Wilen is a municipality in the district of Münchwilen in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland. Prior to Thurgaus 1998 reorganisation, Wilen was known as Wilen bei Wil and was part of Rickenbach bei Wil, Wilen has an area, as of 2009, of 2.27 square kilometers. Of this area,1.26 km2 or 55. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.47 km2 or 20. 7% is forested. Of the rest of the land,0.47 km2 or 20. 7% is settled,0.01 km2 or 0. 4% is either rivers or lakes and 0.06 km2 or 2. 6% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 15. 0% of the area while housing and buildings made up 0. 9%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other developed areas made up 1. 3% of the area while parks. Out of the land,18. 9% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1. 8% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,52. 4% is used for growing crops, all the water in the municipality is flowing water. Wilen has a population of 2,467 As of 2008,8. 3% of the population are foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of %.
Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common, as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 50. 4% male and 49. 6% female. The population was made up of 932 Swiss men, and 98 non-Swiss men, there were 940 Swiss women, and 72 non-Swiss women. In 2008 there were 24 live births to Swiss citizens and 2 births to non-Swiss citizens, ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens increased by 15 while the foreign population increased by 2. There were was 1 non-Swiss man who emigrated from Switzerland to another country and 3 non-Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland to another country, the total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 14 and the non-Swiss population change was a decrease of 2 people. This represents a growth rate of 0. 6%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Wilen is,281 children or 13. 7% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 299 teenagers or 14. 5% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,184 people or 8. 9% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 270 people or 13. 1% are between 30 and 39,382 people or 18. 6% are between 40 and 49, and 282 people or 13. 7% are between 50 and 59.
As of 2000, there were 659 private households in the municipality, in 2000 there were 377 single family homes out of a total of 422 inhabited buildings
The birth rate is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year. The birth rate are used to calculate population growth, the crude birth rate is the number of live births per year per 1,000 midyear population Another term used interchangeably with birth rate is natality. When the crude death rate is subtracted from the birth rate. This is equal to the rate of population change, the total birth rate —typically indicated as births per 1,000 population—is distinguished from an age-specific rate. The first known use of the birth rate in English occurred in 1859. In 2012 the average birth rate was 19.611 according to the World Bank and 19.15 births per 1,000 total population according to the CIA. Again, the average birth rate has shrunk to 18.6 births per 1,000 total population in 2016. The 2016 average of 18.6 births per 1,000 total population is estimated to be about 4.3 births/second or about 256 births/minute for the world, the birth rate is an issue of concern and policy for national governments.
Some seek to increase the rate with financial incentives or provision of support services to new mothers. Conversely, other countries have policies to reduce the birth rate, policies to increase the crude birth rate are known as pro-natalist policies, and policies to reduce the crude birth rate are known as anti-natalist policies. Measures such as improved information on birth control and its availability have achieved results in countries such as Iran. There has been discussion on whether bringing women into the forefront of development initiatives will lead to a decline in birth rates, in some countries, government policies have focused on reducing birth rates by improving womens rights and reproductive health. Typically, high rates are associated with health problems, low life expectancy, low living standards, low social status for women. Demographic transition theory postulates that as a country undergoes economic development and social change its population growth declines, at the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, womens issues gained considerable attention.
Family programs were discussed, and 137 countries drafted a World Population Plan of Action, as part of the discussion, many countries accepted modern birth control methods such as the birth control pill and the condom while opposing abortion. Abortion, according to a research based on psychological aspect stated, Birth rates ranging from 10–20 births per 1,000 are considered low, while rates from 40–50 births per 1,000 are considered high. There are problems associated with both extremes, high birth rates may stress government welfare and family programs. Low birth rates may stress the government to provide adequate senior welfare systems, there will be fewer children to support an aging population
Zuzwil, St. Gallen
Zuzwil is a municipality in the Wahlkreis of Wil in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. Zuzwil has an area, as of 2006, of 9 km2, of this area,58. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 23. 8% is forested. Of the rest of the land,16. 7% is settled, the town is situated within the northern foothills of the Alps, in the Fürstenland region just east of the medieval city of Wil. Wooded hills form the backdrop to the north, while the Thur River meanders along its southern edge. The town’s southerly aspect provides for stunning vistas of the eastern Swiss Alps, the Municipality of Zuzwil encompasses the towns of Zuzwil, Züberwangen and Weiern. In the year 1803, when the Canton of St. Gallen was formed, first mentioned in the Henauer Urkunde, Züberwangen was incorporated into the municipality of Zuzwil at the formation of the Canton of St. Gallen in 1803. The region was settled by the Alamanni, a Germanic tribe, the influx of the Alamanni into northern and central Switzerland followed a period when the area had fallen under Roman rule and was sparsely settled.
Prior to that, the region was inhabited by Celtic peoples, Zuzwil itself first appears in a separate deed, dated 11 May 761. As with the Henauer Urkunde, this document deeds property, “Zuocewilare” or “Zuozo Vilare” as Zuzwil was originally called, is believed to derive its name from an Alamanni clan leader by the name of “Zuozo” who established a settlement there. The blazon of the coat of arms is Gules two Lions passant Argent. Zuzwil has a population of 4,812, as of 2007, about 10. 3% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Of the foreign population,50 are from Germany,73 are from Italy,138 are from ex-Yugoslavia,24 are from Austria,20 are from Turkey, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 27. 2%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common, of the adult population,397 people or 10. 5% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 684 people or 18. 0% are between 30 and 39,623 people or 16. 4% are between 40 and 49, and 487 people or 12. 8% are between 50 and 59, in 2000 there were 290 persons who were living alone in a private dwelling.
There were 759 persons who were part of a couple without children, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 38. 9% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the FDP and the SP, in Zuzwil about 80. 4% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. The remainder did not answer this question, as of 2007, Zuzwil had an unemployment rate of 1. 75%. As of 2005, there were 103 people employed in the economic sector
Districts of Switzerland
In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each canton is completely free to decide its own internal organisation. Therefore, there exists a variety of structures and terminology for the subnational entities between canton and municipality, loosely termed districts, most cantons are divided into Bezirke. They are termed Ämter, district or distretto, the Bezirke generally provide only administration and court organization. However, for historical reasons districts in cantons Graubünden and Schwyz are their own legal entities with jurisdiction over tax, seven of the 26 cantons – Uri, Nidwalden, Zug, Basel-City and Geneva – have always existed without the district level of government. An eighth one, Appenzell Innerrhoden, uses no intermediate level either, bern in 2006 decided a reduction of its 26 districts to five administrative regions. Vaud decided a reduction from 19 to 10 districts, valais is planning a similar reduction and in Thurgau, a reduction of eight to four districts is under discussion.
From 2005, districts only have a statistical meaning, the districts are functionally equivalent to municipalities elsewhere in Switzerland, and are generally shown as municipalities on maps etc. The Canton is divided into 6 districts, Appenzell Gonten Oberegg Rüte Schlatt-Haslen Schwende Municipalities of Switzerland
Canton of St. Gallen
The canton of St. Gallen is a canton of Switzerland. Located in Northeastern Switzerland, the canton has an area of 2,026 km² and it was formed in 1803 as a conflation of the city of St. Gallen, the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and various former subject territories of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The canton of St. Gallen is a construct of various historical territories. About half of the area corresponds to the acquisitions of the abbey of St. Gallen over centuries. The city of St. Gallen became independent of the Abbey in 1405, at the same time, the Abbey lost control of the Appenzell. Conversely, the Toggenburg was acquired by the Abbey in 1468, both the City and the Abbey were associates of the Old Swiss Confederacy, but unlike Appenzell never joined as full members. The territories at Lake Zürich and Rheintal remained independent until 1798, in the Helvetic Republic, the northern parts of the modern canton together with Appenzell became the Canton of Säntis, while its southern parts together with Glarus became the canton of Linth.
The founding of St. Gallen is based on the Irish monk Gallus, around 720, one hundred years after Galluss death, the Alemannic priest Othmar built an abbey and gave it the name Abbey of St. Gallen. In 926 Hungarian raiders attacked the abbey and surrounding town, about 1205 the abbot became a prince of the church in the Holy Roman Empire. In 1311 St. Gallen became a Free imperial city, by about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund, in 1405 the Appenzell estates of the abbot successfully rebelled and in 1411 they became allies of the Old Swiss Confederation. A few months the town of St. Gallen became allies and they joined the everlasting alliance as full members of the Confederation in 1454 and in 1457 became completely free from the abbot. However, in 1451 the abbey became an ally of Zürich, Schwyz, in early 1490 the four cantons supported the Abbot against the rebellious city and the Appenzell.
Following their victory the Confederation took ownership of the city of St. Gallen, starting in 1526 then-mayor and humanist Joachim von Watt introduced the reformation in the city of St. Gallen. The town converted to the new reformed religion while the Abbey remained Roman Catholic, while iconoclastic riots forced the monks to flee the city and removed images from the citys churches, the fortified Abbey remained untouched. The Abbey would remain a Catholic stronghold in the Protestant city until 1803, in April 1798, the territories of the canton of St. Gallen were divided between the Cantons of Säntis and Linth of the Helvetic Republic (along with Appenzell and parts of Schwyz. However, the two new Cantons had immediate financial problems and were forced to institute a number of unpopular taxes, the Abbey was secularized on 17 September 1798 and the Prince-Abbot Pankraz Vorster fled to Vienna. The unpopular laws and the closing of the Abbey caused unrest throughout the area, when the War of the Second Coalition broke out in 1799, an Austrian army marched into eastern Switzerland and returned the Prince-Abbot to his throne at the Abbey
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered with Italy to the west, Hungary to the north and Romania to the east and Albania and Greece to the south. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia and Vojvodina, the SFRY traces back to 29 June 1943 when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposal of King Peter II thus ending the monarchy. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, rising ethnic nationalism in the late 1980s led to dissidence among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics. This led to the federation collapsing along the borders, followed by the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992. The term former Yugoslavia is now commonly used retrospectively, the name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made-up of jug and slavija. The Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian word jug means south, while slavija denotes a land of the Slavs, thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be South-Slavia or Land of the South Slavs.
The term is intended to denote the lands occupied by the six South Slavic nations, Croats, Montenegrins, the full official name of the federation varied significantly between 1945 and 1992. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs, the name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced, the state is most commonly referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. The most common abbreviation is SFRY, though SFR Yugoslavia was used in an official capacity, particularly by the media. On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany, by 17 April 1941, Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army and the Yugoslav Partisans. The Partisan supreme commander was Josip Broz Tito, and under his command the movement soon began establishing liberated territories which attracted the attentions of the occupying forces.
The coalition of parties and prominent individuals behind the movement was the Peoples Liberation Front. The Front formed a political body, the Anti-Fascist Council for the Peoples Liberation of Yugoslavia. The AVNOJ, which met for the first time in Partisan-liberated Bihać on 26 November 1942, during 1943, the Yugoslav Partisans began attracting serious attention from the Germans. In two major operations of Fall Weiss and Fall Schwartz, the Axis attempted to stamp-out the Yugoslav resistance once, on both occasions, despite heavy casualties, the Group succeeded in evading the trap and retreating to safety. The Partisans emerged stronger than before and now occupied a significant portion of Yugoslavia
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black.
The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
Bronschhofen is a former municipality in the Wahlkreis of Wil in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. It merged into Wil on 1 January 2013, Bronschhofen is first mentioned in 796 as Pramolveshova. Bronschhofen had an area, as of 2006, of 13.2 km2, of this area,65. 3% is used for agricultural purposes, while 22. 1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 12% is settled and the remainder is non-productive, the former municipality is located in the Wil Wahlkreis. It consists of the villages of Bronschhofen and Rossrüti as well as the hamlets of Maugwil, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Sable a Snail Shell Or. Bronschhofen had a population of 4,654, as of 2007, about 20. 6% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Of the foreign population,74 are from Germany,249 are from Italy,364 are from ex-Yugoslavia,23 are from Austria,26 are from Turkey, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 9. 6%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common, of the Swiss national languages,3,815 speak German,11 people speak French,148 people speak Italian, and 5 people speak Romansh.
The age distribution, as of 2000, in Bronschhofen is,572 children or 13. 3% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 561 teenagers or 13. 1% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,641 people or 14. 9% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 757 people or 17. 6% are between 30 and 39,623 people or 14. 5% are between 40 and 49, and 575 people or 13. 4% are between 50 and 59, in 2000 there were 449 persons who were living alone in a private dwelling. There were 998 persons who were part of a couple without children, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 40. 4% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the FDP and the SP, the entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Bronschhofen about 73. 4% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, the remainder did not answer this question. The historical population is given in the table, The pilgrimage church Maria-Hilf at Dreibrunnen is listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance.
As of 2007, Bronschhofen had an unemployment rate of 2. 26%, as of 2005, there were 171 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 57 businesses involved in this sector. 669 people are employed in the sector and there are 58 businesses in this sector. 731 people are employed in the sector, with 115 businesses in this sector
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland is a political party in Switzerland. It is represented by two Federal Councilors since 1960 and got the second-most votes in the 2015 national elections, the party was founded on 21 October 1888, and is currently the second largest of the four leading coalition political parties in Switzerland. It is the only left-wing party with representatives in the Swiss Federal Council and it is the second largest political party in the Swiss parliament. The current members in the Swiss Federal Council are, Alain Berset, the SP is the biggest pro-European party in Switzerland and supports Swiss membership of the European Union, unlike most other Swiss parties. Additionally, it is opposed to capitalism and maintains a long-term goal of overcoming capitalism. The party is a member of the Socialist International, the Progressive Alliance. With its foundation in October 1888, the Social Democratic Party was considered to be the opposition to the Radicals in government and parliament.
After the unsuccessful General strike in 1918, proportional representation was introduced which helped the SP gain 41 seats in parliament, the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1927 and 1940. After the strike the party took a line and in 1943 it became the strongest party in parliament. It picked up a seat in 1959. The partys historical archives is today hosted by the Swiss Social Archives, the SP supports classical social democratic policies. To that rule, the SP stands for a government offering strong public services, the SP opposes raising the retirement age. In addition, the SP is a proponent of increasing spending in some areas such as for a publicly financed maternity leave, universal health care. In tax policy the SP opposes the notion of lowering taxes for high-income citizens, by campaigning for the harmonisation of all tax rates in Switzerland, the SP seeks more redistribution. The SP is skeptical toward the privatization of state enterprises, the SP promotes more competition in the areas of agriculture and parallel imports.
In social policy, the SP is committed to social equity, the SP aims at making working conditions for women in families easier by promoting more external childcare centers and more opportunities for part-time jobs. It aims at reinforcing sexual equality in terms of eliminating wage differences based on gender, supports civil union for homosexuals, the SP rejects strengthening restrictions on asylum seekers and immigrants. Thus, it supports the integration of immigrants by which the immigrants are assigned to immigration procedures immediately after entering the country, the SP has a liberal stance toward drugs and is in favor of publicly regulated heroin consumption and the legalization of cannabis