White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system that are made up of myelinated axons called tracts. Long thought to be passive tissue, white matter affects learning and brain functions, modulating the distribution of action potentials, acting as a relay and coordinating communication between different brain regions. White matter is named for its light appearance resulting from the lipid content of myelin. However, the tissue of the freshly cut brain appears pinkish-white to the naked eye because myelin is composed of lipid tissue veined with capillaries, its white color in prepared specimens is due to its usual preservation in formaldehyde. White matter is composed of bundles, which connect various gray matter areas of the brain to each other, carry nerve impulses between neurons. Myelin acts as an insulator, which allows electrical signals to jump, rather than coursing through the axon, increasing the speed of transmission of all nerve signals; the total number of long range fibers within a cerebral hemisphere is 2% of the total number of cortico-cortical fibers and is the same number as those that communicate between the two hemispheres in the brain's largest white tissue structure, the corpus callosum.
Schüz and Braitenberg note "As a rough rule, the number of fibres of a certain range of lengths is inversely proportional to their length."White matter in nonelderly adults is 1.7–3.6% blood. The other main component of the brain is grey matter, composed of neurons; the substantia nigra is a third colored component found in the brain that appears darker due to higher levels of melanin in dopaminergic neurons than its nearby areas. Note that white matter can sometimes appear darker than grey matter on a microscope slide because of the type of stain used. Cerebral- and spinal white matter do not contain dendrites, neural cell bodies, or shorter axons, which can only be found in grey matter. White matter forms the bulk of the deep parts of the brain and the superficial parts of the spinal cord. Aggregates of grey matter such as the basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei are spread within the cerebral white matter; the cerebellum is structured in a similar manner as the cerebrum, with a superficial mantle of cerebellar cortex, deep cerebellar white matter and aggregates of grey matter surrounded by deep cerebellar white matter.
The fluid-filled cerebral ventricles are located deep within the cerebral white matter. Men have more white matter than women both in length of myelinated axons. At the age of 20, the total length of myelinated fibers in men is 176,000 km while that of a woman is 149,000 km. There is a decline in total length with age of about 10% each decade such that a man at 80 years of age has 97,200 km and a female 82,000 km. Most of this reduction is due to the loss of thinner fibers. White matter is the tissue through which messages pass between different areas of gray matter within the central nervous system; the white matter is white because of the fatty substance. This myelin is found in all long nerve fibers, acts as an electrical insulation; this is important because it allows the messages to pass from place to place. Unlike gray matter, which peaks in development in a person's twenties, the white matter continues to develop, peaks in middle age. Multiple sclerosis is the most common of the inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system which affect white matter.
In MS lesions, the myelin sheath around the axons is deteriorated by inflammation. Alcohol use disorders are associated with a decrease in white matter volume. Amyloid plaques in white matter may be associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Other changes that occur with age include the development of leukoaraiosis, a rarefaction of the white matter that can be correlated with a variety of conditions, including loss of myelin pallor, axonal loss, diminished restrictive function of the blood–brain barrier. White matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging are linked to several adverse outcomes, such as cognitive impairment and depression. White matter hyperintensity are more than present with vascular dementia among small vessel/subcortical subtypes of vascular dementia. Smaller volumes of white matter might be associated with larger deficits in attention, declarative memory, executive functions and academic achievement. However, volume change is continuous throughout one's lifetime due to neuroplasticity, is a contributing factor rather than determinant factor of certain functional deficits due to compensating effects in other brain regions.
The integrity of white matter declines due to aging. Nonetheless, regular aerobic exercise appears to either postpone the aging effect or in turn enhance the white matter integrity in the long run. Changes in white matter volume due to inflammation or injury may be a factor in the severity of obstructive sleep apnea; the study of white matter has been advanced with the neuroimaging technique called diffusion tensor imaging where magnetic resonance imaging brain scanners are used. As of 2007, more than 700 publications have been published on the subject. A 2009 paper by Jan Scholz and colleagues used diffusion tensor imaging to demonstrate changes in w
Methyl eugenol is a natural chemical compound classified as a phenylpropene, a type of phenylpropanoid. It is important to insect behavior and pollination, it is found in various essential oils. Methyl eugenol has a role in attracting pollinators. About 350 plant species have them as a component of floral fragrance, their ability to attract insects Bactrocera fruit flies was first noticed in 1915 by F. M. Howlett; the compound may have evolved in response to pathogens, as methyl eugenol has some antifungal activity. It repels many insects; as of October 2018, the US FDA withdrew authorization for the use of methyl eugenol as a synthetic flavoring substance for use in food because petitioners provided data demonstrating that these additives induce cancer in laboratory animals. FDA noted the action was despite its continuing stance that this substance does not pose a risk to public health under the conditions of its intended use. Methyl isoeugenol
Live is the fourth album and the first Live album by the German Jazz rock band Kraan. The album was recorded in the "Quartier Latin" in Berlin in October 1974. "Jerk of life" – 4:57 "Nam nam" – 15:10 "Holiday am Marterhorn including Gipfelsturm" – 13:00 "Sarah's Ritt durch den Schwarzwald"– 6:00 "Andy Nogger" – 3:45 "Andy Nogger - gutter king" – 6:44 "Hallo Ja Ja, I don't know" – 10:20 "Lonesome liftboy" – 5:15 "Kraan arabia" – 12:30 Peter Wolbrandt - guitar, vocals Jan Fride - drums, percussion Hellmut Hattler - bass, vocals Johannes Pappert - saxophone
Following the success of Healing Hands I and II, Hong Kong's No.1 Television Channel, TVB, introduced Healing Hands III. It starred the original casts of Healing Hands I: Bowie Lam, it aired in Hong Kong during. The storyline begins with the end of the Sars epidemic in Hong Kong and the accidental death of Lawrence Ng's ex-girlfriend Yoyo Mung. Lawrence begins a tailspin. Bowie Lam appears at the beginning of Healing Hands 3 with a new girlfriend, having broken up with Flora Chan between Healing Hands 2 and 3. However, he soon breaks up and despite initial bad impressions of Melissa Ng, the two become friends; the drama follows the challenges that the characters face- including the medical obstacles faced by the doctors of Yan Oi hospital and the love life troubles that the various couples of the series overcome. Lawrence Ng as Paul Ching Chi-mei Bowie Lam as Henry Lai Kwok-chu Moses Chan as M. C. Lam Man-chi Raymond Cho as Chris Heung Chung-yan Gigi Lai as Frances Shum Nga-ching Maggie Shiu as Anson Man On-sang Melissa Ng as Sarah Yip To Bernice Liu as Betsy Tsang Suk-kei Claire Yiu as Grace Tai Yuk-ying Chan Hung Lit as T.
Y. Tsang Tat-yin Timothy Cheng as Bryan Wong Kwok-bun Michael Tong as Edmond Tam Yung-ming Kenny Wong as Ho Tak-kwong Ram Chiang as Kam Ho-man Halina Tam as Phoebe Kan So-wun Sam Chan as Angus Lam Ching-wai Annabelle Lau as Karen Liu Mei-kuen Willie Wai as Derek Lo Chi-keung Yvonne Lam as Eva Lee Yee-wa Felix Lok as Ho Sau-yan Vinci Wong as Alan Ho Chi-wang Belinda Hamnett as Martha Camy Ting as Amy TVB Official Site Synopsis and theme song lyrics
Georgie John Donnelly is an English professional footballer who plays as a striker. He has played for Skelmersdale United, Plymouth Argyle, Luton Town, Stockport County, Fleetwood Town, Macclesfield Town and Tranmere Rovers. Donnelly has played internationally for England at non-league level; as a youth player, Donnelly played for Liverpool. He started his career with Runcorn Town and Northern Premier League Division One North club Skelmersdale United, becoming a prolific goalscorer. In March 2009 he joined Championship side Plymouth Argyle. Donnelly had offers from Conference North clubs Southport and Fleetwood Town and Football League side Scunthorpe United. Donnelly made his debut for Plymouth on 18 April 2009 as a substitute in a 3–0 defeat at home against Doncaster Rovers in the Championship. On 28 August 2009, Donnelly signed on a one-month loan for Conference Premier club Luton Town, where he made four substitute appearances, he moved on loan to Stockport County on 29 January 2010, signing for one month.
He made his debut for the club as second-half substitute on 30 January in a match against Southampton. His loan was extended until the end of the season but he missed the last game of the season as his parent club Plymouth withdrew his loan, he scored 4 goals in the 19 games. In July 2010 he rejoined Stockport on loan for a further six months in a spell which saw him score 8 goals in 27 matches. On 6 January 2011 he moved to Fleetwood Town for a club record fee, believed to be in the region of £50,000, he made his debut for the club on 8 January. In August 2011, George was the subject of speculation of an unusual bid from his former loan club Stockport County. Through the social networking site Twitter, County asked their fans who they would like to sign between Donnelly and Halifax Town forward Jamie Vardy. County director Tony Evans entered into negotiations with Fleetwood but valuations between the two clubs were irreparably different. Despite the Twitter interest, George signed for League Two club Macclesfield Town on an initial one-month loan on 9 September 2011.
On 1 January 2012 he signed a two and half-year deal with Macclesfield Town after his loan period ended for an undisclosed five figure sum. On 15 May 2012 it was announced that Donnelly had signed for Rochdale for an undisclosed fee on a two-year deal, he made his debut on 11 August in a 4–3 defeat against Barnsley in the League Cup. He scored his first goal for the club on 6 October in a 3–2 win against Accrington Stanley, he scored his second goal on 13 October in a 2–1 defeat at home to Morecambe. On 1 September 2014, George joined Tranmere Rovers on a two-year deal for an undisclosed fee from Rochdale. Donnelly's contract was cancelled by mutual consent in July 2015. In August 2016 he joined AFC Liverpool. In March 2018 he signed for Marine. Before turning professional as a footballer, Donnelly worked in a warehouse, he is a personal trainer. George Donnelly at Soccerbase
Tonight is the fourth full-length solo album by Christian hip hop artist TobyMac. It is the follow-up album to his 2007 release Portable Sounds, was released on February 9, 2010; the Deluxe Version of the album contains a DVD with interviews with Toby about the songs on the record, the making of this record and an inside look at the Diverse City Band. The album debuted at No. 6 on the Billboard 200. As of early November 2010, the album has sold over 315,000 copies; when asked about the album by stereotruth.net Toby had the following to say about the emotions that went into producing it. I have a lot of passion. I don't know if it's good or bad. Music is something that can open people’s minds to who God is. Music will never change the world, but God can choose to use music, that's what I count on. I want my songs to be said in a way. I want them to move people's lives forward. "City on Our Knees" was released as the lead single from the album on August 14, 2009. It peaked at No. 1 on Billboard's Hot Christian Songs chart.
On January 26, 2010, "Get Back Up" was released as the album's second single. The song peaked at No. 1 on Billboard's Hot Christian Songs chart. He donated 100% of his artist royalties from first week sales of the single to relief efforts for Haiti after the earthquake that devastated the country; the third single from the album, "Hold On", was released on October 19, 2010. "Tonight" was released as the fourth single on March 21, 2011. It was used as the theme for MLB Network's spring training team preview show, 30 Clubs in 30 Days, as well as being used in a commercial for America's Got Talent. A music video for the song was released on February 8, 2010. Both "Start Somewhere" and "Changed Forever" impacted Christian radio as the fifth and sixth singles from the album on October 10, 2011. "Showstopper" was used as a part of the NFL Thursday Night Football promotional material, the 2009 World Series. It has been the official theme song for the WWE Fatal 4-Way Pay-Per View event, the song was promoted for ESPY's Best US Male Olympian.
"Showstopper" and "Funky Jesus Music" were both premiered at the Winter Wonder Slam 09 Tour. "Funky Jesus Music" was included on the "Hits Deep Live" album. On "Hits Deep Live" when TobyMac tells the crowd to say, "Ola Ola Eh" this is a reference to the song Sweet Dreams by La Bouche; the album won a Dove Award for Rock/Contemporary Album of the Year at the 42nd GMA Dove Awards. The songs "Get Back Up", "Tonight" and "Showstopper" were nominated. Notes signifies a remixer