Green Day on Shenanigans. "What'd Ya Do?" was track number four, was described by music journalist Chuck Eddy as "crudely metallic." Eddy deemed the next track, "Highest Trails Above", as "AOR-mystic."
"Somebody Like Me" was called a "full-on rock anthem" by Everett True, who went on to say that the lyrics contained "no-nonsense lines." Side B of the album begins with "Psycho Therapy", written by both Johnny and Dee Dee. Dee Dee recalled: "I knew we needed a real'Ramones song' for the album, I knew was depressed about how things were going, he needed that song to get excited about the band again," while Johnny stated, “I wanted to do a hardcore song to show the hardcore people that we can play as fast or faster than they can. Nobody plays faster than us.” The next track is another cover song, "Time Has Come Today", recorded by the soul music group The Chambers Brothers. The Ramones' version of the song featured a psychedelic rock influence, was said by Eddy to have more of a "garage" feel to it, as compared to the original. "My-My Kind of a Girl" was directed toward the band's female fandom. The lyrics were
Rothenberg is a village and a former municipality in the Odenwaldkreis in Hesse, Germany. Since January 2018, it is part of the new town Oberzent. Rothenberg lies at elevations between 200 and 500 m in the southern Odenwald in the Geo-Naturpark Bergstraße-Odenwald, 7 km north of Hirschhorn on the Neckar; the main centre lies in the south of the municipal area as a high settlement in a clearing 430 m high on the ridge of the otherwise wooded Hirschhorner Höhe. The municipal area stretches northwestwards along the Finkenbach. Many tourists visit Rothenberg because of the wonderful natural setting and because of so many possibilities for sports such as swimming, riding bikes, riding horses, gliding. Rothenberg borders in the north on the town of Beerfelden, in the east on the town of Eberbach, in the south on the town of Hirschhorn and in the west on the town of Eberbach and the community of Wald-Michelbach. Rothenberg’s Ortsteile are Finkenbach, Kortelshütte, Ober-Hainbrunn and Rothenberg. Rothenberg went, as Rodenberg, in 1535, along with the villages of Ober-Hainbrunn and Unter-Finkenbach, Vogt rights in Moosbrunn, as an Imperial fief to the Lords of Hirschhorn.
After they died out in 1632, ownership passed to Otto von Kronberg, after the Counts of Kronberg died out in 1704 to the Barons of Degenfeld-Schaumburg. Through marriage, ownership was held from 1786 to 1801 by the Counts of Erbach-Fürstenau and lastly to the Counts of Rothberg. By the Treaty of the Confederation of the Rhine and the other villages, but not Moosbrunn, passed along with the County of Erbach in 1806 to the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1835, Rothenberg was, with 1,098 inhabitants the third biggest village in the Landratsbezirk; when in the course of industrialization traffic routes were being expanded, this handicraft and market community’s high elevation, which did not favour transport, became a curse. There was no industrial development, the community’s population figures fell. To this day, the community is characterized by agriculture. In 1971, the hitherto self-governing communities of Ober-Finkenbach and Raubach were amalgamated; the hamlets of Kortelshütte and Hinterbach were established in the 18th century as settling communities for newcomers and those without property.
Kortelshütte has developed itself since the early 20th century into a climatic spa after a highway link and new housing estates were built, while Hinterbach earned importance in the 1930s for its mineral springs. The municipal election held on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: The independent mayor Hans Heinz Keursten was reëlected in the first round of voting on 18 September 2005 with 91.5% of the vote. Rothenberg and its outlying centres are rich in cultural monuments. Besides the Old Lutheran Schwarze Kirche from 1883 and the Evangelische Pfarrkirche from 1880, several timber-frame houses in particular may be named, such as the Forsthaus Saubuche near the outlying centre of Raubach. There are moreover many smaller cultural monuments such as wells, border stones and rows of standing stone slabs, believed to once have been cattle-driving ways. One of these can be found at Ober-Hainbrunn. About the turn of the 20th century, complaints were mounting among dwellers in the upper village about the water supply’s shortcomings.
The spring of the Großer Brunnen on the slope of the Gammelsbach valley gave forth enough water. Each of the technically interesting motors drives a three-cylinder pump. One comes from the year 1902 and the other is two years newer. Today the historic pumphouse between Kortelshütte and Rothenberg is run by a circle of technically enthusiastic idealists. Furthermore, in the Rothenberg hamlet of Hinterbach can be found the Odenwald’s last maintained hydraulic ram; the Rothenberg Heights walks. From the heights, the Odenwald’s highest mountain, the Katzenbuckel, can be seen. In good weather, gliders are to be seen, as Rothenberg has a glider launching facility. Rest can be found at any of resting places. Furthermore, there is an “Inliner Day” every summer, for which the highway between Rothenberg and Beerfelden is closed to traffic for inline skating and cycling. Bundesstraße 37 lies about 8 km away in Hirschhorn. Bundesstraße 45 lies about 12 km away in Beerfelden; the Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr railway line in Hirschhorn lies about 8 km away.
Red Sorghum is a 2014 Chinese television series based on Nobel laureate Mo Yan's 1986 novel of the same name. Directed by Zheng Xiaolong, it features the anticipated return of actress Zhou Xun to television after 10 years; the series chronicles the struggles of the protagonist Jiu'er in rural Shandong province in early 1930s. It aired on four satellite television channels from 27 October to 17 November 2014 for 60 episodes. Zhou Xun as Jiu'er / Dai Jiulian Zhu Yawen as Yu Zhan'ao Huang Xuan as Zhang Junjie Yu Rongguang as Zhu Haosan Qin Hailu as Shu Xian Matt William Knowles as AP Press Reporter To reproduce the scenes of the novel, the Gaomi local government planted more than 200 hectares of sorghum; the field, now known as “Red Sorghum TV Production Base”, became a shooting site for the TV series. More than 500 local residents performed as extras in the TV show; the series has enjoyed good ratings. It topped the ratings on four satellite TV channels for three weeks during its broadcast. According to Qilu Evening Post, the series spawned viral greetings.
Xinhua News Agency praised the drama, calling it a “classic in Chinese television history” and Hainan Daily called Zhou an "impeccable performer". However, the series has been criticized the series as "too commercial" and "losing the touch of authenticity; the casting of Zhou in the role of the 19-year-old protagonist has sparked a controversy
The SGI Origin 200, code named Speedo, was an entry-level server computer developed and manufactured by SGI, introduced in October 1996 to accompany their mid-range and high-end Origin 2000. It is based on the same architecture as the Origin 2000 but has an unrelated hardware implementation. At the time of introduction, these systems ran the IRIX 6.4, the IRIX 6.5 operating systems. The Origin 200 was discontinued on 30 June 2002; the Origin 200 consists of two modules. In configurations with two modules, the NUMAlink 2 interconnection fabric is used to connect the two modules together. Using two modules, the Origin 200's capabilities is doubled; the Origin 200 and the Origin 200 GIGAchannel enclosures can be configured as a tower with "skins" that covered the bare metal for cosmetic purposes, or as a rackmountable enclosure compatible with 19- or 21-inch racks. Each module contains seven 3.5-inch drive bays and two 5.25-inch drive bays. In configurations where an Origin 200 GIGAchannel expansion cabinet is used, the module contains a Crosstown board that plugs into the motherboard.
Each module was limited to two CPUs. The motherboard contains the Hub ASIC, a PCI bridge, two SCSI controllers, two UARTs and an Ethernet controller; the PCI bridge provides the PCI bus for the I/O controllers. The processor are located on a PIMM; when first introduced, the Origin 200 supported one or two R10000 processors with 1 or 4 MB L2 cache each. In August 1998, an upgraded PIMM featuring the 225 MHz R10000 processors was introduced. 270 MHz R12000 processors became available. The PIMMs come in two versions: single processor and dual processor, it is not possible to upgrade these systems to a dual processor system by using two single processor PIMMs, as there is only one PIMM connector on the motherboard. The motherboard supports 32 MB to 2 GB of memory through eight DIMM slots organised into four banks. DIMMs with capacities of 16, 32, 64 and 256 MB are supported. DIMMs are installed in pairs; the Origin 200 GIGAchannel is an expansion cabinet that connects to the Origin 200 modules via two XIO cables.
It provides five XIO slots. The GIGAchannel contains a Crossbow ASIC, an eight-port crossbar provides the five datapaths to the five XIO slots and a single datapath to PCI bridge; the remaining two ports on the ASIC are connected to the XIO connectors used to interface the subsystem to the Origin 200 modules. Origin 200 and Origin 200 GIGAchannel Owner's Guide, 007-3708-002, 5 May 1999, Silicon Graphics
Nauman Steele Scott was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana. Born in New Roads, Scott received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Amherst College in 1938, he received a Bachelor of Laws from Tulane University Law School in 1941. He was in private practice of law in Alexandria, Louisiana from 1941 to 1942, he was a United States Army Air Corps First Lieutenant from 1942 to 1946. He was in private practice of law in Alexandria from 1946 to 1970. Scott was nominated by President Richard Nixon on September 14, 1970, to the United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana, to a new seat created by 84 Stat. 294. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on October 13, 1970, received his commission on October 15, 1970, he served as chief judge from 1976 to 1984. He assumed senior status on December 4, 1984, his service was terminated on September 2001, due to his death in Alexandria. FJC Bio