Wichita Falls, Texas

Wichita Falls is a city in and the county seat of Wichita County, United States. It is the principal city of the Wichita Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Archer and Wichita counties. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 104,553, making it the 38th-most populous city in Texas. In addition, its central business district is 5 miles from Sheppard Air Force Base, home to the Air Force's largest technical training wing and the Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot Training program, the world's only multinationally staffed and managed flying training program chartered to produce combat pilots for both USAF and NATO; the city is home to the Newby-McMahon Building, constructed downtown in 1919 and featured in Robert Ripley's Ripley's Believe It or Not!. The Choctaw Native Americans settled the area in the early 19th century from their native Mississippi area once Americans negotiated to relocate them after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. American settlers arrived in the 1860s to form cattle ranches.

The city was titled Wichita Falls on September 27, 1876. On that day, a sale of town lots was held at what is now the corner of Seventh and Ohio Streets – the birthplace of the city; the Fort Worth & Denver City Railway arrived in September 1882, the same year the city became the county seat of Wichita County. The city grew westwards from the original FW&DC train depot, located at the northwest corner of Seventh Street and the FW&DC; this area is now referred to as the Depot Square Historic District, declared a Texas Historic Landmark. The early history of Wichita Falls well into the 20th century rests on the work of two entrepreneurs, Joseph A. Kemp and his brother-in-law, Frank Kell. Kemp and Kell were pioneers in food processing and retailing, flour milling, cattle and oil. A flood in 1886 destroyed. After nearly 100 years of visitors wanting to visit the nonexistent falls, the city built an artificial waterfall beside the river in Lucy Park; the recreated falls are recirculate at 3,500 gallons per minute.

They are visible to south-bound traffic on Interstate 44. The city is seeking funding to rebuild and restore the downtown area. Downtown Wichita Falls was the city's main shopping area for many years, but lost ground to the creation of new shopping centers throughout the city beginning with Parker Square in 1953 and other similar developments during the 1960s and 1970s, culminating with the opening of Sikes Senter Mall in 1974. Wichita Falls was once home to offices of several oil companies and related industries, along with oil refineries operated by the Continental Oil Company until 1952 and Panhandle Oil Company American Petrofina) until 1965. Both firms continued to use a portion of their former refineries as gasoline/oil terminal facilities for many years. A devastating tornado hit the north and northwest portions of Wichita Falls along with Sheppard Air Force Base during the afternoon of April 3, 1964; as the first violent tornado on record to hit the Wichita Falls area, it left seven dead and more than 100 injured.

Additionally, the tornado caused $15 million in property damage with about 225 homes destroyed and another 250 damaged. It was rated F5, the highest rating on the Fujita scale. An F4 tornado struck the populated southern sections of Wichita Falls in the late afternoon on Tuesday, April 10, 1979, it was part of an outbreak. Despite having nearly an hour's advance warning that severe weather was imminent, 42 people were killed and 1,800 were injured because it arrived just in time for many people to be driving home from work, it left 20,000 people homeless and caused $400 million in damage, a U. S. record not topped by an individual tornado until the F5 Moore–Oklahoma City tornado of May 3, 1999. Wichita Falls is about 15 miles south of the border with Oklahoma, 115 mi northwest of Fort Worth, 140 mi southwest of Oklahoma City. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 70.71 square miles, of which 70.69 square miles are land and 0.02 square miles is covered by water.

Wichita Falls experiences a humid subtropical climate, featuring long hot and humid summers, cool winters. The city has some of the highest summer daily maximum temperatures in the entire U. S. outside of the Desert Southwest. Temperatures have hit 100 °F as early as March 27 and as late as October 17, but more reach that level on 28 days annually, with 102 days of 90 °F or higher annually. However, 59 to 60 nights of freezing lows occur, an average of 4.8 days where the high does not rise above freezing. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 42.0 °F in January to 84.4 °F in July. Extremes in temperature have ranged from −12 °F on January 4, 1947, to 117 °F on June 28, 1980. Snowfall is sporadic and averages 4.1 in per season, while rainfall is greatest in early summer. From 2010 through 2013 Wichita Falls, along with a large portion of the south-central US, experienced a persistent drought. In September 2011, Wichita Falls became the first Texas city to have 100 days of 100 °F in one year.

During the 2015 Texas–Oklahoma floods, Wichita Falls broke its all-time record for the wettest month, with 17.00 inches of rain recorded in May 2015

USS Lander (APA-178)

USS Lander was a Haskell-class attack transport. Her dangerous task was to deliver troops to the battle front, to recover and care for the wounded, she served her country in the Pacific Ocean in the war against the Empire of Japan and returned home post-war with two battle stars to her credit. Lander was laid down 9 October 1944 by Oregon Shipbuilding Corp. Portland, under a Maritime Commission contract. McVean, Jr.. John D. Sweeney in command. After shakedown, Lander operated off the California coast until she departed San Pedro, California, 9 February 1945 for the western Pacific. Steaming via Pearl Harbor, the attack transport reached Eniwetok 28 February, joined units of task force TF 51, sailed 2 March for Iwo Jima, she sighted the embattled island 6 March and cruised in a holding area before dropping anchor 14 March. She embarked U. S. Marine casualties and loaded cargo sailed for Guam 20 March. Arriving the 22d, she embarked additional marines and departed the next day for Pearl Harbor where she arrived 4 April.

Carrying troops and cargo, the attack transport departed 20 May for the Ryukyus. Steaming via the Marshall Islands and Ulithi, she arrived Okinawa 7 June and landed her troops as reinforcements. After embarking 220 military passengers and 560 enemy prisoners, she sailed 11 June and transferred troops and POW’s at Ulithi 17 June. Departing the 18th, Lander embarked additional passengers at Admiralties; as the war drew to a close, Lander transported 1,436 troops to Eniwetok. Proceeding 25 August, she arrived Manila 7 September. On two cruises from 20 September to 21 October, she carried occupation troops and equipment between the Philippines and Japan. After joining the “Operation Magic Carpet" fleet 24 October, she sailed from Matsuyama, Japan, 27 October. Sailing for the western Pacific 29 November, she embarked military passengers at Guam 15 December and returned them to San Pedro, California, 28 December. Lander departed for San Francisco 21 January 1946. Then sailed 28 January for the U. S. East Coast.

Arriving Norfolk, Virginia, 16 February, she decommissioned 29 March. Transferred to the Maritime Commission 1 April, she was placed in the National Defense Reserve Fleet and was berthed at James River, Virginia, she was redesignated Amphibious Transport on 14 August 1968 and was struck from the Naval Register 1 September 1983. On 17 September 1983, she was disposed of by MARAD, her fate is unknown. Lander received two battle stars for World War II service. List of United States Navy ships World War II This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships NavSource Online: Amphibious Photo Archive - APA / LPA-178 Lander

Service Location Protocol

The Service Location Protocol is a service discovery protocol that allows computers and other devices to find services in a local area network without prior configuration. SLP has been designed to scale from unmanaged networks to large enterprise networks, it has been defined in RFC 3224 as standards track document. SLP is used by devices to announce services on a local network; each service must have a URL, used to locate the service. Additionally it may have an unlimited number of called attributes; each device must always be in one or more scopes. Scopes are simple strings and are used to group services, comparable to the network neighborhood in other systems. A device can not see services; the URL of a printer could look like: service:printer:lpr://myprinter/myqueue This URL describes a queue called "myqueue" on a printer with the host name "myprinter". The protocol used by the printer is LPR. Note that a special URL scheme "service:" is used by the printer. "service:" URLs are not required: any URL scheme can be used, but they allow you to search for all services of the same type regardless of the protocol that they use.

The first three components of the "service:" URL type are called service type. The first two components are called abstract service type. In a non-"service:" URL the schema name is the service type; the attributes of the printer could look like:, The example uses the standard syntax for attributes in SLP, only newlines have been added to improve readability. The definition of a "service:" URL and the allowed attributes for the URL are specified by a service template, a formalized description of the URL syntax and the attributes. Service templates are defined in RFC 2609. SLP allows several query types to locate services and obtain information about them: It can search for all services with the same service type or abstract service type The query can be combined with a query for attributes, using LDAP's query language. Given its URL, the attributes of a service can be requested. In standard SLP the attributes must be fetched separately; the Attribute List Extension fixes this problem. A list of all service types can be obtained.

SLP has three different roles for devices. A device can have two or all three roles at the same time. User Agents are devices that search for services Service Agents are devices that announce one or more services Directory Agents are devices that cache services information, they are used in larger networks to allow SLP to scale. The existence of DAs in a network is optional, but if a DA is present, UAs and SAs are required to use it instead of communicating directly. Today most implementations are daemons that can act both as UA and SA, they can be configured to become a DA as well. SLP is a packet-oriented protocol. Most packets are transmitted using UDP, but TCP can be used for the transmission of longer packets; because of the potential unreliability of UDP, SLP repeats all multicasts several times in increasing intervals until an answer has been received. All devices are required to listen on port 427 for UDP packets, SAs and DAs should listen for TCP on the same port. Multicasting is used extensively by SLP by devices that join a network and need to find other devices.

The operation of SLP differs depending on whether a Directory Agent is in the network or not. When a client first joins a network it multicasts a query for DAs on the network. If no DA answers it will assume, it is possible to add DAs as they multicast a'heartbeat' packet in a predefined interval that will be received by all other devices. When an SA discovers a DA, it is required to register all services at the DA; when a service disappears the SA should unregister it. In order to send a query in a network without a DA, the UA sends a multicast UDP packet that contains the query. All SAs that contain matches will send a UDP answer to the UA. If the answer is too large to fit into a single UDP packet, the packet will be marked as "overflown" and the UA is free to send the query directly to the SA using TCP, which can transmit packets of any size. In order to send a query in a network with a DA, the UA will send the query packet to the DA using either UDP or TCP; as every SA must register all services with the DA, the DA is able to fulfill the request and sends the result back to the UA.

SLP contains a public-key cryptography based security mechanism that allows signing of service announcements. In practice it is used: The public keys of every service provider must be installed on every UA; this requirement defeats the original purpose of SLP, being able to locate services without prior configuration. Protecting only the services is not enough. Service URLs contain host names or IP addresses, in a local network it is impossible to prevent IP or DNS spoofing, thus only guaranteeing the authenticity of the URL is not enough if any device can respond to the address. As addresses can be spoofed, the authenticity of the device must be proven at a different level anyway, e.g. in the application protocol or in the packet layer. Doing it additionally in SLP does not provide much additional security. SLP is frequently