Paul Jackson Pollock was an American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was noticed for his technique of pouring or splashing liquid household paint on to a horizontal surface, enabling him to view and paint his canvases from all angles, it was called ‘action painting’, since he used the force of his whole body to paint in a frenetic dancing style. This extreme form of abstraction divided the critics: some praised the immediacy and fluency of the creation, while others derided the random effects. In 2016, Pollock's painting titled Number 17A was reported to have fetched US$200 million in a private purchase. A reclusive and volatile personality, Pollock struggled with alcoholism for most of his life. In 1945, he married the artist Lee Krasner, who became an important influence on his career and on his legacy. Pollock died at the age of 44 in an alcohol-related single-car accident. In December 1956, four months after his death, Pollock was given a memorial retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
A larger, more comprehensive exhibition of his work was held there in 1967. In 1998 and 1999, his work was honored with large-scale retrospective exhibitions at MoMA and at The Tate in London. Paul Jackson Pollock was born in Wyoming, in 1912, the youngest of five sons, his parents, Stella May and LeRoy Pollock, were born and grew up in Tingley and were educated at Tingley High School. Pollock's mother is interred at Ringgold County, Iowa, his father had been born with the surname McCoy, but took the surname of his adoptive parents, neighbors who adopted him after his own parents had died within a year of each other. Stella and LeRoy Pollock were Presbyterian. LeRoy Pollock was a farmer and a land surveyor for the government, moving for different jobs. Stella, proud of her family's heritage as weavers and sold dresses as a teenager. In November 1912, Stella took her sons to San Diego, he subsequently grew up in Chico, California. While living in Echo Park, California, he enrolled at Los Angeles' Manual Arts High School, from which he was expelled.
He had been expelled in 1928 from another high school. During his early life, Pollock explored Native American culture while on surveying trips with his father. In 1930, following his older brother Charles Pollock, he moved to New York City, where they both studied under Thomas Hart Benton at the Art Students League. Benton's rural American subject matter had little influence on Pollock's work, but his rhythmic use of paint and his fierce independence were more lasting. In the early 1930s, Pollock spent a summer touring the Western United States together with Glen Rounds, a fellow art student, Benton, their teacher. Pollock was introduced to the use of liquid paint in 1936 at an experimental workshop in New York City by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros, he used paint pouring as one of several techniques on canvases of the early 1940s, such as Male and Female and Composition with Pouring I. After his move to Springs, he began painting with his canvases laid out on the studio floor and he developed what was called his "drip" technique.
From 1938 to 1942 Pollock worked for the WPA Federal Art Project. During this time Pollock was trying to deal with his established alcoholism, from 1938 through 1941 Pollock underwent Jungian psychotherapy with Dr. Joseph Henderson and with Dr. Violet Staub de Laszlo in 1941–42. Henderson engaged him through his art. Jungian concepts and archetypes were expressed in his paintings; some historians have hypothesized. Pollock signed a gallery contract with Peggy Guggenheim in July 1943, he received the commission to create the 8-by-20-foot Mural for the entry to her new townhouse. At the suggestion of her friend and advisor Marcel Duchamp, Pollock painted the work on canvas, rather than the wall, so that it would be portable. After seeing the big mural, the art critic Clement Greenberg wrote: "I took one look at it and I thought,'Now that's great art,' and I knew Jackson was the greatest painter this country had produced." The catalog introducing his first exhibition described. It has fire, it is unpredictable.
It is undisciplined. It spills out of itself in a mineral prodigality, not yet crystallized." Pollock's most famous paintings were made during the "drip period" between 1947 and 1950. He rocketed to fame following an August 8, 1949 four-page spread in Life magazine that asked, "Is he the greatest living painter in the United States?" At the peak of his fame, Pollock abruptly abandoned the drip style. Pollock's work after 1951 was darker in color, including a collection painted in black on unprimed canvases; these paintings have been referred to as his'Black pourings' and when he exhibited them at the Betty Parsons Gallery in New York, none of them sold. Parsons sold one to a friend at half the price; the departure from his earlier style wasn't what. These works show Pollock attempting to find a balance between abstraction and depictions of the figure, he returned to using color and continued with figurative elements. During this period, Pollock had moved to a more commercial gallery. In response to this pressure, along with personal frustration, his alcoholism deepened.
The two artists met while they both exhibited at the McMillen Gallery in 1942. Krasner was unfamiliar, yet intrigue
Renzo Piano, is an Italian architect. His notable buildings include the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, The Shard in London, the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City and Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center in Athens, he won the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1998. Piano was born in Genoa, into a family of builders, his grandfather had created a masonry enterprise, expanded by his father, Carlo Piano, his father's three brothers, into the firm Fratelli Piano. The firm prospered after World War II, constructing houses and factories and selling construction materials; when his father retired the enterprise was led by Renzo's older brother, who studied engineering at the University of Genoa. Renzo studied architecture at the Milan Polytechnic University, he graduated in 1964 with a dissertation about modular coordination supervised by Giuseppe Ciribini and began working with experimental lightweight structures and basic shelters. Piano taught at the Polytechnic University from 1965 until 1968, expanded his horizons and technical skills by working in two large international firms, for the modernist architect Louis Kahn in Philadelphia and for the Polish engineer Zygmunt Stanlislaw Makowski in London.
He completed his first building, the IPE factory in Genoa, in 1968, with a roof of steel and reinforced polyester, created a continuous membrane for the covering of a pavilion at the Milan Triennale in the same year. In 1970, he received his first international commission, for the Pavilion of Italian Industry for Expo 70 in Osaka, Japan, he collaborated with the family firm, which manufactured the structure. It was lightweight and original composed of steel and reinforced polyester, it appeared to be artistic and industrial; the 1970 Osaka structure was admired by the British architect Richard Rogers, in 1971 the two men decided to open their own firm and Rogers, where they worked together from 1971 to 1977. The first project of the firm was the administrative building of B&B Italia, an Italian furniture company, in Novedrate, Italy; this design featured suspended container and an open bearing structure, with the conduits for heating and water on the exterior painted in bright colors. These unusual features attracted considerable attention in the architectural world, influenced the choice of the jurors who selected Piano and Rogers to design the Pompidou Center.
In 1971 the thirty-four-year old Piano and Richard Rogers, thirty-eight, in collaboration with the Italian architect Gianfranco Franchini, competed with the major architectural firms in the United States and Europe, were awarded the commission for the most prestigious project in Paris, the Centre Georges Pompidou, the new French national museum of 20th century art. The award came a surprise, to the architectural world, since the two were little-known, had no experience with museums or other major structures; the New York Times declared that their design "turned the architecture world upside down". More it turned architecture inside-out, since in the new museum, the apparent structural frame of the building and the heating and air conditioning ducts were on the exterior, painted in bright colors; the escalator, in a transparent tube, crossed the facade of the building at a diagonal. The building was an astonishing success transforming the character a run-down commercial section near the Marais in Paris, made Piano one of the best-known architects in the world.
The media dubbed the style of the building as "high-tech", but this was disputed by Piano. "Beaubourg," he said, "was a joyous urban machine, a creature which might have come out of a Jules Verne novel, a sort of bizarre boat in dry dock... It is a double provocation. To consider it as a high-tech object is a mistake." In 1977 Piano ended his collaboration with Rogers and began a new collaboration with engineer Peter Rice, who had assisted in the design of the Pompidou Center. They established their offices in Genoa. One of their first projects was a plan for the rehabilitation of the old port of Otranto from an industrial site into a commercial and tourist attraction, their first major building was the Menil Collection, in art museum for the art collector Dominique de Menil. The chief requirements of the owner for this building was to make the maximum use of natural light in the interiors. Piano wrote, "Paradoxically, the Menil Collection, with its serenity, its calm, its discretion, is much more modern, scientifically speaking, than the Beaubourg."
The Menil Collection building, with its simple gray and white cubic forms, is the stylistic opposite of the Pompidou Center. The technological innovations were not expressed on the facade, but in the high-tech but discreet systems of shutters and screens and air conditioning which allowed maximum illumination while protecting against the intense Texas heat and sunlight. In the mid-1980s Piano and his firm took on a wide variety of projects, using the most advanced technology available, but, in contrast to the Pompidou Center, as discreetly as possible, his portable pavilion for IBM was an example. It composed of a series of pyramids of polycarbonate supported by a wooden frame, could be transported in a truck, it was designed to integrate the scenery outside into displays in the interior. He designed a two major reconstruction projects in northern Italy.
An art exhibition is traditionally the space in which art objects meet an audience. The exhibit is universally understood to be for some temporary period unless, as is true, it is stated to be a "permanent exhibition". In American English, they may be called "exhibit", "exposition" or "show". In UK English, they are always called "exhibitions" or "shows", an individual item in the show is an "exhibit"; such expositions may present pictures, video, installation, interactive art, new media art or sculptures by individual artists, groups of artists or collections of a specific form of art. The art works may be presented in museums, art halls, art clubs or private art galleries, or at some place the principal business of, not the display or sale of art, such as a coffeehouse. An important distinction is noted between those exhibits where some or all of the works are for sale in private art galleries, those where they are not. Sometimes the event is organized on a specific occasion, like a birthday, anniversary or commemoration.
There are different kinds of art exhibitions, in particular there is a distinction between commercial and non-commercial exhibitions. A commercial exhibition or trade fair is referred to as an art fair that shows the work of artists or art dealers where participants have to pay a fee. A vanity gallery is an exhibition space of works in a gallery that charges the artist for use of the space. Temporary museum exhibitions display items from the museum's own collection on a particular period, theme or topic, supplemented by loans from other collections those of other museums, they include no items for sale. Exhibitions in commercial galleries are entirely made up of items that are for sale, but may be supplemented by other items that are not; the visitor has to pay to enter a museum exhibition, but not a commercial one in a gallery. Retrospectives look back over the work of a single artist; the Biennale is a large exhibition held every two years intending to gather together the best of international art.
A travelling exhibition is another category of art exhibition. Exhibitions of new or recent art can be invitational, or open. A juried exhibition, such as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition in London, or the Iowa Biennial, has an individual acting as judge of the submitted artworks, selecting which are to be shown. If prizes are to be awarded, the judge or panel of judges will select the prizewinners as well. In an invitational exhibition, such as the Whitney Biennial, the organizer of the show asks certain artists to supply artworks and exhibits them. An open or "non-juried" exhibition, such as the Kyoto Triennial, allows anybody to enter artworks and shows them all. A type of exhibition, non-juried is a mail art exhibition; the art exhibition has played a crucial part in the market for new art since the 18th and 19th centuries. The Paris Salon, open to the public from 1737 became the key factor in determining the reputation, so the price, of the French artists of the day; the Royal Academy in London, beginning in 1769, soon established a similar grip on the market, in both countries artists put great efforts into making pictures that would be a success changing the direction of their style to meet popular or critical taste.
The British Institution was added to the London scene in 1805, holding two annual exhibitions, one of new British art for sale, one of loans from the collections of its aristocratic patrons. These exhibitions received lengthy and detailed reviews in the press, which were the main vehicle for the art criticism of the day. Critics as distinguished as Denis Diderot and John Ruskin held their readers attention by divergent reviews of different works, praising some extravagantly and giving others the most savage put-downs they could think of. Many of the works were sold, but success at these exhibitions was a crucial way for an artist to attract more commissions. Among important early one-off loan exhibitions of older paintings were the Art Treasures Exhibition, Manchester 1857, the Exhibition of National Portraits in London, at what is now the Victoria and Albert Museum, held in three stages in 1866-68; as the academic art promoted by the Paris Salon, always more rigid than London, was felt to be stifling French art, alternative exhibitions, now known as the Salon des Refusés were held, most famously in 1863, when the government allowed them an annex to the main exhibition for a show that included Édouard Manet's Luncheon on the Grass and James McNeill Whistler's Girl in White.
This began a period where exhibitions one-off shows, were crucial in exposing the public to new developments in art, Modern art. Important shows of this type were the Armory Show in New York City in 1913 and the London International Surrealist Exhibition in 1936. Museums started holding large loan exhibitions of historic art in the late 19th century, as did the Royal Academy, but the modern "blockbuster" museum exhibition, with long queues and a large illustrated catalogue, is agreed to have been introduced by the exhibitions of artifacts from the tomb of Tutankhamun held in several cities in the 1970s. Many exhibition
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is a U. S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp; the newspaper is published in online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser; the Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, accessible only to subscribers since it began; the newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes. The editorial pages of the Journal are conservative in their position. The"Journal" editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke and asbestos.
The first products of Dow Jones & Company, the publisher of the Journal, were brief news bulletins, nicknamed "flimsies", hand-delivered throughout the day to traders at the stock exchange in the early 1880s. They were aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. Reporters Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser converted this into The Wall Street Journal, published for the first time on July 8, 1889, began delivery of the Dow Jones News Service via telegraph. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was launched, it was the first of several indices of bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time written by Charles Dow. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902. Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism.
In 1921, Barron's, the United States's premier financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007; the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, company CEO in 1945 compiling a 25-year career as the head of the Journal. Kilgore was the architect of the paper's iconic front-page design, with its "What's News" digest, its national distribution strategy, which brought the paper's circulation from 33,000 in 1941 to 1.1 million at the time of Kilgore's death in 1967. Under Kilgore, in 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize for William Henry Grimes's editorials. In 1967, Dow Jones Newswires began a major expansion outside of the United States that put journalists in every major financial center in Europe, Latin America and Africa.
In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies and three Sunday newspapers. The name was changed to "Dow Jones Local Media Group".1971 to 1997 brought about a series of launches and joint ventures, including "Factiva", The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Wall Street Journal Europe, the WSJ.com website, Dow Jones Indexes, MarketWatch, "WSJ Weekend Edition". In 2007, News Corp. acquired Dow Jones. WSJ. A luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996 and has allowed access only by subscription from the beginning. In 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journal's print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web, with 980,000 paid subscribers. Since online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, was reported at 400,000 in March 2010.
In May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the online edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually, excluding introductory offers. On November 30, 2004, Oasys Mobile and The Wall Street Journal released an app that would allow users to access content from the Wall Street Journal Online via their mobile phones. Many of The Wall Street Journal news stories are available through free online newspapers that subscribe to the Dow Jones syndicate. Pulitzer Prize–winning stories from 1995 are available free on the Pulitzer web site. In September 2005, the Journal launched a weekend edition, delivered to all subscribers, which marked a return to Saturday publication after a lapse of some 50 years; the move was designed in part to attract more consumer advertising. In 2005, the Journal reported a readership profile of about 60 percent top management, an average income of $191,000, an average household net worth of $2.1 million, an average age of 55.
In 2007, the Journal launched a worldwide expansion of its website to include major foreign-language editions. The p
Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance may be either scripted or unscripted, random or orchestrated, spontaneous or otherwise planned with or without audience participation; the performance can be live or via media. It can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time, the performer's body, or presence in a medium, a relationship between performer and audience. Performance art can happen anywhere, for any length of time; the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time constitute the work. Performance art is an contested concept: any single definition of it implies the recognition of rival uses; as concepts like "democracy" or "art", it implies productive disagreement with itself. The meaning of the term in the narrower sense is related to postmodernist traditions in Western culture. From about the mid-1960s into the 1970s derived from concepts of visual art, with respect to Antonin Artaud, the Situationists, installation art and conceptual art, performance art tended to be defined as an antithesis to theatre, challenging orthodox art forms and cultural norms.
The ideal had been an ephemeral and authentic experience for performer and audience in an event that could not be repeated, captured or purchased. The discussed difference, how concepts of visual arts and concepts of performing arts are utilized, can determine the meanings of a performance art presentation. Performance art is a term reserved to refer to a conceptual art which conveys a content-based meaning in a more drama-related sense, rather than being simple performance for its own sake for entertainment purposes, it refers to a performance presented to an audience, but which does not seek to present a conventional theatrical play or a formal linear narrative, or which alternately does not seek to depict a set of fictitious characters in formal scripted interactions. It therefore can include action or spoken word as a communication between the artist and audience, or ignore expectations of an audience, rather than following a script written beforehand; some kinds of performance art can be close to performing arts.
Such performance may utilize a script or create a fictitious dramatic setting, but still constitute performance art in that it does not seek to follow the usual dramatic norm of creating a fictitious setting with a linear script which follows conventional real-world dynamics. Performance artists challenge the audience to think in new and unconventional ways, break conventions of traditional arts, break down conventional ideas about "what art is"; as long as the performer does not become a player who repeats a role, performance art can include satirical elements. Some artists, e.g. the Viennese Actionists and neo-Dadaists, prefer to use the terms "live art", "action art", "actions", "intervention" or "manoeuvre" to describe their performing activities. As genres of performance art appear body art, fluxus-performance, action poetry, intermedia. Performance art activity is not confined to American art traditions. Performance artists and theorists point to different traditions and histories, ranging from tribal to sporting and ritual or religious events.
In an episode of In Our Time broadcast on Thu, 20 Oct 2005, 21:30 on BBC Radio 4, Angie Hobbs, Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Warwick. Western cultural theorists trace performance art activity back to the beginning of the 20th century, to the Russian constructivists and Dada. Dada provided a significant progenitor with the unconventional performances of poetry at the Cabaret Voltaire, by the likes of Richard Huelsenbeck and Tristan Tzara. Russian Futurist artists could be identified as precursors of performance, such as David Burliuk, who painted his face for his actions and Alexander Rodchenko and his wife Varvara Stepanova. According to the art critic Harold Rosenberg in the 1940s and 1950s Action Painting gave artists the freedom to perform—the canvas as "an arena in which to act", thereby rendering the paintings as traces of the artist's performance in his/her studio. Abstract expressionism and Action painting preceded the Fluxus movement and the emergence of Performance Art. Performance art was anticipated, if not explicitly formulated, by Japan's Gutai group of the 1950s in such works as Atsuko Tanaka's Electric Dress.
Yves Klein had been a precursor of performance art with the conceptual pieces of Zone de Sensibilité Picturale Immatérielle 1959–62, Anthropométries, works like the photomontage, Saut dans le vide. In the late 1960s Earth artists as diverse as Robert Smithson, Dennis Oppenheim, Michael Heizer and Carl Andre created environmental pieces that predict the performan
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
The Singapore Biennale is a contemporary art biennale in Singapore. The first Singapore Biennale operated as one of a lineup of Singapore 2006 events. Fumio Nanjo, Director of Tokyo's Mori Art Museum, has been reappointed Artistic Director of the Singapore Biennale 2008. Working with Mr Nanjo on Singapore Biennale 2008 are two curators: independent curator Joselina Cruz a curator at the Singapore Art Museum and the Lopez Museum in Manila; the first Singapore Biennale employed the theme of "Belief", commencing on 4 September 2006 and ended on 12 November 2006. The event was held in various locations throughout Singapore, it featured 195 artworks, from collectives from 38 different countries. The event was part of the Singapore 2006 events which included the 2006 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group held at the Suntec Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre; the event was organised by the National Arts Council in conjunction with the National Heritage Board.
The first and second editions of the Biennale were organised by the National Arts Council. For the third edition, Singapore Art Museum - Singapore's contemporary art museum - came on board as a venue organiser. In the fourth and fifth editions, the National Arts Council of Singapore appointed the Singapore Art Museum as the Singapore Biennale organiser. Under the direction of the Singapore Art Museum, the Biennale has focused on deepening awareness and understanding of Southeast Asian contemporary art, attracted over 500,000 visitors over 4 months; the 2016 edition of the Singapore Biennale takes place from 27 October 2016 to 26 February 2017, is titled "An Atlas of Mirrors". Exploring shared histories and current realities within and beyond the region, Singapore Biennale 2016 will be a constellation of artistic perspectives that provide unexpected ways of seeing the world and ourselves; the international contemporary art exhibition will feature site-specific and never seen before contemporary artworks by more than 60 artists across Southeast Asia, East and South Asia.
The Biennale aims to cultivate deeper public engagement with contemporary visual arts through its accompanying public engagement and education programmes, that include artist and curator talks and tours, school visits and workshops, community days. Singapore Art Museum including SAM at 8Q Asian Civilisations Museum National Museum of Singapore The Peranakan Museum Singapore Management University 1st Singapore Biennale - "Belief" - The first Singapore Biennale featured different types of contemporary art including drawings, installations, new media, photography, publishing, wall painting, furniture. Artists of note included Ilya and Emilia Kabakov, Fujiko Nakaya, Jenny Holzer, Mariko Mori, Shigeru Ban, Yayoi Kusama, Jenny Holzer and Takashi Kuribayashi; the Curatorial Team for the Singapore Biennale was headed by renowned curator Fumio Nanjo. The other curators involved were Sharmini Pereira and Eugene Tan. 2nd Singapore Biennale - "Wonder"- The second Singapore Biennale, held over 8 weeks in 2008, was again helmed by Fumio Nanjo, this time working with the curatorial team of Joselina Cruz and Matthew Ngui.
Under the theme of'Wonder', the Biennale invited people to be'surprised and tantalised' by contemporary art. Foregrounding beauty and aesthetic experience, the exhibition used the other meaning of the title to encourage questioning and debate. 66 artists from 36 countries participated in the exhibition. 3rd Singapore Biennale - "Open House" - Led by Matthew Ngui as Artistic Director and curators - Russell Storer and Trevor Smith, the third Biennale featured 60 artists from 30 countries. Held over nine weeks, the Singapore Biennale was titled'Open House', examining multiple perspectives and myriad creative approaches to questions of how we move across borders, see other points of view, form connections with others. 4th Singapore Biennale - "If the World Changed" - Featuring works by 82 artists and artist collectives from 13 countries, the fourth Biennale has harnessed the energy of the Southeast Asian region to bring to the fore unique practices and myriad perspectives of artists from this part of the world.
Drawing on the combined expertise of its team of 27 curators from Southeast Asia, a significant 93% of works are by artists or collectives from the region, resulting in the strongest Asian representation to date. 5th Singapore Biennale - "An Atlas of Mirrors" - Retaining a collaborative curatorial framework, the fifth Biennale is led by a curatorial team of SAM Curators Ms. Joyce Toh, Ms. Tan Siuli, Mr. Louis Ho, Ms. Andrea Fam and Mr. John Tung, as well as four Associate Curators who are invited by SAM to work together; the four Associate Curators are Ms. Suman Gopinath - based in India; the curatorial team will work with SB2016 Creative Director, Dr. Susie Lingham, who shapes and facilitates curatorial discussions, oversees all SB2016 creative content. Singapore Art Museum Singapore Arts Festival Singapore Art Show Culture of Singapore Official Event Website National Arts Council Website