Whitney Museum of American Art

The Whitney Museum of American Art, known informally as the "Whitney", is an art museum in Manhattan. It was founded in 1930 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, a wealthy and prominent American socialite and art patron after whom it is named; the Whitney focuses on 20th- and 21st-century American art. Its permanent collection, spanning the late-19th century to the present, comprises more than 25,000 paintings, drawings, photographs, films and artifacts of new media by more than 3,500 artists, it places particular emphasis on exhibiting the work of living artists as well as maintaining an extensive permanent collection of important pieces from the first half of the last century. The museum's Annual and Biennial exhibitions have long been a venue for younger and lesser-known artists whose work is showcased there. From 1966 to 2014, the Whitney was at 945 Madison Avenue on Manhattan's Upper East Side in a building designed by Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith; the museum closed in October 2014 to relocate to a new building designed by Renzo Piano at 99 Gansevoort Street in the West Village/Meatpacking District neighborhoods of Lower Manhattan.

Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, the museum's namesake and founder, was a well-regarded sculptor as well as a serious art collector. As a patron of the arts, she had achieved some success with the Whitney Studio Club, a New York–based exhibition space she created in 1918 to promote the works of avant-garde and unrecognized American artists. Whitney favored the radical art of the American artists of the Ashcan School such as John French Sloan, George Luks and Everett Shinn, as well as others such as Edward Hopper, Stuart Davis, Charles Demuth, Charles Sheeler, Max Weber. With the aid of her assistant, Juliana R. Force, Whitney collected nearly 700 works of American art. In 1929, she offered to donate over 500 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, but the museum declined the gift. This, along with the apparent preference for European modernism at the opened Museum of Modern Art, led Whitney to start her own museum for American art, in 1929. Whitney Library archives from 1928 reveal that during this time the Studio Club used the gallery space of Wilhelmina Weber Furlong of the Art Students League to exhibit traveling shows featuring modernist work.

In 1931, architect Noel L. Miller converted three row houses on West 8th Street in Greenwich Village—one of which, 8 West 8th Street had been the location of the Studio Club—to be the museum's home as well as a residence for Whitney. Force became the museum's first director, under her guidance it concentrated on displaying the works of new and contemporary American artists. In 1954, the museum left its original location and moved to a small structure on 54th Street connected to and behind the Museum of Modern Art on 53rd Street. On April 15, 1958, a fire on MOMA's second floor that killed one person forced the evacuation of paintings and staff on MOMA's upper floors to the Whitney. Among the paintings evacuated was A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, on loan from the Art Institute of Chicago. In 1961, the Whitney began seeking a site for a larger building. In 1966 it settled at the southeast corner of Madison Avenue and 75th Street on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the building and built 1963–1966 by Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith in a distinctively modern style, is distinguished from the neighboring townhouses by its staircase façade made of granite stones and its external upside-down windows.

In 1967, Mauricio Lasansky showed The Nazi Drawings. The exhibition traveled to the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, where it appeared with shows by Louise Nevelson and Andrew Wyeth as the first exhibits in the new museum; the institution grappled with space problems for decades. From 1973 to 1983 the Whitney operated its first branch at 55 Water Street, a building owned by Harold Uris, who gave the museum a lease for $1 a year. In 1983 Philip Morris International installed a Whitney branch in the lobby of its Park Avenue headquarters. In 1981 the museum opened an exhibition space in Stamford, housed at Champion International. In the late 1980s, the Whitney entered into arrangements with Park Tower Realty, I. B. M. and The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, setting up satellite museums with rotating exhibitions in their buildings' lobbies. Each museum had its own director, with all plans approved by a Whitney committee; the institution attempted to expand its landmark building in 1978, commissioning UK architects Derek Walker and Norman Foster to design a tall tower alongside it, the first of several proposals from leading architects.

But each time the effort was abandoned, because of either both. To secure additional space for the museum's collections, then-director Thomas N. Armstrong III developed plans for a 10-story, $37.5 million addition to the main building. The proposed addition, designed by Michael Graves and announced in 1985, drew immediate opposition. Graves had proposed demolishing the flanking brownstones down to the East 74th Street corner for a complementary addition; the project lost the support of the museum's trustees, the plans were dropped in 1989. Between 1995 and 1998, the building underwent a expansion by Richard Gluckman. In 2001, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to submit two designs for a $200 million expansion; those plans were dropped in 2003. New York restaurateur Danny Meyer opened Untitled, a restaurant in the museum, in March 2011; the space was designed by the Rockwell Group. The Whitney developed a new main building, designed by Renzo Piano, in the West Village and Meatpacking


Kunvald is a market town in 5 km north of Žamberk in the Ústí nad Orlicí District, Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic. It has over 1,000 inhabitants; the Unitas Fratrum was founded in Kunvald in 1457, when followers of the martyred Jan Hus found refuge on the estate of King George of Poděbrady. Jan Černý-Nigranus, priest, bishop of Jednota bratrská Bohuslav Balbín, baroque poet and historian, member of the Jesuit order Because of their connection with the Moravian Church, a sister city relationship between Lititz and Kunvald was established on June 11, 2006, during the celebration of the 250th anniversary naming of Lititz; the ceremony took place in Lititz Springs Park. Unity of the Brethren

Campbell (lunar crater)

Campbell is a large lunar impact crater, located in the northern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. It lies to the southwest of the walled plain D'Alembert, an larger formation. If Campbell were located on the near side of the Moon as seen from the Earth, it would form one of the largest visible craters, being larger than Schickard, it is bordered by several craters of note, with Wiener to the southwest, Von Neumann just to the south, Ley overlying the southeast rim, Pawsey to the west. This formation has been worn and eroded by a history of impacts, leaving a circular rim, an irregular ring of ridges and peaks. Multiple small craters lie along the inner wall, as well as across the interior floor; the most notable of these are Campbell X along the northeast inner rim and Campbell N near the southern inner wall. Much of the inner floor is covered by a multitude of lesser impacts; this area has a lower albedo than its surroundings, thus appearing dark. It stretches from the center of Campbell towards the western rim, has an irregular perimeter.

There is an unusual crater lying to the west of Von Neumann. This is formed by two or more overlapping craters, the most recent being Wiener F, a nearly hexagonal formation with a rugged interior. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Campbell