Whydah Gally

The Whydah Gally was a rigged galley ship, built as a passenger and slave ship. On the return leg of its maiden voyage of the triangle trade, it began a new role in the Golden Age of Piracy, when it was captured by the pirate Captain Samuel "Black Sam" Bellamy. Bellamy sailed the Whydah up the coast of colonial America, capturing ships as he went. On 26 April 1717, the Whydah wrecked. Only two of Whydah's crew survived, along with seven others who were on a sloop captured by Bellamy earlier that day. Six of the nine survivors were hanged, two, forced into piracy were freed, one Indian crewman was sold into slavery; the Whydah and her treasure eluded discovery for over 260 years until 1984, when the wreck was found off the coast of Cape Cod, buried under 10 ft to 50 ft feet of sand, in depths ranging from 16 ft to 30 ft feet deep, spread for four miles, parallel to the Cape's easternmost coast. With the discovery of the ship's bell in 1985 and a small brass placard in 2013, both inscribed with the ship's name and maiden voyage date, the Whydah is the only authenticated Golden Age pirate shipwreck discovered.

The Whydah was commissioned in 1715 in London, England, by Sir Humphrey Morice, a member of parliament, known as'the foremost London slave merchant of his day'. A square-rigged three-masted galley ship, it measured 110 feet in length, with a tonnage rating at 300 tuns burthen, could travel at speeds up to 13 knots. Christened Whydah after the West African slave-trading Kingdom of Whydah, the vessel was configured as a armed trading and transport ship, it set out for its maiden voyage in early 1716, carrying a variety of goods from different businesses to exchange for delivery and slaves in West Africa. After traveling down the West African coast, through modern-day Gambia and Senegal to Nigeria and Benin, where its namesake port was located, it left Africa with an estimated 500 slaves, including Akan jewelry, ivory aboard, it traveled to the Caribbean, where it traded and sold the cargo and slaves for precious metals, indigo, logwood, pimento and medicinal ingredients, which were to be transported back to England.

It was fitted with a standard complement of 18 six-pound cannon, which could be increased to a total of 28 in time of war. In late February 1717, the Whydah, under the command of Captain Lawrence Prince, a former buccaneer under Sir Henry Morgan, was navigating the Windward Passage between Cuba and Hispaniola when it was attacked by pirates led by "Black Sam" Bellamy. At the time of the Whydah's capture, Bellamy was in possession of two vessels, the 26-gun galley Sultana and the converted 10-gun sloop Marianne, captained by Bellamy's friend and investor Paulsgrave Williams. After a three-day chase, Prince surrendered his ship near the Bahamas with only a desultory exchange of cannon fire. Bellamy decided to take the Whydah as his new flagship. Pirate recruitment was most effective among the unemployed, escaped bondsmen, transported criminals, as the high seas made for an instant leveling of class distinctions, they were freed African slaves, displaced English seamen, Native Americans, a scattering of social outcasts from Europe and elsewhere.

In a gesture of goodwill toward Captain Prince who had surrendered without a struggle—and who in any case may have been favorably known by reputation to the pirate crew—Bellamy gave Sultana to Prince, along with £20 in silver and gold. The Whydah was fitted with 10 additional cannons by its new captain, 150 members of Bellamy's crew were detailed to man the vessel, they razeed the ship by clearing the top deck of the pilot's cabin, removing the slave barricade, getting rid of other features that made her top heavy. Bellamy and his crew sailed on to the Carolinas and headed north along the eastern coastline of the American colonies, aiming for the central coast of Maine, looting or capturing additional vessels on the way; the Whydah was caught up in a storm, which damaged it and broke one of its masts. Patch-ups and repairs were effected until they reached the waters near Nantucket Sound, where greater repairs were effected at Block Island or Rhode Island. At some point during his possession of the Whydah, Bellamy added another 30+ cannon below decks as ballast.

Two cannons recovered by underwater explorer Barry Clifford in August 2009 weighed 800 and 1,500 pounds, respectively. Accounts differ as to the Whydah's destination in her last few days; some evidence supports local Cape Cod legend: The Whydah was headed for what is now Provincetown Harbor at the tip of Cape Cod, so that Bellamy could visit his love, Maria Hallett – the "Witch of Wellfleet". Others blame the Whydah's route on navigator error. In any case, on 26 April 1717, near Chatham, the Whydah approached a thick, gray fog bank rolling across the water – signaling inclement weather ahead. On 26 April the pirates captured the ship Mary Anne with a hold full of Madeira wine; the captain of Mary Anne refused Bellamy's request to pilot them up the coast, so Bellamy arrested the captain and five of his crew and brought them aboard the Whydah Gally, leaving three of the original crew aboard Mary Anne. Bellamy sent 7 of his own men onboard of Mary Anne - one of whom was the carpenter Thomas South, forced by Bellamy and his crew to make repairs.

Shayani Ekadashi

Shayani Ekadashi or Maha-ekadashi or Prathama-ekadashi or Padma Ekadashi or Devshayani Ekadashi or Devpodhi Ekadashi is the eleventh lunar day of the bright fortnight of the Hindu month of Ashadha. Thus it is known as Ashadhi Ekadashi or Ashadhi, it is known as Toli Ekadashi in Telugu. This holy day is of special significance to Vaishnavas, followers of the Hindu protector God, Lord Vishnu. On this day images of Vishnu and Lakshmi are worshipped, the entire night is spent singing prayers, devotees keep fast and take vows on this day, to be observed during the entire chaturmas, the holy four-month period of rainy season; these may include, fasting on every Ekadashi day. It is believed that Vishnu falls asleep in Ksheersagar - cosmic ocean of milk - on Shesha nāga, the cosmic serpent, thus the day is called Dev-Shayani Ekadashi or Hari-shayani Ekadashi or Shayana Ekadashi. Vishnu awakens from his slumber four months on Prabodhini Ekadashi - eleventh day of bright fortnight in the Hindu month Kartik.

This period coincides with the rainy season. Thus, Shayani Ekadashi is the beginning of Chaturmas. Devotees start observing the Chaturmas vrata to please Vishnu on this day. A fast is observed on Shayani Ekadashi; the fast demands abstainance from all grains, cereals, certain vegetables like onions and certain spices. In the scripture Bhavishyottara Purana, god Krishna narrates significance of Shayani Ekadashi to Yudhishthira, as the creator-god Brahma narrated the significance to his son Narada once; the story of king Mandata is narrated in this context. The pious king's country had faced drought for three years, but the king was unable to find a solution to please the rain gods. Sage Angiras advised the king to observe the vrata of Dev-shayani ekadashi. On doing so by the grace of Vishnu, there was rain in the kingdom; this day, a huge yatra or religious procession of pilgrims known as Pandharpur Ashadi Ekadasi Waari Yatra culminates at Pandharpur, in Solapur district in south Maharashtra, situated on the banks of the Chandrabhaga River.

Pandharpur is main center of worship of a local form of Vishnu. Lakhs of pilgrims come to Pandharpur on this day from different parts of Maharashtra; some of them carry Palkhis with the images of the saints of Maharashtra. Dnyaneshwar's image is carried from Alandi,Namdev's image from Narsi Namdev, Tukaram's from Dehu, Eknath's from Paithan, Nivruttinath's from Trimbakeshwar, Muktabai's from Muktainagar, Sopan's from Sasvad and Saint Gajanan Maharaj from Shegaon; these pilgrims are referred to as Warkaris. They sing Abhangas of Saint Tukaram and Saint Dnyaneshwar, dedicated to Vitthal

Rupesh Amin

Rupesh Mahesh Amin is an English first-class cricketer and List A cricketer who played First-class games for Surrey County Cricket Club and Leicestershire County Cricket Club. He played all his List A games for Surrey, his highest score in First-class cricket of 12 came when playing for Surrey in the match against Leicestershire. His best bowling of 4/87 came when playing for Surrey in the match against Somerset County Cricket Club, his Highest score in List A cricket of 0* came when playing for Surrey against Northamptonshire County Cricket Club. He played a total of 63 games for Surrey and Leicestershire second XI. and 39 Second XI cup games for surrey and Leicestershire second XI. Cricket Archive Profile