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Wikipedia

Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia created and maintained as an open collaboration project by a community of volunteer editors using a wiki-based editing system. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, is one of the most popular websites ranked by Alexa as of January 2020, it features free content and no commercial ads, is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization funded through donations. Wikipedia was launched on January 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined its name, as a portmanteau of "wiki" and "encyclopedia". An English-language encyclopedia, versions of Wikipedia in other languages were developed. With at least 6,024,237 articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias. Overall, Wikipedia comprises more than 40 million articles in 301 different languages and by February 2014 it had reached 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors per month.

In 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 hard science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia and found that Wikipedia's level of accuracy approached that of Britannica, although critics suggested that it might not have fared so well in a similar study of a random sampling of all articles or one focused on social science or contentious social issues. The following year, Time magazine stated that the open-door policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the biggest and the best encyclopedia in the world, was a testament to the vision of Jimmy Wales. Wikipedia has been criticized for exhibiting systemic bias, for presenting a mixture of "truth, half truth, some falsehoods", for being subject to manipulation and spin in controversial topics. Wikipedia has been criticized for gender bias on its English-language site, where the dominant majority of editors are male. However, Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.

Facebook announced that by 2017 it would help readers detect fake news by suggesting links to related Wikipedia articles. YouTube announced a similar plan in 2018. Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful. Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process, it was founded on March 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman. Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.

The domains wikipedia.com and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001 and January 13, 2001 and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com, announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list. Wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view" was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were few rules and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit. Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, web search engine indexing. Language editions were created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, its text was incorporated into Wikipedia; the English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia assembled, surpassing the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia, which had held the record for 600 years. Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.

These moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, to change Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org. Brion Vibber applied the change on August 15, 2002. Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006. A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that merit an article—have been created and built up extensively. In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; the Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.

Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study. Two years in 2011, Wales acknowle

First aerial circumnavigation

The first aerial circumnavigation of the world was completed in 1924 by four aviators from an eight-man team of the United States Army Air Service, the precursor of the United States Air Force. The 175-day journey covered over 26,345 miles; the team traveled east to west, around the northern-Pacific Rim, through to South Asia and Europe and back to the United States. Airmen Lowell H. Smith and Leslie P. Arnold, Erik H. Nelson and John Harding Jr. made the trip in two single-engined open-cockpit Douglas World Cruisers configured as floatplanes for most of the journey. Four more flyers in two additional DWC began the journey but their aircraft crashed or were forced down. All airmen survived. In 1930, Australian Charles Kingsford Smith with a team of three others completed the first circumnavigation of the world by flight traversing both hemispheres, including the first trans-Pacific flight, from the US to Australia, in 1928. Kingsford Smith flew a Fokker F. VIIb/3m trimotor monoplane. In the early 1920s several countries were vying to be the first to fly around the world.

The British had made one unsuccessful around-the-world air flight attempt in 1922. The following year, a French team had tried. In the spring of 1923, the U. S. Army Air Service became interested in having a squadron of military aircraft undertake a round-the-world flight, it assigned a group of officers in the War Department planning group, formed as the World Flight Committee, the job of finding a suitable aircraft and planning the mission. This high-level Army enterprise, under the ultimate command of General Patrick, would have the additional support of the Navy, Diplomatic Corps, Bureau of Fisheries and Coast Guard Services; the War Department instructed the Air Service to look at both the Fokker T-2 transport and the Davis-Douglas Cloudster to see if either would be suitable and to acquire examples for testing. Although deemed satisfactory, the planning group considered other U. S. Air Service military aircraft both in service and production, with a view that a dedicated design that could be fitted with interchangeable landing gear and pontoons for water landings, would be preferable.

When the head of Davis-Douglas, Donald Douglas, was asked for information on the Davis-Douglas Cloudster, he instead submitted data on a modified DT-2, a torpedo bomber that Douglas had built for the U. S. Navy in 1921 and 1922; the DT-2 had proven to be a sturdy aircraft that could accommodate interchangeable wheeled and pontoon landing gear. Since the aircraft was an existing model, Douglas stated that a new aircraft, which he named the Douglas World Cruiser, could be delivered within 45 days after a contract was awarded; the Air Service agreed and sent Lieutenant Erik Henning Nelson, a member of the planning group, to California to work out the details with Douglas. Douglas, assisted by Jack Northrop, began to modify a DT-2 to suit the circumnavigation requirements; the main modification involved its fuel capacity. All the internal bomb carrying structures were removed with additional fuel tanks added to the wings and fuselage fuel tanks enlarged in the aircraft; the total fuel capacity went from 115 gallons to 644 gallons.

Lt. Nelson took the Douglas proposal to Washington where Major General Mason M. Patrick, Chief of the Air Service, approved it on 1 August 1923; the War Department awarded an initial contract to Douglas for the construction of a single prototype. The prototype met all expectations, a contract was awarded for four more production aircraft and spare parts; the last DWC was delivered on 11 March 1924. The spare parts included 15 extra Liberty engines, 14 extra sets of pontoons, enough replacement airframe parts for two more aircraft; these spare parts were sent ahead to locations along the route around the world the aircraft planned to follow. The aircraft were equipped with no radios nor avionics of any sort, leaving their crew to rely on their dead reckoning skills to navigate throughout the venture. Seattle: Maj. Frederick L. Martin and flight commander, SSgt. Alva L. Harvey, flight mechanic Chicago: Lt. Lowell H. Smith, subsequent flight commander, 1st Lt. Leslie P. Arnold, co-pilot Boston /Boston II: 1st Lt. Leigh P. Wade, SSgt.

Henry H. Ogden, flight mechanic New Orleans: Lt. Erik H. Nelson, Lt. John Harding Jr. co-pilotThe pilots trained in meteorology and navigation at Langley Field in Virginia, where they practiced in the prototype. From February to March 1924, the crews practiced on the production aircraft at the Douglas facility in Santa Monica and in San Diego. Four aircraft, Chicago and New Orleans, left Clover Field, Santa Monica, California, on 17 March 1924, for Sand Point, near Seattle, the official start of the journey; the individual aircraft were formally christened with waters from their namesake cities, prior to departure from Seattle where Boeing Company technicians configured the aircraft for the long over-water portion of the flight, by exchanging wheels for pontoon floats. On 6 April 1924, just 13 days after the British, under Stuart-MacLaren, set off from England in the opposite direction, they left Seattle for Alaska. Shortly after departing Prince Rupert Island on 15 April, the lead aircraft Seattle, flown by Martin with Harvey, blew a three-inch hole in its crankcase and was forced to land on Portage Bay.

A replacement engine having been provided, the crew r

Anhui Medical University

Anhui Medical University is a key provincial university in Hefei, Anhui province, China. There are 16,673 students at the university, of whom 179 are enrolled in doctoral programs, 2,728 in master's programs, 8,867 in undergraduate programs, plus 95 international students and 7,187 students enrolled in the School of Extended Education; the predecessor of Anhui Medical University was Dongnan Medical College, established in 1926 in Shanghai. Moved first to Huaiyuan County, Anhui Province, at the end of 1949, to Hefei, the capital of Anhui Province, in 1952, Dongnan Medical College changed its name to Anhui Medical College. In June 1996, approved by the National Committee on Education, Anhui Medical College was renamed Anhui Medical University; the university has 24 directly affiliated teaching units and ten affiliated hospitals, plus 42 clinical schools and 37 teaching hospitals. Other professional practicing and teaching bases connected to the university are over 100; the university at present offers 29 undergraduate options.

Regarding advanced studies, the university has eight doctoral programs, five first-rate-discipline master's programs, 64 master's programs, five professional degree programs. The university was authorized to offer an MD degree in clinical medicine and a professional degree in stomatology at master's level; the two degrees that of MD, symbolize a major breakthrough in the advanced professional education in Anhui Province, making it possible for the university to cover in its curricula the full-range professional education at undergraduate, master's, doctoral levels. Three post-doctoral programs have been set up in pharmacy, clinical medicine, public health and preventive medicine; the university owns one national key academic discipline and 22 provincial key academic disciplines, as well as 27 provincial key clinical-medicine disciplines and priorly-supported disciplines. It owns two key laboratories of the Ministry of Education co-established by Anhui Province and the Ministry of Education, 13 laboratories co-established by the central and local authorities, 19 key laboratories at provincial level or above.

Besides, Anhui Medical University is the national base for the study of clinical medicines and chemical reagents. Two courses have been ranked among the National Elite Courses, two programs approved nationally as the featured ones among the institutions of higher learning; the university has won a national second prize for teaching. Two faculty members of the university hold the directorships on the Committee of Dermatology and Venereology of Chinese Medical Society and on the Committee of Clinical Pharmacology of Chinese Pharmacological Society. Four faculty members have been elected to the international and national status of the project "International-, National-, Provincial-level Talent." Two faculty members have been specified by the Ministry of Education as "Teaching Cadre" title holders. Five faculty members have been designated by the Ministry of Health as "Young and/or Middle-aged Experts with Spectacular Contributions." Two faculty members hold a specially appointed professorship. Five faculty members have been singled out as experts on the Advisory Board of College-level Medical and Pharmaceutical Disciplines of the Ministry of Education.

Again, Anhui Medical university has launched the organization of "Overseas Legion" for an extensive highest-level talent attraction for those from abroad, as indicated by the name of the organization. Its library is the provincial Center Library in Anhui Province, which shares biological and medical literature nationwide via cyber-space or internet; the university is the owner of 46 research institutes at provincial and university levels. Fifteen national-level learned journals are issued nationwide. In the recent five years, the university has taken on a total of 209 scientific research programs, among which are such renowned ones as "863" and "973" Projects, Projects Supported by National Science and Technology, National Natural Sciences Foundation Project; the university has won 76 provincial prizes in scientific research and, in 2005 and 2006 consecutively, won the first prizes of Chinese Medical Science and Technology. In 2007, the university won each one of the second prizes of National Science Progress and the first prizes of College-level Science and Technology of the Ministry of Education.

Substantial exchange has been fostered between the university and colleges or universities in Hong Kong and Macao, other countries. Exchange programs of scholars and technical information have been established for collaboration in scientific research; the university consists of two campuses: the southern campus. The total campus covers an area of 860000 square meters and floor space of about 700 thousand square meters. You can walk through the whole campus in 20 minutes; the campus is on South No.1 Ring-Road of Hefei. The first Clinical College School of Public Health College of Stomatology College of Health Administration College of Pharmacy College of Nursing College of Basic Medicine College of Humanities and Social Science Department of Clinical Medicine Department of Medical Psychology Department of Rehabilitation Department of Iconography Department of Anesthesia Department of Medical Cosmetic Science School of International Students Anhui Medical University Official Website Anhui Medical University website