Robert Liefeld is an American comic book creator. A prominent writer and artist in the 1990s, he is known for co-creating the character Deadpool with writer Fabian Nicieza, has since been called one of the most controversial figures in the comic industry. In the early 1990s, the self-taught artist became prominent due to his work on Marvel Comics' The New Mutants and X-Force. In 1992, he and several other popular Marvel illustrators left the company to found Image Comics, which started a wave of comic books owned by their creators rather than by publishers; the first book published by Image Comics was Liefeld's Youngblood #1. Rob Liefeld was born October 3, 1967, the youngest child of a Baptist minister and a part-time secretary, he and his sister, seven years his senior, grew up in California. Liefeld's love of comics began as a child, which led early on to his decision to be a professional artist, a practice that began with his tracing artwork from comic books; as a high-school student, he took basic fundamental art courses, attended comic book conventions at the nearby Disneyland Hotel, where he met creators such as George Pérez, John Romita Jr. Jim Shooter, Bob Layton, Mike Zeck and Marv Wolfman.
Liefeld cites Pérez, along with Frank Miller, as major influences. After graduating from high school, Liefeld took life drawing classes at a local junior college, working odd jobs for about a year, including as a pizza delivery man and construction worker, while practicing his artwork, samples of which he would send to small comics publishers, as he was too intimidated to send them to the "Big Two" companies of Marvel and DC. Among the editors he sent. Carlson was working on Megaton #4, was looking for replacements for artists who had moved on to bigger projects. Liefeld's submission packet consisted of pinups of DC Comics characters like the Teen Titans and Legion of Super Heroes, as well as some sketches of Megaton characters; some of these earlier pinups are visible on Liefeld's website. Although Carlson thought Liefeld's depictions of his characters was not sufficiently accurate, exhibited what Carlson characterized as "some goofy anatomy", he found Liefeld's storytelling to be clear, his rendering style evocative of the influence of artist George Pérez.
Although Carlson liked Liefeld's work overall, he felt the young artist was not ready for professional work. Weeks he received another set of samples that were an improvement, still, a four-page Berzerker story, along with pinups of the Megaton characters Ultragirl and Ultraman. Carlson used one of the pinups as the inside front cover to Megaton #5, Liefeld's Ultragirl pinup in the company's Who's Who-type reference book Megaton Explosion #1; the book featured an entry for Liefeld's own creation, a team of superheroes called Youngblood, the first appearance of that team in print. Carlson and his colleague Chris Ecker met with the teenaged Liefeld, who at that point had not yet obtained his driver's license, at the Ramada O'Hare Hotel, the location of the Chicago ComiCon. Impressed with the artist's enthusiasm and the new art samples he showed them, Carlson gave Liefeld a test script in order to judge his ability to draw a page-to-page comics story. Although Carlson was impressed with Liefeld's layouts, the story was drawn by Gary Thomas by the time it saw print in Megaton #7.
Two months Liefeld drew the team in an advertisement in Megaton #8 that indicated that it would next appear in Megaton Special #1, by Liefeld and writer Hank Kanalz, with a cover by artist Jerry Ordway. However, Megaton Comics went out of business. Learning from a friend of a comic book convention in San Francisco where a large number of editors would be in attendance and his friend drove several hours to San Francisco, where they would stay with his aunt and uncle in order to attend the convention. At the convention, he showed editors his samples and offered a package, which consisted of 10 pages of sequential art featuring his own characters. Editor Dick Giordano, to whom Liefeld showed his samples at the DC booth, requested that Liefeld send him more samples. Although Liefeld was apprehensive about approaching the Marvel booth, he did so at his friend's urging, as a result, editor Mark Gruenwald offered Liefeld a job illustrating an eight-page Avengers backup story featuring the Black Panther, much to the 19-year-old artist's surprise.
Though the published story was illustrated by another artist, Liefeld was given character design work by the publisher. His first published story, was a DC Comics Bonus Book insert in Warlord #131. Editor Robert Greenberger recalled that Liefeld "was discovered by my office-mate, Jonathan Peterson, scrambling to find something for him to do. I had the Warlord Bonus Book slot coming up, so to keep Rob from finding work at our rival, I tapped him for that." Next came the five-issue miniseries Hawk and Dove for DC Comics, the first issue of, published with an October 1988 cover date. It was this work; that same year, Liefeld drew Secret Origins #28. Liefeld's layouts for Hawk and Dove #5, which took place in a chaos dimension, were oriented sideways so that a reader would have to turn the comic book at a right angle to read them; because this was done without editorial input, editor Mike Carlin cut and pasted the panels into the proper order, Karl Kesel lightboxed them onto DC comics paper to ink them.
The letters column of Hawk and Dove #5 mentions that Liefeld "s
Todd McFarlane is a Canadian comic book creator and entrepreneur, best known for his work on The Amazing Spider-Man and the horror-fantasy series Spawn. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, McFarlane became a comic book superstar due to his work on Marvel Comics' Spider-Man franchise, on which he was the artist to draw the first full appearances of the supervillain Venom. In 1992, he helped form Image Comics, pulling the occult anti-hero character Spawn from his high school portfolio and updating him for the 1990s. Spawn encouraged a trend in creator-owned comic book properties. Since leaving inking duties on Spawn with issue No. 70, McFarlane has illustrated comic books less focusing on entrepreneurial efforts, such as McFarlane Toys and Todd McFarlane Entertainment, a film and animation studio. In September 2006, it was announced that McFarlane would be the Art Director of the newly formed 38 Studios Green Monster Games, founded by major league baseball pitcher Curt Schilling. McFarlane used to be a co-owner of the National Hockey League's Edmonton Oilers before selling his shares to Daryl Katz.
He is a high-profile collector of record-breaking baseballs. Todd McFarlane was born on March 16, 1961 in Calgary, Canada, to Bob and Sherlee McFarlane, he has two brothers and Derek. Bob worked in the printing business, which led him to take work where he could find it, as a result, during McFarlane's childhood, the family lived in thirty different places from Alberta to California. McFarlane began drawing as a hobby at an early age, developed an interest in comics, acquiring as many as he could, learning to draw from them, he was a fan of comics creators such as John Byrne, Jack Kirby, Frank Miller and George Pérez, as well as the writing of Alan Moore. McFarlane created the character Spawn when he was 16, spent "countless hours" perfecting the appearance of each component of the character's visual design. One day while in the twelfth grade at Calgary's Sir Winston Churchill High School, McFarlane, working as a groundskeeper for the Calgary Cardinals, was standing in the bleachers when a 13-year-old ninth grader sitting near him named Wanda began flirting with him.
The two began dating, over the objections of Wanda's father, who thought she was too young for him, though in time McFarlane won him over. Right after high school, McFarlane attended baseball tryouts at Gonzaga University. Despite being a good fielder and fast, he was not a good hitter. Moreover, he could not afford Gonzaga, so he attended Spokane Falls Community College for a year, his relationship with Wanda developing into a long-distance one. In 1981 McFarlane began attending Eastern Washington University on a baseball scholarship, studying as part of a self-designed program for graphics and art, his practical goal was to join his father in the printing business in Calgary, though his dream was always to be a comic book creator. He worked part-time on campus as a janitor in the school's administration building, as his scholarship required an on-campus job, worked weekends at a comics shop called the Comic Rack, devoting a couple of hours late at night to practice his comics art, he sought to play baseball professionally after graduation, but suffered a serious ankle injury in his junior year during a game with arch rivals Washington State University.
He subsequently focused on drawing, working at the comic book store to pay for the rest of his education, living in a trailer park in Cheney, Washington with Wanda, who had moved to the area to be with him and attend EWU as well. In 1984, a year after his injury, McFarlane's final chance to play for the big leagues came when he tried out with the Toronto Blue Jays' farm team in Medicine Hat, but he ended up being ranked last on the roster, ending his professional baseball prospects. McFarlane graduated with Bachelor's degree that same year, he stayed in Spokane. While still in college, McFarlane began sending 30–40 packages of submissions each month to comics editors, totaling over 700 submissions after a year and a half, most of which were in the form of pinups. Half resulted in no response, while the other half resulted in rejection letters, though he received some constructive criticism from a few editors. One of them, DC Comics' Sal Amendola, gave McFarlane a dummy script in order to gauge McFarlane's page-to-page storytelling ability.
Amendola's advice that McFarlane's submissions needed to focus page-to-page stories rather than pinups led McFarlane to create a five-page Coyote sample that he sent to Uncanny X-Men editor Ann Nocenti at Marvel Comics, who passed it along to Archie Goodwin and Jo Duffy, the editors of the Marvel imprint Epic Comics, which published Coyote. They in turn passed it onto Coyote creator Steve Englehart, who called McFarlane to offer McFarlane his first comic job, a 1984 backup story in Coyote. McFarlane soon began drawing for both DC and Marvel, with his first major body of work being a two-year run on DC's Infinity, Inc. In 1987, McFarlane illustrated the latter three issues of Detective Comics' four-issue "Batman: Year Two" storyline. From there, he moved to Marvel's Incredible Hulk, which he drew from 1987 to 1988, working with writer Peter David. In 1988, McFarlane joined writer David Michelinie on Marvel's The Amazing Spider-Man, beginning with issue 298, drawing the preliminary sketch for that cover's image on the back of one of his Incredible Hulk pages.
McFarlane garnered notice for the more dynamic poses in which he depicted Spider-Man's aerial web-swinging, his enlarging of the eyes on the character's mask, greater detail in wh
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
The New 52
The New 52 was the 2011 revamp and relaunch by DC Comics of its entire line of ongoing monthly superhero comic books. Following the conclusion of the "Flashpoint" crossover storyline, DC cancelled all of its existing titles and debuted 52 new series in September 2011 with new first issues. Among the renumbered series were Action Comics and Detective Comics, which had retained their original numbering since the 1930s; the relaunch included changes to the publishing format. New titles were released to bring the number of ongoing monthly series to fifty-two. Various changes were made to DC's fictional universe to entice new readers, including changes to DC's internal continuity to make characters more modern and accessible. In addition, characters from the Wildstorm and Vertigo imprints were absorbed into the DC Universe; the New 52 branding ended after the completion of the "Convergence" storyline in May 2015, although the continuity of The New 52 continued. In June 2015, 24 new titles were launched, alongside 25 returning titles, with several of those receiving new creative teams.
In February 2016, DC announced their Rebirth initiative with the release of an 80-page one-shot on May 25, 2016, continuing through late 2016. Following the conclusion of the Flashpoint limited series, all titles set in the DC Universe were cancelled and relaunched with new #1 issues; the new continuity features new outfits and backstories for many of DC's long-established heroes and villains. An interview with DC Comics executive editor Eddie Berganza and editor-in-chief Bob Harras revealed that the new continuity did not constitute a full reboot of the DC Universe but rather a "soft reboot". While many characters underwent a reboot or revamp, much of the DC Universe's history remained intact. Many major storylines such as "War of the Green Lanterns", "Batman: A Death in the Family" and Batman: The Killing Joke remained part of the new continuity, while others have been lost in part or in whole. DC editorial constructed a timeline that details the new history and which storylines to keep or ignore.
On August 31, 2011, Midtown Comics Times Square held a midnight event at which they began selling Justice League #1 and Flashpoint #5. On hand to sign the books were DC Chief Creative Officer Geoff Johns, the writer of both titles, Co-publisher and writer/artist Jim Lee, who illustrated Justice League. On January 12, 2012, DC announced that after their eighth issues, Blackhawks and Dove, Men of War, Mister Terrific, O. M. A. C. and Static Shock would be cancelled and replaced with six new titles, which would reveal more of The New 52 DC Universe. The new titles were dubbed the Second Wave: Dial H, Earth 2, G. I. Combat, World's Finest and Batman Incorporated, absent from the initial line of Batman titles, would continue Grant Morrison's storyline from before The New 52 involving the conflict between Batman and Talia al Ghul. On June 8, 2012, DC announced that in September 2012, the first anniversary of The New 52 launch, all titles would get a zero issue, dubbed "Zero Month". In addition, the Third Wave of titles was announced: Talon, Sword of Sorcery, Phantom Stranger, Team 7.
With these additions to the line, Justice League International, Captain Atom, Resurrection Man, Voodoo were cancelled. In October and November 2012, DC announced new titles Threshold, Justice League of America, Justice League of America's Vibe, Constantine. Threshold would be published in January 2013, Constantine in March 2013, while the others would be published in February 2013. DC consolidated these new titles as the Fourth Wave of The New 52. G. I. Combat, Agent of S. H. A. D. E. Grifter, Blue Beetle, Legion Lost were cancelled as a result. Young Romance: A New 52 Valentine's Day Special #1 was published as the 52nd title in February 2013. In January 2013, DC Comics announced the cancellation of I, Vampire and DC Universe Presents in April 2013. To celebrate the 60th birthday of Mad Magazine mascot Alfred E. Neuman, DC solicited variants drawn by Mad artists for 13 titles being published in April 2013. Starting with titles released on January 28, 2013, all printed New 52 publications featured advertisements for fictional news channel, Channel 52.
The two page back-ups, titled Channel 52, appear in all books, starting in February 2013, replaced the previous "DC Comics: All Access" features. This news feature stars Bethany Snow, Ambush Bug and Calendar Man as reporters and anchors on the fictional in-universe news show; the art is provided by Freddie E. Williams II; each week brings new content regarding the future goings-on in the DC universe. Channel 52 and Bethany Snow make an appearance in the second season of Arrow. On January 30, 2013, DC announced that all titles released in April 2013 would be "WTF Certified"; each title would feature a gatefold cover and story lines and moments that will leave readers in a state of shock, including the return of Booster Gold. However, DC dropped the "WTF Certified" branding and did not feature it on any of The New 52 books. In February 2013, it was announced that DC Comics would launch two new politically motivated books as parts of the Fifth Wave: The Green Team: Teen Trillionaires and The Movement.
These would explore concepts similar to the Occupy Movement and the role money has in a world of superheroes. A wave of cancellations was announced for May 2013 including: The Savage Hawkman, The Fury of Firestorm: The Nuclear Man, Sword of Sorcery, Team 7, The Ravagers. In March 2013, DC announced that it would launch four new titles in June 2013, making up the rest of the Fifth Wave: Superman Unchained, Batman/Superman and Trinity of Sin: Pandora. In April 2013, the cancellation of Bat
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as cultures invent new genres and discontinue the use of old ones. Works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand-alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed-upon or inferred conventions; some genres may have rigid adhered-to guidelines, while others may show great flexibility. Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, actors were restricted to their genre under the assumption that a type of person could tell one type of story best.
In periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art; because art is a response to a social state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about, the use of genre as a tool must be able to adapt to changing meanings. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system, it has been suggested that genres resonate with people because of the familiarity, the shorthand communication, as well as because of the tendency of genres to shift with public mores and to reflect the zeitgeist. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation and evolution of the codes; the term genre is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.
Genre painting is a term for paintings where the main subject features human figures to whom no specific identity attaches – in other words, figures are not portraits, characters from a story, or allegorical personifications. These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is a landscape or architectural painting. Genre painting may be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, marine paintings and animal paintings; the concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory between the 17th and 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art; the genres in hierarchical order are: History painting, including narrative religious mythological and allegorical subjects Portrait painting Genre painting or scenes of everyday life Landscape and cityscape Animal painting Still life A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Genres may be determined by literary technique, content, or length. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's, they must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined with subgroups; the most general genres in literature are epic, comedy and short story. They can all be in the genres poetry, which shows best how loosely genres are defined. Additionally, a genre such as satire might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre but as a mixture of genres, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. In popular fiction, divided by genres, genre fiction is the more usual term. In literature, genre has been known as an intangible taxonomy; this taxonomy implies a concept of containment. The earliest recorded systems of genre in Western history can be traced back to Aristotle.
Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist and author of The Architext, describes Plato as creating three Imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative, epic. Lyric poetry, the fourth and final type of Greek literature, was excluded by Plato as a non-mimetic mode. Aristotle revised Plato's system by eliminating the pure narrative as a viable mode and distinguishing by two additional criteria: the object to be imitated, as objects could be either superior or inferior, the medium of presentation such as words, gestures or verse; the three categories of mode and medium can be visualized along an XYZ axis. Excluding the criteria of medium, Aristotle's system distinguished four types of classical genres: tragedy, epic and parody. Genette continues by explaining the integration of lyric poetry into the classical system during the romantic period, replacing the now removed pure narrative mode. Lyric poetry, once considered non-mimetic, was deemed to imi
Wildcats, sometimes rendered WildCats or WildC. A. T.s, is a superhero team created by the American comic book artist Jim writer Brandon Choi. The team first appeared in August 1992 in the first issue of their eponymous comic book WildC. A. T.s: Covert Action Teams, published by Image Comics. It was Image founding partner Jim Lee's first work published by the newly launched company, his first creator-owned project; the Wildcats were the starting point for Lee's menagerie of interconnected superhero creations which became the foundation of the Wildstorm Universe. The Wildcats launched at the apex of a speculator-fueled comics sales boom and was wildly popular at its inception, with wholesale sales to comic book stores above one million copies for early issues; this first series ran for 50 issues, in addition to Lee, featured work by comics creators such as Travis Charest, Chris Claremont, James Robinson and Alan Moore. This popularity saw the property expand into other media, with an animated adaptation of the comic debuting on CBS in 1994 and a toyline from Playmates Toys.
In 1998, ownership of the Wildcats concepts and characters were sold to DC Comics, a subsidiary of Time Warner, as part of DC's acquisition of Lee's company Wildstorm Productions. A new incarnation of the team was soon launched under the simplified title Wildcats, focusing on the former members of the now-disbanded team and emphasizing a grittier tone during its 28-issue run; the third series, Wildcats Version 3.0, revolved around the HALO Corporation, its CEO Jack Marlowe, a gallery of new characters subverting corporate politics to their cause of creating a better world. This incarnation lasted 24 issues and was followed by a nine-issue limited series titled Wildcats: Nemesis, which returned to a more superheroic style reminiscent of the first series. In late 2006, a fourth ongoing series was launched as a part of the Worldstorm publishing initiative; the series saw the return of Jim Lee as regular penciller for the first time since its first volume while Grant Morrison took over writing duties.
Only one issue was published, with future issues placed on hold. In mid-2008, the fifth volume of Wildcats was launched. Launched as an original Image comic book title by popular X-Men penciler Jim Lee and his friend, writer Brandon Choi, the comic book's premise revolved around the centuries-long war between aliens called Kherubim and Daemonites. Kherubims, a nearly immortal, human-looking alien race with exceptional powers and skills, traveled to Earth and, by breeding with humans, populated the planet with "Half-Breeds". Daemonites, besides having a fearsome appearance possessed various superhuman abilities, including body possession and mental control over human beings; the initial arc brought Voodoo over to the team as the readers' point-of-view character as Helspont, a Daemonite warlord, had taken control over Vice President of the United States Dan Quayle. Rob Liefeld's Youngblood co-starred in the closing chapters of the arc. WildC. A. T.s' story continued in a three-part mini-series, penciled by Jae Lee, that introduced the Daemonite Lord Hightower.
Jim Lee and Marc Silvestri proceeded to publish a'Killer Instinct' crossover detailing Warblade's connection to Marc Silvestri's Cyberforce. Jim Lee devoted his time to coming up with the new concepts of Gen13, Stormwatch. Before he left the book, he did the four-issue Gathering of Eagles storyline written by his Uncanny X-Men writer, Chris Claremont, it featured a new villain in Tapestry and added the characters of Mister Majestic and Soldier, featured Claremont's creator-owned character, Huntsman. All of the characters were spun off into their own mini-series, with Zealot featured in a three-part Ron Marz written story, Spartan having his Kurt Busiek-written mini-series, Warblade sharing another with Cyberforce's Ripclaw, Grifter co-starred in a mini with Stormwatch's Backlash that led to the latter's ongoing title, as well as another with Youngblood's Badrock, Billy Tucci's Shi, Dark Horse's the Mask. James Robinson wrote a handful of issues and participated in the Wildcats' first annual as well as a Team One Stormwatch/WildC.
A. T.s mini-series detailing the past of the Wildstorm universe. The title participated in the WildC. A. T.s-oriented "Wildstorm Rising" crossover that saw the heroes try to gain control of the Daemonite battleship, which turned out to be the Kheran ship instead, with WildC. A. T.s leaving for Khera. Following a Grifter one-shot, the crossover gave birth to a short-lived Steven Seagle-written Grifter series that centered on his super-spy/superhero adventures while linking to an obscure Team One character Regiment at one point. Alan Moore attempted to give the series depth and cohesion by following up on the initial premise of the Daemonite and Kherubim war. After Grifter resigned, the C. A. T.s had the opportunity to venture to Khera. The Kherubims were living in prosperity. Appearances were deceiving, it was apparent the planet was run by power-hungry politicians who had ruthlessly subjugated the Daemonites as second-class citizens. Voodoo, with her Daemonite blood, experienced this firsthand. Maul's race was treated unjustly and though Emp and Zealot were seduced by promises of power and recognition, Spartan discovered the truth about Khera's corrupt leaders.
It took the death of one of Maul's race for the WildC. A. T.s to leave and head back for Earth. Disillusioned by the outcome of the war off-world and their selfishness, the team fell apart. Voodoo left and Emp fell into depression; the original team returned to Earth in pieces and, despi
La Jolla is a hilly, seaside community within the city of San Diego, occupying 7 miles of curving coastline along the Pacific Ocean within the northern city limits. The population reported in the 2010 census was 46,781. La Jolla is surrounded on three sides by ocean bluffs and beaches and is located 12 miles north of Downtown San Diego and 40 miles south of Orange County; the climate is mild, with an average daily temperature of 70.5 °F. La Jolla is home to many educational institutions and a variety of businesses in the areas of lodging, shopping, finance, real estate, medical practice and scientific research; the University of California San Diego is located in La Jolla, as are the Salk Institute, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Scripps Research Institute, the headquarters of National University. Local Native Americans, the Kumeyaay, called this location mat kulaaxuuy, lit. "land of holes". The topographic feature that gave rise to the name "holes" is uncertain, it is suggested that the Kumeyaay name for the area was transcribed by the Spanish settlers as La Jolla.
An alternative, pseudo-etymological suggestion for the origin of the name is that it is an alternate spelling of the Spanish word la joya, which means "the jewel". Despite being disputed by scholars, this derivation of the name has been cited in popular culture; this supposed origin gave rise to the nickname "Jewel City". During the Mexican period of San Diego's history, La Jolla was mapped as pueblo land and contained about 60 lots; when California became a state in 1850, the La Jolla area was incorporated as part of the chartered City of San Diego. In 1870, Charles Dean acquired several of the pueblo lots and subdivided them into an area that became known as La Jolla Park. Dean was unable to develop the land and left San Diego in 1881. A real estate boom in the 1880s led speculators Frank T. Botsford and George W. Heald to further develop the sparsely settled area. In the 1890s, the San Diego, Pacific Beach, La Jolla Railway was built, connecting La Jolla to the rest of San Diego. La Jolla became known as a resort area.
To attract visitors to the beach, the railway built facilities such as a bath house and a dance pavilion. Visitors were housed in small cottages and bungalows above La Jolla Cove, as well as a temporary tent city erected every summer. Two of the cottages that were built in 1894 still exist: the "Red Roost" and the "Red Rest" known as the "Neptune and Cove Tea Room"; the La Jolla Park Hotel opened in 1893. The Hotel Cabrillo was built in 1908 by "Squire" James A. Wilson and was incorporated into the La Valencia Hotel. By 1900, La Jolla comprised 350 residents; the first reading room was built in 1898. A volunteer fire brigade was organized in 1907. Livery stable owner Nathan Rannells served successively as La Jolla's volunteer fire captain, first police officer, first postmaster. La Jolla Elementary School began educating local children in 1896; the Bishop's School opened in 1909. La Jolla High School was established in 1922. Between 1951 and 1963, other elementary schools were established in the area to ease overcrowding.
The La Jolla Beach and Yacht Club was built in 1927. In 1896 journalist and publisher Ellen Browning Scripps settled in La Jolla, where she lived for the last 35 years of her life, she was wealthy in her own right from her investments and writing, she inherited a large sum from her brother George H. Scripps in 1900. Unmarried and childless, she devoted herself to philanthropic endeavors those benefiting her adopted home of La Jolla, she commissioned many of La Jolla's most notable buildings designed by Irving Gill or his nephew and partner Louis John Gill. Many of these buildings are now on the National Register of Historic Places or are listed as historic by the city of San Diego, her donations launched the Scripps Memorial Hospital in 1924, the Scripps Metabolic Clinic, the Children's Pool. Ellen Browning Scripps founded Scripps College, a women's college, in 1926. Scripps College is located in Claremont in Los Angeles County; the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, one of the nation's oldest oceanographic institutes, was founded in 1903 by William Emerson Ritter, chair of the zoology department at the University of California, with financial support from Scripps and her brother E. W. Scripps.
At first the institution operated out of a boathouse in Coronado. In 1905 they purchased a 170-acre site in La Jolla; the first laboratory buildings there opened in 1907. The institution became part of the University of California in 1912, it became the nucleus for the establishment of the University of California San Diego