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Whyte notation

The Whyte notation for classifying steam and some internal combustion locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte, came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in American Engineer and Railroad Journal. The notation counts the number of leading wheels the number of driving wheels, the number of trailing wheels, numbers being separated by dashes. Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels. In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles in front three driving axles and one trailing axle is classified as 4-6-2, is known as a Pacific. Articulated locomotives such as Garratts, which are two locomotives joined by a common boiler, have a + between the arrangements of the engines, thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt locomotives the + sign is used when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2.

This is. They are complete engines, carrying water tanks; the + sign represents the bridge. Simpler articulated types such as Mallets have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels; the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; this numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives, which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame. A number of standard suffixes can be used to extend the Whyte notation: No suffix means a tender locomotive. T indicates a tank locomotive; this is sometimes extended to indicate the type of tank locomotive: T means a side tank PT a pannier tank ST a saddle tank IST is an inverted saddle tank WT well tank T+T means a tank locomotive that has a tender VB or VBT mean a vertical boilered locomotive F means a fireless locomotive e.g. 0-4-0 F R means a rack locomotive, eg 0-6-0 RT G means a geared steam locomotive eg 2-4-0 T G C means a crane tank eg 0-4-2 T C The wheel arrangement of small diesel and petrol locomotives can be classified using the same notation as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0.

Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are used. Suffixes specific to internal combustion locomotives include: PM Petrol mechanical PE Petrol electric D Diesel DM Diesel mechanical DE Diesel electric DH Diesel hydraulic BE Battery electric OE Overhead electric lines CA Compressed airThus 4w PM indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with mechanical transmission and 0-6-0 DE indicates a six-wheeled diesel locomotive with side rods and an electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used. In American practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built. For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named Planet, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used; the most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left. AAR wheel arrangement Swiss locomotive and railcar classification UIC classification Wheel arrangement Boylan, Richard.

"American Steam Locomotive Wheel Arrangements". SteamLocomotive.com. Retrieved 8 February 2008. Media related to Whyte notation at Wikimedia Commons

Hamlin Andrus

Hamlin Foster Andrus was an American football player and financier. He played college football at Yale University from 1908 to 1909 and was selected as a consensus All-American at the guard position in 1909. Andrus was the son of John Emory Andrus, a U. S. Congressman and millionaire. After graduating from Yale in 1910, Andrus pursued a variety of financial interests, he worked with his father in operating the Arlington Chemical Company and was a trustee of the SURDNA Foundation, a philanthropic endowment corporation formed by his father. He held a patent on machinery for the manufacture of concrete blocks. In March 1911, Andrus married Mary F. Hotchkiss, they had Julia Dyckman Andrus. Andrus lived for most of his life in New York, he moved to Greenwich, Connecticut, in 1950. He died in 1957 at the age of 72 either at his farm in Bristol, New Hampshire, or at his home in Greenwich

Sasana Wiratama

Sasana Wiratama known as Museum Monumen Pangeran Diponegoro is a museum complex in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The complex consists of a museum and a monument which commemorates the struggle of Prince Diponegoro, an 18th-century Javanese prince and a National Hero; the building where the museum stands was handed down to the government of Yogyakarta by the heir of Diponegoro, Raden Ayu Kanjangteng Diponegoro, to function as a monument after signing a transfer letter with Nyi Hadjar Dewantara and Kanjeng Raden Tumenggung Purejodiningrat. Beginning from mid-1968 until 19 August 1969, a monument was built on the pringgitan building that adjoined with the pendopo at the center of the complex; the project was initiated by Major General Surono, the Commander of the Military District and was inaugurated by President Suharto. This place was named Sasana Wiratama, Javanese "place for soldiers". Pangeran Diponegoro monument is a relief on a 20 meters-long and 4 meters-high wall, telling the story of a peaceful Tegalrejo village and the war between Diponegoro and the Dutch colony until his capture in Magelang.

On both sides of the monument, there were self-portrait of Pangeran Diponegoro on the west side and the painting of Pangeran Diponegoro, riding his black horse, ready to wage war, on the east side. Some of the artifacts which originate from Diponegoro includes the broken wall, a padasan, a komboran. Other inheritances from Diponegoro are kept in Magelang. National Museum of Indonesia at Jakarta kept a lance. One kris of Diponegoro is still kept in the Netherlands. In front of the building, situated on H. O. S Cokroaminoto Street, there is a statue of Lieutenant General Oerip Soemohardjo with the writing "Orde. Contre-Ordre. Desordre!" on the east side and a statue of General Sudirman with the writing "Jangan Lengah" on the west side. These statues represent the place. After passing through the gate, there is a two-meter high wall resembling the dome of a mosque with a picture of a giant opposing a dragon on the upper part of it; the picture is a sengkalan memet which forms the Javanese sentence Butho Mekso Basuki ning Bawono, denoting the Javanese year of 1825, the onset of Diponegoro war.

There are 100 items as the collection of Diponegoro museum, consisting of some original goods of Diponegoro paramilitary troop ranging from war weapons, precious stone and home furniture. Some examples of weapons are lances, swords, bandil and candrasa. There are some 18th-century household tools made from brass such as betel container and its kecohan, canting holder, bringsing pot, various forms of kacip. There are two sacred weapons kept in this museum, namely a kris with 21 curves named Kyai Omyang, made by an empu who lived during Majapahit time and a sword originating from Demak Kingdom; those two sacred weapons are believed to be able to prevent disasters. There is a small statue of Ganesha, the lace of the horses that pull a cart presented by Hamengkubuwono VIII, a couple of loro Blonyo statues and a pair of decorative lamps. There are some parts of the gamelan owned by Hamengkubuwono II, made in 1752 in the forms of a percussion and wilahan bonang made of wood and brass. There is a cannon in the east of the hall.

List of museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia