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White people

White people is a racial classification specifier and exclusively for people of European descent. The term has at times been expanded to encompass persons of Middle Eastern and North African descent, persons who are considered non-white in other contexts; the usage of "white people" or a "white race" for a large group of or European populations, defined by their light skin, among other physical characteristics, contrasting with "black people", other "colored" people or "persons of color", originated in the 17th century. It was only during the 19th century that this vague category was transformed in a quasi-scientific system of race and skin color relations; the concept of a unified white race did not achieve universal acceptance in Europe when it first came into use in the 17th century, or in the centuries afterward. Nazi Germany regarded some European peoples such as Slavs as racially distinct from themselves. Prior to the modern age, no European peoples regarded themselves as "white", but rather defined their race, ancestry, or ethnicity in terms of their nationality.

Moreover, there is no accepted standard for determining the geographic barrier between white and non-white people. Contemporary anthropologists and other scientists, while recognizing the reality of biological variation between different human populations, regard the concept of a unified, distinguishable "white race" as constructed; as a group with several different potential boundaries, it is an example of a fuzzy concept. The concept of whiteness has particular resonance in the Anglosphere: e.g. in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, South Africa. In much of the rest of Europe, the distinction between race and nationality is more blurred. Various social constructions of whiteness have been significant to national identity, public policy, population statistics, racial segregation, affirmative action, white privilege, racial marginalization, racial quotas; the term "white race" or "white people" entered the major European languages in the 17th century, in the context of racialized slavery and unequal social status in the European colonies.

Description of populations as "white" in reference to their skin color predates this notion and is found in Greco-Roman ethnography and other ancient or medieval sources, but these societies did not have any notion of a white, pan-European race. Scholarship on race distinguishes the modern concept from pre-modern descriptions, which focused on physical complexion rather than race. According to anthropologist Nina Jablonski: In ancient Egypt as a whole, people were not designated by color terms Egyptian inscriptions and literature only for instance, mention the dark skin color of the Kushites of Upper Nubia. We know the Egyptians were not oblivious to skin color, because artists paid attention to it in their works of art, to the extent that the pigments at the time permitted; the Ancient Egyptian funerary text known as the Book of Gates distinguishes "four groups" in a procession. These are the Egyptians, the Levantine and Canaanite peoples or "Asiatics", the "Nubians" and the "fair-skinned Libyans".

The Egyptians are depicted as darker-skinned than the Levantines and Libyans, but lighter than the Nubians. The assignment of positive and negative connotations of white and black to certain persons date to the old age in a number of Indo-European languages, but these differences were not used in respect to skin colors. Religious conversion was sometimes described figuratively as a change in skin color; the Rigveda uses krsna tvac "black skin" as a metaphor for irreligiosity. Classicist James H. Dee states "the Greeks do not describe themselves as'white people'—or as anything else because they had no regular word in their color vocabulary for themselves." People's skin color did not carry useful meaning. Herodotus described the Scythian Budini as having bright red hair, and the Egyptians -- quite like the Colchians -- as curly-haired. He gives the first reference to the common Greek name of the tribes living south of Egypt, otherwise known as Nubians, Aithíopes. Xenophanes of Colophon described the Aethiopians as black and the Persian troops as white compared to the sun-tanned skin of Greek troops.

The term "white race" or "white people" entered the major European languages in the 17th century, originating with the racialization of slavery at the time, in the context of the Atlantic slave trade and the enslavement of indigenous peoples in the Spanish Empire. It has been ascribed to strains of blood and physical traits, was made into a subject of scientific research, which culminated in scientific racism, widely repudiated by the scientific community. According to historian Irene Silverblatt, "Race thinking made social categories into racial truths." Bruce David Baum, citing the work of Ruth Frankenberg, states, "the history of modern racist domination has been bound up with the history of how European peoples defined themselves as members of a superior'white race'." Alastair Bonnett argues that'white

Forbus, Tennessee

Forbus is an unincorporated community located on U. S. Route 127 in Tennessee. Considered a crossroads community, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as an historic district called the Forbus Historic District. In 1991 it consisted of a general store, one house, some outbuildings. Early names for the community were Gatewood. In the mid-19th century, the community was home to a school known as the Van Buren Institute. Coal was mined in the area as early as the 19th century. In the early decades of the 20th century, the local economy was based on lumbering, barite mining, farming. In the 1930s, the community supported a grade school with 84 pupils and 3 teachers, a high school, a weekly newspaper, two churches; the Forbus General Store was built by W. M. Johnson in 1892, was operated by Johnson until his death in 1941. At one time, the store included a gas-powered gristmill, a blacksmith shop, several granaries, but only the store stands today; the store purchased produce and furs from local residents, at one point had a contract to supply locally grown apples to a Pennsylvania brandy maker.

The store in turn sold hardware, clothing and feed, school textbooks, guns and caskets. The store's top floor was once used as a meeting place for an Independent Order of Odd Fellows lodge; the Forbus post office operated out of the store until 1965, consolidated with the Pall Mall post office in 1972. Forbus General Store online video

Mei Qiaoling

Mei Qiaoling, born Mei Fang, courtesy name Xiaobo and art name Huixian, was a Qing dynasty Peking opera and kunqu artist based in Beijing. He specialized in playing women. From Taizhou, Jiangsu, he was sold to a childless man in Suzhou at age 8. After that man remarried and begot a son, Mei was sold again, this time to a theatrical troupe where he had to train to become a performer, he rose to stardom despite his pudginess, which earned him the nickname "Fat Qiaoling". At age 30, he became the leader of the Four Happiness Troupe, one of the most famous troupes in Beijing, performed after that, his son Mei Yutian was a performer. His grandson Mei Lanfang was the most accomplished Peking opera artist of all time. In the 2002 comedy TV series The Best Clown Under Heaven, Mei Qiaoling is portrayed by Peking opera actor Song Xiaochuan. Riley, Jo. Chinese Theatre and the Actor in Performance. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-521-03523-6