White supremacy or white supremacism is the racist belief that white people are superior to people of other races and therefore should be dominant over them. White supremacy has roots in the now-discredited doctrine of scientific racism and relies on pseudoscientific arguments. Like most similar movements such as neo-Nazism, white supremacists oppose members of other races as well as Jews; the term is used to describe a political ideology that perpetuates and maintains the social, historical, or institutional domination by white people. Different forms of white supremacism put forth different conceptions of, considered white, different groups of white supremacists identify various racial and cultural groups as their primary enemy. In academic usage in usage which draws on critical race theory or intersectionality, the term "white supremacy" can refer to a political or socioeconomic system, in which white people enjoy a structural advantage over other ethnic groups, on both a collective and individual level.
White supremacy has ideological foundations that date back to 17th-century scientific racism, the predominant paradigm of human variation that helped shape international relations and racial policy from the latter part of the Age of Enlightenment until the late 20th century. White supremacy was dominant in the United States both before and after the American Civil War, it persisted for decades after the Reconstruction Era. In the antebellum South, this included the holding of African Americans in chattel slavery, in which four million of them were denied freedom; the outbreak of the Civil War saw the desire to uphold white supremacy being cited as a cause for state secession and the formation of the Confederate States of America. In an editorial about Native Americans in 1890, author L. Frank Baum wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians."In some parts of the United States, many people who were considered non-white were disenfranchised, barred from government office, prevented from holding most government jobs well into the second half of the 20th century.
Professor Leland T. Saito of the University of Southern California writes: "Throughout the history of the United States, race has been used by whites for legitimizing and creating difference and social and political exclusion." The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only. The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the mid-20th century, resulting in the civil rights movement. Sociologist Stephen Klineberg has stated that U. S. immigration laws prior to 1965 declared "that Northern Europeans are a superior subspecies of the white race". The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 opened entry to the U. S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, altered the demographic mix in the U. S as a result. Many U. S. states banned interracial marriage through anti-miscegenation laws until 1967, when these laws were invalidated by the Supreme Court of the United States' decision in Loving v. Virginia; these mid-century gains had a major impact on white Americans' political views.
For sociologist Howard Winant, these shifts marked the end of "monolithic white supremacy" in the United States. After the mid-1960s, white supremacy remained an important ideology to the American far-right. According to Kathleen Belew, a historian of race and racism in the United States, white militancy shifted after the Vietnam War from supporting the existing racial order to a more radical position—self-described as "white power" or "white nationalism"—committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland; such anti-government militia organizations are one of three major strands of violent right-wing movements in the United States, with white supremacist groups and a religious fundamentalist movement being the other two. Howard Winant writes that, "On the far right the cornerstone of white identity is belief in an ineluctable, unalterable racialized difference between whites and nonwhites." In the view of philosopher Jason Stanley, white supremacy in the United States is an example of the fascist politics of hierarchy, in that it "demands and implies a perpetual hierarchy" in which whites dominate and control non-whites.
Some academics argue that outcomes from the 2016 United States Presidential Election reflect ongoing challenges with white supremacy. Psychologist Janet Helms suggested that the normalizing behaviors of social institutions of education and healthcare are organized around the "birthright of...the power to control society's resources and determine the rules for ". Educators, literary theorists, other political experts have raised similar questions, connecting the scapegoating of disenfranchised populations to white superiority. On July 23, 2019, Christopher A. Wray, the head of the FBI, said a
The boxing tournaments at the 2012 Olympic Games in London were held from 28 July to 12 August at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre. A total of 286 competitors took part in 13 events. For the first time at an Olympic Games, women competed in three boxing events; the first Olympic gold medal in women's boxing was awarded to Nicola Adams from Great Britain, who won the flyweight tournament on 9 August 2012. Men competed in the following ten events: Light flyweight Flyweight Bantamweight Lightweight Light welterweight Welterweight Middleweight Light heavyweight Heavyweight Super heavyweight Women's boxing was included in the Olympic programme for the first time, with female boxers able to participate in three events: Flyweight Lightweight Middleweight Each National Olympic Committee was permitted to enter up to one athlete in each event. Nine places were reserved for the host nation, Great Britain, from which it chose up to six, while the remaining places were allocated to the Tripartite Invitation Commission.
For each athlete from the host nation who qualified through the World Amateur Boxing Championships, the host lost a guaranteed place. Each continent had a quota of places to be filled through the two championships. Asia had 56 spots, the Americas 54, Africa 52, Europe 78 and Oceania 10. Qualification events were: 2011 World Amateur Boxing Championships – Baku, Azerbaijan, 16 September – 1 October, in which 10 athletes for all categories, six athletes for the heavyweight and super heavyweight categories qualified for the Olympics. 2012 AIBA Women's World Boxing Championships – Qinhuangdao, China, 9–22 May 2012 Continental Olympic qualifying events during 2012 There will be two sessions of competition on most days of the 2012 Olympics Boxing program, an afternoon session, which will start at 13:30 BST, an evening session, starting at 20:30 BST. In September 2011, the BBC Newsnight programme uncovered evidence that $9 million worth of secret payments were paid to World Series Boxing, a subcompany of the International Boxing Association, by Azerbaijan in return for two gold medals.
The AIBA denied the allegations, stating that the secret payments were a loan from an Azerbaijani investor. The AIBA and the International Olympic Committee both started inquiries into the allegations; the AIBA investigation found in December 2011 that the allegations were "groundless and unsupported by any credible evidence." There were several events in boxing in the 2012 Summer Olympics: "Boxing at the 2012 Summer Olympics". Archived from the original on 28 February 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2018. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Boxing at the 2012 Summer Olympics at SR/Olympics
A door card or a door panel is an insert on the door of a vehicle that covers the door's internal components. The door card will match the rest of the vehicle's interior. Door panels were made of cardboard with an upholstered interior finish of vinyl, cloth, carpet, or other materials for the decorative trim. Modern cars have door cards made of plastic, most using injection moulding, as well as incorporating other decorative materials; the design should incorporate both the necessary service amount and the functional unit so that a given car door panel "would service a car body's life span of 200,000 kilometres." The door panel incorporates other parts that contribute to the appearance and ergonomics of the vehicle. These include armrests, switches or other controls for windows and the locking mechanism, convenience lights, audio speakers, storage compartments, other features. In most cases, the door card is attached to the car's door frame by visible screws and ones hidden behind decorative plugs or under the armrest, as well as spring clips.
The gens Hortensia was an ancient plebeian family in Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned in the fifth century BC, but from that time somewhat infrequently until the final century of the Republic; the most illustrious of the gens was the orator Quintus Hortensius, a man of great learning, a contemporary of Cicero. Under the Empire they seem to have sunk back into obscurity; the nomen Hortensius appears to be derived from horto, a garden, signifies that the first to bear the name was a gardener. Chase believed the name was Latin, listing it among those nomina that either originated at Rome, or could not be shown to have come from anywhere else. However, Ogilvie points to the town of Urbinum Hortense in Umbria and the cult of Jupiter Hortensis in Campania as evidence that the name could have arisen elsewhere in Italy; that the Hortensii were plebeian, despite Cicero's application of the word nobilis to the family, seems demonstrated by the fact that the first of the Hortensii to appear in history was tribune of the plebs, the lack of any other evidence of a patrician family.
From this it seems more that Cicero was referring to the distinguished record of the Hortensii in the service of the Roman state, rather than identifying the gens as patrician. Ogilvie doubts the existence of Quintus Hortensius, ostensibly tribune of the plebs in 422 BC, suggesting that this story was invented at the time of the marriage of Sempronia with Lucius Hortensius, the father of the famous orator, concluding that the Hortensii arrived at Rome during the fourth century BC. All of the Hortensii at Rome mentioned in ancient sources bore the praenomina Quintus, Lucius, or Marcus, which were common names at all periods of Roman history, they must have used other names, but these have not been recorded. An inscription from Ferentinum suggests Sextus; the only surnames found among the Hortensii are Hortalus, which seems to have originated as a nickname for the orator Hortensius, Corbio from corbis, a basket, both borne by descendants of the orator. This list includes abbreviated praenomina.
For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Quintus Hortensius, tribune of the plebs in 422 BC, indicted Gaius Sempronius Atratinus, consul of the preceding year, for his negligence in preparation against the Volscians. Quintus Hortensius, appointed dictator in BC 287, in response to a secession of the plebs occasioned, once again, by debt. Hortensius passed a measure giving the force of law to plebiscita allowing the people to pursue debt relief without first having to obtain the approval of the Senate. Hortensius died before resigning his office, was replaced by a dictator suffectus, the only instance of such an appointment in Roman history. Lucius Hortensius, praetor in 170 BC, was given the command of the fleet in the war against Perseus; when the city of Abdera appealed from his demands for money and wheat, he stormed the city, had the leaders beheaded, sold the rest into slavery. The Roman Senate repudiated these acts, ordered that the people be set free. Hortensius continued to despoil Greece, was upbraided for his harshness to the Chalcidians, but does not seem to have been recalled or punished.
Quintus or Lucius Hortensius, elected consul in 108 BC, he was tried and condemned before taking office, exiled. Lucius Hortensius, father of the orator, was praetor in Sicily in 97 BC, where his administration was remembered for its honesty and justice, he married daughter of Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus. Lucius Hortensius L. f. elder brother of the orator, was legate under Sulla during the First Mithridatic War. He acquitted himself admirably in the build-up to the Battle of Chaeronea, again during the battle, despite the inferior size of his force. Quintus Hortensius L. f. contemporary of Cicero. He served his country in the Social War, was quaestor in BC 81, praetor urbanus in 72, consul in 69, he withdrew from public life as the first triumvirate began to dominate the affairs of the Roman state. His wife was daughter of Quintus Lutatius Catulus. Hortensia L. f. sister of married Marcus Valerius Messala. Her brother considered naming Hortensia's son as his heir, in preference to his own son, from whom he was estranged.
Quintus Hortensius Q. f. L. n. Hortalus, son of the orator, from whom he was estranged. Just before the Civil War, he joined Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul, it was Hortensius whom Caesar sent across the Rubicon. Proscribed after the death of Caesar, Hortensius had Gaius Antonius, brother of the triumvir, put to death in revenge. For this, he was executed upon Antonius' grave after the Battle of Philippi. Hortensia Q. f. L. n. daughter of the orator, intervened on behalf of the wealthy Roman matrons when the triumvirs proposed a special tax to pay for the war against Brutus and Cassius. She spoke with eloquence worthy of her father. Quintus Hortensius Q. f. Q. n. Corbio, grandson of the orator, described by Valerius Maximus "as a person sunk in base and brutal profligacy." Marcus Hortensius Q. f. Q. n. Hortalus, the brother of Corbio, was impoverished, but Augustus gave him sufficient income for his senatorial rank, provided for his marriage. However, he made little of his fortune, was once again impoverished by the reign of Tiberius.
Aulus Hortensius, father of Sextus Hortensius Clarus. Sextus Hortensius A. f. Clarus, dedicated an Augusteum at Ferentinum during the reign of Caligula. List of Roman gentes Marcus Tullius Cicero, Pro Quinctio, Epistulae ad Atticum, In Verrem, Philippicae. Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita. Val
The World Economic Forum, based in Cologny-Geneva, Switzerland, is an NGO, founded in 1971. The WEF's mission is cited as "committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political and other leaders of society to shape global and industry agendas", it is a membership-based organization, membership is made up of the world's largest corporations. The WEF hosts an annual meeting at the end of January in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland; the meeting brings together some 3,000 business leaders, international political leaders, economists and journalists for up to five days to discuss global issues, across 500 public and private sessions. The organization convenes some six to eight regional meetings each year in locations across Africa, East Asia, Latin America, India and holds two further annual meetings in China and the United Arab Emirates. Beside meetings, the organization provides a platform for leaders from all stakeholder groups from around the world – business and civil society – to collaborate on multiple projects and initiatives.
It produces a series of reports and engages its members in sector-specific initiatives. The WEF was founded in 1971 by a business professor at the University of Geneva. First named the European Management Forum, it changed its name to the World Economic Forum in 1987 and sought to broaden its vision to include providing a platform for resolving international conflicts. In the summer of 1971, Schwab invited 444 executives from Western European firms to the first European Management Symposium held in the Davos Congress Centre under the patronage of the European Commission and European industrial associations, where Schwab sought to introduce European firms to American management practices, he founded the WEF as a nonprofit organization based in Geneva and drew European business leaders to Davos for the annual meetings each January. Events in 1973, including the collapse of the Bretton Woods fixed-exchange rate mechanism and the Arab–Israeli War, saw the annual meeting expand its focus from management to economic and social issues, for the first time, political leaders were invited to the annual meeting in January 1974.
Political leaders soon began to use the annual meeting as venue for promoting their interests. The Davos Declaration was signed in 1988 by Greece and Turkey, helping them turn back from the brink of war. In 1992, South African President F. W. de Klerk met with Nelson Mandela and Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi at the annual meeting, their first joint appearance outside South Africa. At the 1994 annual meeting, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat reached a draft agreement on Gaza and Jericho. In late 2015, the invitation was extended to include a North Korean delegation for the 2016 WEF, "in view of positive signs coming out of the country", the WEF organizers noted. North Korea has not been attending the WEF since 1998; the invitation was accepted but after the January 2016 North Korean nuclear test on 6 January, the invitation was revoked, the country's delegation was made subject to "existing and possible forthcoming sanctions". Despite protests by North Korea calling the decision by the WEF managing board a "sudden and irresponsible" move, the WEF committee maintained the exclusion because "under these circumstances there would be no opportunity for international dialogue".
In 2017, the WEF in Davos attracted considerable attention when for the first time, a head of state from the People's Republic of China was present at the alpine resort. With the backdrop of Brexit, an incoming protectionist US administration and significant pressures on free trade zones and trade agreements, President Xi Jinping defended the global economic scheme, portrayed China as a responsible nation and a leader for environmental causes, he rebuked the current populist movements that would introduce tariffs and hinder global commerce, warning that such protectionism could foster isolation and reduced economic opportunity. In 2018, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi gave the plenary speech, becoming the first head of state from India to deliver the inaugural keynote for the annual meet at Davos. Modi highlighted global warming and protectionism as the three major global challenges, expressed confidence that they can be tackled with collective effort. In 2019, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro gave the keynote address at the plenary session of the conference.
On his first international trip to Davos, he emphasized liberal economic policies despite his populist agenda, attempted to reassure the world that Brazil is a protector of the rain forest while utilizing its resources for food production and export. He stated that "his government will seek to better integrate Brazil into the world by mainstreaming international best practices, such as those adopted and promoted by the OECD". Environmental concerns like extreme weather events, the failure of climate change mitigation and adaptation were among the top-ranking global risks expressed by WEF attendees. Headquartered in Cologny, the WEF has offices in New York and Tokyo. In January 2015 it was designated an NGO with "other international body" status by the Swiss Federal Government under the Swiss Host-State Act. On October 10, 2016, the WEF announced the opening of its new Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution in San Francisco. According to the WEF, the center will "serve as a platform for interaction and impact on the scientific and technological changes that are changing the way we live and relate to one another".
The World Economic Forum claims to be impartial and that it is not tied to any political, partisan, or national interests. Until 2012
Osaka YMCA International School is an international school in Kita-ku, Japan. Osaka YMCA International School is an English-based, private international school, offering preschool to grade 9; the school year starts at the beginning of September and goes to the beginning of July–a fall-spring calendar. OYIS began operations in 2001 and received gakko hojin status from the Osaka prefectural government in 2012. OYIS is in the process of creating a high school program that will include the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program and will lead to grade 12 graduation, they will add a grade every year after that. OYIS is accredited by the International Baccalaureate Organization and by the US-based Western Association of Schools and Colleges; the school was established in September 2001 from a partnership of Osaka city and the YMCA. In 2002 Alex Stewart of The Journal of the American Chamber of Commerce in Japan wrote that "Osaka city, at least, seems to have woken up to the importance of Osaka YMCA International School."
William A. Fischel, author of Making the Grade: The Economic Evolution of American School Districts, stated that a version of the OYCS website which had names of students, "at least half of which suggest Japanese parentage", made him conclude that OYIS was not only for North American families. Osaka YMCA International School