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Whitehaven

Whitehaven is a town and port on the west coast of Cumbria, near the Lake District National Park in England. In Cumberland, it lies by road 38 miles south-west of Carlisle and 45 miles to the north of Barrow-in-Furness, it is the administrative seat of the Borough of Copeland, has a town council for the parish of Whitehaven. The population of the town was 23,986 at the 2011 census; the town's growth was due to the exploitation of the extensive coal measures by the Lowther family, driving a growing export of coal through the harbour from the 17th century onwards. It was a major port for trading with the American colonies, was, after London, the second busiest port of England by tonnage from 1750 to 1772; this prosperity led to the creation of a Georgian planned town in the 18th century which has left an architectural legacy of over 170 listed buildings. Whitehaven has been designated a "gem town" by the Council for British Archaeology due to the historic quality of the town environment. Whitehaven was the site of a major chemical industry after World War II, but both that and the coal industry have disappeared, today the major industry is the nearby Sellafield nuclear complex, the largest local employer of labour and has a significant administrative base in the town.

Whitehaven includes a number of former villages and suburbs, such as Mirehouse, Woodhouse and Hensingham, is served by the Cumbrian coast railway line and the A595 road. Whitehaven is within the Copeland UK Parliamentary constituency. Trudy Harrison is the Member of parliament. Before Brexit, it was in the North West England European Parliamentary Constituency. For Local Government purposes it has the following wards in the Borough of Copeland: Whitehaven South Whitehaven central Kells Hillcrest Corkicle SneckyeatAlso the following divisions in Cumbria County Council: Bransty Kells and Sandwith Hillcrest + Hensingham MirehouseWhitehaven has its own Parish Council. Although there was a Roman fort at Parton, around 1.2 miles to the north, there is no evidence of a Roman settlement on the site of the present town of Whitehaven. The area was settled by Irish-Norse Vikings in the 10th century; the area name of Copeland, which includes Whitehaven, indicates that the land was purchased from the Kingdom of Strathclyde with loot from Ireland.

Following the arrival of the Normans, in about 1120 St Bees Priory was founded by William de Meschin, granted a large tract of land from the coast at Whitehaven to the river Keekle, south down the River Ehen to the sea. This included the small fishing village of Whitehaven. Following Henry VIII's dissolution of the priory in 1539, ownership of this estate passed through a number of secular landlords until it passed into the hands of the Lowther family in the 17th century. Whitehaven was a township within the "Preston Quarter" of the parish of St Bees. and the town's churches were chapels-of-ease of St Bees until 1835 when three ecclesiastical districts were created in Whitehaven. The modern growth of Whitehaven started with the purchase by Sir Christopher Lowther of the Whitehaven estate in 1630 and the subsequent development of the port and the mines. In 1634 he built a stone pier providing shelter and access for shipping, enabling the export of coal from the Cumberland Coalfield to Ireland.

This was a key event in the rapid growth of the town from a small fishing village to an industrial port. In 1642, the manor of St. Bees was inherited by Sir John Lowther, 2nd Baronet, of Whitehaven, who developed the town of Whitehaven, its coal industry and the trade with Ireland, he oversaw the rise of Whitehaven from a small fishing village to a planned town three times the size of Carlisle. At his death the'port of Whitehaven' had 77 registered vessels, totalling about four thousand tons, was exporting over 35,000 tons of coal a year. Whitehaven's growing prosperity was based on tobacco. By 1685, there were ships bringing tobacco from the British colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania in America, by the early 18th century about 10% of England's tobacco imports passed through Whitehaven. By the middle of the 18th century it was the third port in England for tobacco imports; the tobacco was sold in the domestic market or re-exported, e.g. to Ireland, France or the Netherlands. However, after the Acts of Union 1707 united England with Scotland, thereby abolishing excise duties between them, the port of Glasgow began to take over Whitehaven's tobacco trade, leading to the creation of Glasgow's Tobacco Lords.

By the second half of the 18th century there was a marked decline in shipping of tobacco via Whitehaven, by 1820 the Customs Collector did not mention tobacco in his report on Whitehaven. Daniel Defoe visited Whitehaven in the 1720s, wrote that the town had: "grown up from a small place to be considerable by the coal trade, that it is now the most eminent port in England for shipping off of coals, except Newcastle and Sunderland and beyond the last, they have of late fallen into some merchandising occasioned by the strange great number of their shipping, there are now some considerable merchants. To replace the tobacco trade Whitehaven turned to importing sugar from Barbados, cotton wool from Antigua and coffee and cocoa from St Lucia. There is little evidence to suggest. Due to the coal trade Whitehaven was, after London, the second port of England in terms of tonnage of shipping from 1750 to 1772. By 1835 Whitehaven was still the fifth placed port, with 443 ships registered, but by the e

Duncan Hamilton (racing driver)

James Duncan Hamilton. His colourful and extrovert personality overshadowed his genuine talent. After fighting in, surviving the Second World War, he vowed to live life to the full and took up motor sport. Although adept in single-seaters, sportscars was where he enjoyed most success, winning the 1953 24 Heures du Mans, two Coupe de Paris events, the 12 heures internationals Reims race in 1956, he ran a garage in Bagshot, Surrey for many years. He died from lung cancer in 1994. Born in County Cork, Hamilton was brought up in relative obscurity. Prior to his 20th birthday, Europe was embroiled in the Second World War; as a result, he would spend the war years as part of the Fleet Air Arm flying Lysanders. After the war ended, he opened a car garage. During the years between the war ending and the start of the 1950s, Duncan started racing in local events, he cut his teeth in such pre-wars as the MG R-type and the Bugatti Type 35B. After racing a Maserati 6CM in 1948, Duncan graduated to a Talbot-Lago Grand Prix car.

He participated in five 18 non-Championship Formula One races. His best results in the non-Championship events were fourth place in the 1948 Zandvoort Grand Prix with a Maserati 6CM, third in the 1951 Richmond Trophy, second in the 1951 BRDC International Trophy, third in the 1952 Richmond Trophy and fourth in the 1952 Internationales ADAC Eifelrennen; that fourth place at Zandvoort, showed that he was right at home in the upper level of Grand Prix racing as this was his debut at this level. After that impressive debut, things soon turned sour for Hamilton, at his last race of 1948, the RAC International Grand Prix, the first official post-WW2 British Grand Prix, he retired with oil pressure problems. Throughout the 1949 Grand Prix season, he only suffered one retirement, however he did not finish higher than ninth, which he managed twice, both times at Goodwood; the following season, he competed in fewer Grand Prix races, while he expanded his racing experience by racing sportscars. He won a minor Formula Libre race, held at Curragh in the Republic of Ireland.

Hamilton performed beautifully before the Irish crowd. In the wet, Hamilton had few peers. In his Talbot-Lago, he eclipsed Juan Manuel Fangio at the soaking BRDC International Trophy race at Silverstone in 1951, when he finished second to Reg Parnell, but a long way ahead of Fangio who went on to win the World Championship that season, he was best known for his success in the Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race, which he took part in nine times, most famously in partnership with Tony Rolt. The pair finished fourth at their first attempt in the 1950 race and sixth in 1951, both times in a special-bodied Nash-Healey coupe, their Jaguar C-Type did not finish in 1952, but they returned with a C-Type to win in 1953. They were second with a Jaguar D-Type in 1954, losing to a much larger-engined V12 Ferrari – and by the narrowest margin in years, they came within two miles of victory, Hamilton driving a storming race in the closing stages to halve the lead of the Scuderia Ferrari of José Froilán González and Maurice Trintignant, as the track was awash following a cloudburst.

When the track started to dry out, the Ferrari hung on for a narrow triumph. He failed to finish in 1955. For 1956 Hamilton partnered Alfonso de Portago in a Ferrari but again did not finish. In 1957 he reverted to a Jaguar D-Type: partnered by the American driver Masten Gregory he came sixth, his last Le Mans appearance was in 1958. Hamilton won the 1956 Rheims 12-hour race for Jaguar with a D-Type co-driven by Ivor Bueb. Despite the win, the factory dropped him from their 1956 Le Mans roster for speeding up and passing team-mate Paul Frère's car at Rheims when Lofty England had ordered the entire team to slow down, hence his switch to a Ferrari that year. In 1957 Jaguar did not enter Le Mans – cars and equipment had been destroyed by a fire at the factory – and Hamilton used his owned D-Type. Hamilton famously won the 1953 event in a Jaguar C-Type shared with Rolt; the pairing were disqualified for practising in a Jaguar that had the same racing number as another on the circuit at the same time, but they were reinstated.

Hamilton's account has become a motor racing legend: when Jaguar team manager Lofty England persuaded the organisers to let them race, both drivers were drunk in a local bar. England said: ”Of course I would never have let them race under the influence. I had enough trouble when they were sober!” When the race was under way the team tried to sober Hamilton up by giving him coffee during the pit stops but he refused it, saying it made his arms twitch. The alcohol must have helped when he struck a bird broke his nose, it is wonder how the pair managed to drive at all but more wondrous still is that the pair won. What’s more, they recorded the first 100 mph average speed at Le Mans, winning at a record pace! Both England and Rolt have denied. On one occasion in 1947, he was transporting his MG R-type to the Brighton Speed Trials, when going down a hill near Guildford, he ”saw the splendid honeycomb radiator of a Bugatti in the outside rear-view mirror”, so he moved over and waved it past, but the car hung back.

Further down the hill, the Bugatti accelerated and drew level with Hamilton, at which point he saw there was no one in it: ”The awful truth dawned on me – it was my own car, gathering speed fast.” Duncan had forgotten he was towing the Bugatti, the story ends with a lamppost snapped in two. The ’53 Le Mans

Cane Ridge, Kentucky

Cane Ridge, United States was the site, in 1801, of a huge camp meeting that drew thousands of people and had a lasting influence as one of the landmark events of the Second Great Awakening, which took place in frontier areas of the United States. The event was led by eighteen Presbyterian ministers, but numerous Methodist and Baptist preachers spoke and assisted. Many of the "spiritual exercises", such as glossolalia and ecstatic attendees, were exhibited that in the 20th century became more associated with the Pentecostal movement. Cane Ridge is located in Kentucky near Paris; the ridge was named by the explorer Daniel Boone. The Cane Ridge building and grounds had many unusual aspects; the 1791 Cane Ridge Meeting House is believed to be the largest single-room log structure in North America. The burial ground contains an unmarked section, among the largest in the country. A Christian church congregation met on the site for many years after the 1801 revival meeting, the congregation's leaving the Presbyterian Church in 1804.

Barton W. Stone was its one of the leading ministers of the Christian Church; this place was so dear to him that at his request, several years after his death, his remains were reinterred there. Led by Barton Stone, the Cane Ridge Revival is associated with the development of what became known as the Restoration Movement. Stone and several other ministers left the Presbyterian Church in 1804 and established the Christian Church. Another element of the Restoration Movement was Alexander Campbell's Disciples of Christ. In 1832, Stone and Campbell agreed to combine their efforts in the Restoration Movement. Groups developed as the Churches of Christ and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, several smaller groups; the Christian Church used a log building as their meeting house. When the congregation ceased to meet there in the 1920s, the building fell into disuse. Minded persons, predominantly from the Disciples, restored the building and preserved it by building a stone shrine to surround and protect it.

The restoration of the original slave gallery in the meetinghouse was the oldest documented such restoration in the United States. In the 1820s, the congregation had removed the slave gallery; when preservationists began restoration work in the 1930s, they re-installed the original cherry-railed gallery. It was found and returned from a local barn, where it had served as a hay loft for more than a century; the meeting house continues to be used as a living church. A curator is available for guided tours by appointment; the Barton Warren Stone Museum contains artifacts of the congregation, Barton W. Stone and his family, the Stone-Campbell movement, antique farm and household equipment; the museum is open only in the summer. It houses the office of the Cane Ridge Preservation Projects and a book shop. Brown, Kenneth O. HOLY GROUND, A STUDY OF THE AMERICAN CAMP MEETING. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. 1992. Brown, Kenneth O. HOLY GROUND, TOO: THE CAMP MEETING FAMILY TREE. Hazleton: Holiness Archives, 1997.

Conklin: Paul Keith. CANE RIDGE: AMERICA'S PENTECOST. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990. Dickinson, Hoke S. THE CANE RIDGE READER. No publication data, 1972. Eslinger, Ellen. CITIZENS OF ZION: THE SOCIAL ORIGINS OF CAMP MEETING REVIVALISM. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1999. Murray, Iain H. REVIVALS AND REVIVALISM. Carlisle, PA: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1994. Smith, Ted A. "Out of the Mouths of Babes: Exhortation by Children and the Great Revival in Kentucky", Practical Matters: A Transdisciplinary Multimedia Journal of Religious Practices and Practical Theology, 2, 2009. The official website of Cane Ridge

Ballinagore GAA

Ballinagore GAA is a Gaelic Athletic Association club in County Westmeath, Ireland. The club is affiliated to the Westmeath county board. Ballinagore GAA was formed in the early 1920s, having formed part of the Castletown Geoghegan club, they won the Westmeath Junior Football Championship in 1940, defeating Mental Hospital by 1-7 to 0-3 in the final, played in Cusack Park. It was a successful year for Ballinagore, as they won the Junior League, beating The Downs in the final. In 1986, the club won the county Junior B Championship Final beating Delvin 0-11 to 1-4; that year saw them win the Junior Championship, the final being played in Cusack Park on October 1. Ballinagore emerged convincing winners, they completed a treble by overcoming Delvin in the Junior Cup final, 4-9 to 1-7. As a result of their Junior Championship win, they were promoted to the Westmeath Intermediate Football Championship, but were relegated in 1990. Ballinagore were soon pushing for promotion again, they lost each one. 1994 saw them in a fourth consecutive final, this time they were victorious, beating Milltown 1-5 to 0-7 in Athlone.

They retained the league title they had won in 1993 when they beat Milltown 0-9 to 0-8. A Junior treble was completed with a 0-10 to 0-7 win over Ballynacargy in the Junior Cup final. Ballinagore were relegated from the Intermediate grade in 2004 after a ten-year stay. However, they returned in 2005 to capture County Junior Cup, they went on to win the Leinster Junior Club Football Championship, becoming the first Westmeath club to win a provincial football championship. It was not long before they capitalised on their return to intermediate grade, as they captured the 2007 Intermediate Championship, they went on to reach the Leinster Intermediate Club Football Championship semi-final, but were beaten 1-8 to 0-10 by Kildare GAA intermediate champions Suncroft, thanks to an injury-time point. Https://web.archive.org/web/20071118203706/http://www.westmeathexaminer.ie/story.asp?stID=585 https://web.archive.org/web/20071118180453/http://www.westmeathexaminer.ie/story.asp?stID=617 https://web.archive.org/web/20080607002448/http://ballinagore.westmeath.gaa.ie/ https://web.archive.org/web/20080718214824/http://westmeath.gaa.ie/

Wat Hua Lamphong

Wat Hua Lamphong is a Royal Buddhist temple, third class, in the Bang Rak District of Bangkok, Thailand. It is located on Rama IV Road, with Si Lom Road and Suriwong Road in Bangkok's modern business district to the southeast, Si Phraya Road to the northwest, it is a block from The Montien hotel, 1 km from the city's main Hua Lamphong railway station. An entrance to Sam Yan Station on the Bangkok metro is located outside the main entrance to the temple compound on Rama IV road. Wat Hua Lamphong was renovated to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the ascension to the throne of King Bhumibol Adulyadej in 1996; the royal seal of what became known as the Kanchanapisek, or Golden Jubilee, showing two elephants flanking a multi-tiered umbrella, features extensively in the temple's remodelling. Inside the temple compound, the ubosot and viharn are unusual in being raised on a one-story high platform, accessed by a wide staircase; the platform supports the temple's chedi. The compound in front of and below the ubosot platform is home to a number of shrines dedicated to important Thai Buddhist figures, including King Chulalongkorn, the Hindu god Ganesha.

The temple compound contains a crematorium, living quarters for monks. List of Buddhist temples in Thailand Photos of Wat Hua Lamphong at Thailand-pictures.com

Alcohol laws of Massachusetts

The serving of alcohol in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is governed by the Alcoholic Beverages Control Commission, responsible for issuing licenses and permits for all manufacturers and importers, out-of-state suppliers, salespeople, planes, ships, ship chandlers and vehicles transporting alcoholic beverages. On December 4, 1984, Governor Michael S. Dukakis signed a bill raising the drinking age from 20 to 21 in Massachusetts; this bill was in response to the National Minimum Drinking Age Act which would reduce federal highway funding by 10% for any state that did not adopt a drinking age of 21. Those under 21 can, consume alcoholic beverages provided by their parents or grandparents on private premises. Establishments accepting, in good faith, the following as proof of age are protected if underage patrons are served accidentally: A Massachusetts Driver’s License A Massachusetts Liquor Identification Card A Massachusetts Identification Card A Passport Issued by the United States or a government, recognized by the United States A Passport Card for a Passport issued by the United States A Military Identification Card Individuals can transport alcohol without a license, up to but not exceeding, twenty gallons of malt beverages, three gallons of any other alcoholic beverage, or one gallon of alcohol at a single time.

People under 21 years of age may not knowingly drive a car with alcohol inside unless they are accompanied by their legal guardian. This means a person under the age of 21 cannot drive a vehicle with alcohol inside of the vehicle if it belongs to a person over the age of 21, inside the vehicle. Violators have their driver's license suspended for three months. Driving under the influence of alcohol in Massachusetts is a crime, punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment. Massachusetts' maximum blood alcohol level is 0.08% and 0.02% if the driver is under 21 years of age. Operating under the influence penalties can vary depending on prior OUI offenses. Bars and restaurants in Massachusetts are prohibited from offering discounts on alcoholic beverages. Establishments are not permitted to offer a drink special for a short time for a day; the ban on happy hour promotions came into effect in December 1984, following a series of happy hour-related drunk driving crashes, as part of a broader push to reduce drunk driving.

It was supported by Mothers Against Drunk Driving and state officials, including Governor Michael Dukakis. Multiple attempts to repeal the ban have failed; the host of a party can be held liable for a guest who causes injury to others if it is proved that the host knew or should have known that the guest was intoxicated but continued to allow the guest to drink alcoholic beverages. Law of Massachusetts Sumptuary law