Wi-Fi is a family of wireless networking technologies, based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which are used for local area networking of devices and Internet access. Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the non-profit Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that complete interoperability certification testing; as of 2010, the Wi-Fi Alliance consisted of more than 375 companies from around the world. As of 2009, Wi-Fi-integrated circuit chips shipped 580 million units yearly. Devices that can use Wi-Fi technologies include desktops and laptops and tablets, smart TVs, digital audio players, digital cameras and drones. Wi-Fi uses multiple parts of the IEEE 802 protocol family, is designed to interwork seamlessly with its wired sibling Ethernet. Compatible devices can network through a wireless access point to each other as well as to wired devices and the Internet; the different versions of Wi-Fi are specified by various IEEE 802.11 protocol standards, with the different radio technologies determining radio bands, the maximum ranges, speeds that may be achieved.
Wi-Fi most uses the 2.4 gigahertz UHF and 5 gigahertz SHF ISM radio bands. Channels can be shared between networks but only one transmitter can locally transmit on a channel at any moment in time. Wi-Fi's wavebands have high absorption and work best for line-of-sight use. Many common obstructions such as walls, home appliances etc. may reduce range, but this helps minimize interference between different networks in crowded environments. An access point has a range of about 20 metres indoors while some modern access points claim up to a 150-metre range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometers using many overlapping access points with roaming permitted between them. Over time the speed and spectral efficiency of Wi-Fi has increased; as of 2019, at close range, some versions of Wi-Fi, running on suitable hardware, can achieve speeds of over 1 Gbit/s. Wi-Fi is more vulnerable to attack than wired networks because anyone within range of a network with a wireless network interface controller can attempt access.
To connect to a Wi-Fi network, a user needs the network name and a password. The password is used to encrypt Wi-Fi packets so as to block eavesdroppers. Wi-Fi Protected Access is intended to protect information moving across Wi-Fi networks and includes versions for personal and enterprise networks. Developing security features of WPA have included new security practices. In 1971, ALOHAnet connected the Great Hawaiian Islands with a UHF wireless packet network. ALOHAnet and the ALOHA protocol were early forerunners to Ethernet, the IEEE 802.11 protocols, respectively. A 1985 ruling by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission released the ISM band for unlicensed use; these frequency bands are the same ones used by equipment such as microwave ovens and are subject to interference. In 1991, NCR Corporation with AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier systems, under the name WaveLAN. The Australian radio-astronomer Dr John O'Sullivan with his colleagues Terence Percival, Graham Daniels, Diet Ostry, John Deane developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation research project, "a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle".
Dr O'Sullivan and his colleagues are credited with inventing Wi-Fi. In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents for a method used in Wi-Fi to "unsmear" the signal; the first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds, this proved popular. In 1999, the Wi-Fi Alliance formed as a trade association to hold the Wi-Fi trademark under which most products are sold. Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations. In April 2009, 14 technology companies agreed to pay CSIRO $1 billion for infringements on CSIRO patents; this led to Australia labeling Wi-Fi as an Australian invention, though this has been the subject of some controversy. CSIRO won a further $220 million settlement for Wi-Fi patent-infringements in 2012, with global firms in the United States required to pay CSIRO licensing rights estimated at an additional $1 billion in royalties. In 2016, the wireless local area network Test Bed was chosen as Australia's contribution to the exhibition A History of the World in 100 Objects held in the National Museum of Australia.
The name Wi-Fi, commercially used at least as early as August 1999, was coined by the brand-consulting firm Interbrand. The Wi-Fi Alliance had hired Interbrand to create a name, "a little catchier than'IEEE 802.11b Direct Sequence'." Phil Belanger, a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alliance who presided over the selection of the name "Wi-Fi", has stated that Interbrand invented Wi-Fi as a pun on the word hi-fi, a term for high-quality audio technology. The name Wi-Fi has no further meaning, was never a shortened form of "Wireless Fidelity"; the Wi-Fi Alliance used the advertising slogan "The Standard for Wireless Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was created, the Wi-Fi Alliance was called the "Wireless Fidelity Alliance Inc" in some publications. Interbrand created the Wi-Fi logo; the yin-yang Wi-Fi logo indicates the certification of a product for interoperability. Non-Wi-
Phú Vang is a rural district of Thua Thien – Hue province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 178,968; the district covers an area of 280 km². The district capital lies at Phú Đa; the district contains two townships and 18 communes: Phú Xuân Phú Mậu Phú Thanh Phú Mỹ Phú An Phú Hồ Phú Dương Phú Thượng Phú Hải Phú Thuận Phú Diên Phú Lương Vinh Xuân Vinh Thanh Vinh An Vinh Phú Vinh Thái Vinh Hà
Ron Husmann is a retired American actor who acted in musicals. In 1961, he was nominated for a Tony Award and won a Theatre World Award for his performance in the original production of Tenderloin. Born in Rockford, Husmann graduated from Northwestern University in 1959, he made his Broadway debut in Fiorello! in November 1959. In October 1960 he appeared on Broadway in Tenderloin, garnering a Tony Award nomination for Best Featured Actor in a Musical and winning the Theatre World Award for his performance. Additional Broadway credits include All-American, Lovely Ladies, Kind Gentlemen, On the Town and Can-Can. Husmann made his film debut in the 1965 melodrama Love Has Many Faces. Most of his screen credits have been on television. One of his first was a co-starring role in the unaired 1965 ABC television pilot Two's Company starring Marlo Thomas, he has appeared in the daytime soaps General Hospital and Days of Our Lives, as well as such primetime series as Dr. Kildare, Land of the Giants, Get Smart, The F.
B. I. Archie Bunker's Place, Cheers, he appeared in the 1972 telecast of Once Upon a Mattress with Carol Burnett. Husmann is the author, co-producer of the ten-hour video series Broadway! A History of the Musical, he retired from performing after being stricken with multiple sclerosis. Ron Husmann at the Internet Broadway Database Ron Husmann on IMDb