Seabegs Wood was the site of a Roman fortlet on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. At Seabegs, the outline of Antonine's Wall, has lasted. Archaeologists from previous generations recorded this and stated that the ditch was deep and watterlogged. There is an underpass under the Clyde Canal nearby known locally as the Pend. In in the 1890s, the Antonine Wall Committee of Glasgow Archaeological Society’s cut several trenches across the Roman rampart; these uncovered its stone base. Subsequent excavations in 1977 found a Roman fortlet attached to the south of the Rampart. In 1981, a mound little has been discovered; the neighbouring forts to this fortlet are Rough Castle in the east. Sir George Macdonald and others theorized that because these neighbouring fort were widespread another structure was in the Seabegs area. No coinage has been recovered nor any inscriptions. There are two marching camps nearby at Milnquarter. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry.
There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. Drone footage from Seabegs Wood ]
Bar Hill Fort
Bar Hill Fort was a Roman fort on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. It was built around the year 142 A. D.. Older maps and documents sometimes spell the name as Barr Hill. A computer generated fly around. Lidar scans have been done along the length of the wall including Bar Hill. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavation of the site. Many other artefacts have been found at Shirva, about a mile away on the other side of Twechar. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry. There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. An altar to Silvanus was found in 1895 on Bar Hill. It's thought to have originated from a small shrine outside the fort; the altar is now kept in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow along with others like the one found at Castlecary. A 43 foot deep well was discovered at the site. Several item were recovered from the well.
It's possible. Shoes from men and children were found leading to suggestions of family life. Other recovered items include an altar, bones and coins. Structural materials like building columns, wooden beams were found as was part of the pulley of the well. Videos of some reconstructed objects like a window, and various columns have been produced as well as one of a bust of Silenus. Bar Hill Fort was one of over a dozen forts built along the Antonine Wall from around 140 AD; these follow a short route across Scotland’s central belt, followed in the 18th century when constructing the Forth and Clyde canal. On the south-facing slope of the hill is the headquarters; the remains of a Roman bathhouse can be observed
The Roman provinces were the lands and people outside of Rome itself that were controlled by the Republic and the Empire. Each province was ruled by a Roman, appointed as governor. Although different in many ways, they were similar to the states in Australia or the United States, the regions in the United kingdom or New Zealand, or the prefectures in Japan. Canada refers to some of its territory as provinces. A province was the basic and, until the tetrarchy, the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy; the word province in Modern English has its origins in the Latin term used by the Romans. Provinces were governed by politicians of senatorial rank former consuls or former praetors. A exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus after the death of Cleopatra; this exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of the kings of the earlier Hellenistic period.
The Latin term provincia had a more general meaning of "jurisdiction". The Latin word provincia meant any task or set of responsibilities assigned by the Roman Senate to an individual who held imperium, a military command within a specified theater of operations. Under the Roman Republic, the magistrates were elected to office for a period of one year, those serving outside the city of Rome, such as consuls acting as generals on a military campaign, were assigned a particular provincia, the scope of authority within which they exercised their command; the territory of a people who were defeated in war might be brought under various forms of treaty, in some cases entailing complete subjection. The formal annexation of a territory created a province, in the modern sense of an administrative unit, geographically defined. Republican-period provinces were administered in one-year terms by the consuls and praetors who had held office the previous year and who were invested with imperium. Rome started expanding beyond Italy during the First Punic War.
The first permanent provinces to be annexed were Sicilia in 241 BC and Corsica et Sardinia in 237 BC. Militarized expansionism kept increasing the number of these administrative provinces, until there were no longer enough qualified individuals to fill the posts, good people; the terms of provincial governors had to be extended for multiple years, on occasion the senate awarded imperium to private citizens, most notably Pompey the Great. Prorogation undermined the republican constitutional principle of annual elected magistracies, the amassing of disproportionate wealth and military power by a few men through their provincial commands was a major factor in the transition from a republic to imperial autocracy. 241 BC – Sicilia taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed at the end of the First Punic War 237 BC – Corsica et Sardinia. It was annexed after a rebellion by the Achaean League. 146 BC – Africa home territory of Carthage. It was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia.
67 BC – Creta et Cyrenae. However, it was not organised as a province, it was incorporated into the province of Creta et Cyrenae when Crete was annexed in 67 BC. 63 BC – Pontus et Bithynia. It was organised as a Roman province at the end of the Third Mithridatic War by Pompey, who incorporated the eastern part of the defeated Kingdom of Pontus into it in 63 BC. 63 BC – Syria. The Romans controlled only a small area. In 74 BC Lycia and Pamphylia were added to the small Roman possessions in Cilicia. Cilicia came under Roman control towards the end of the Third Mithridatic War – 73–63 BC; the province was reorganised by Pompey in 63 BC. Cyprus was annexed and added to this province in 58 BC. 46 BC – Africa Nova, Julius Caesar annexed eastern Numidia and the new province called Africa Nova to distinguish it from the older province of Africa, which become known as Africa Vetus. Gallia Cisalpina was a province in the sense of an area of military command, but was never a province in the sense of an administrative unit.
During Rome's expansion in the Italian peninsula, the Romans assigned some areas as provinces in the sense of areas of militar
Britannia has been used in several different senses. The name is a Latinisation of the native Brittonic word for the island, Pretanī, which produced the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which in the fourth to the first centuries BC, designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Britain. In Modern Welsh the name remains Prydain. By the 1st century BC, Britannia came to be used for Great Britain specifically. After the Roman conquest in 43 AD, Britannia meant Roman Britain, a province covering the island south of Caledonia; when Roman Britain was divided into four provinces in 197 AD, two were called Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. Britannia is the name given to the female personification of the island, it is a term still used to refer to the whole island. In the 2nd century, Roman Britannia came to be personified as a goddess, armed with a trident and shield and wearing a Corinthian helmet; the name Britannia long survived the end of Roman rule in Britain in the 5th century and yielded the name for the island in most European and various other languages, including the English Britain and the modern Welsh Prydain.
In the 9th century the associated terms Bretwalda and brytenwealda ealles ðyses ealonde were applied to some Anglo-Saxon kings to assert a wider hegemony in Britain and hyperbolic inscriptions on coins and titles in charters included the equivalent title rex Britanniae. However when England was unified the title used was rex Angulsaxonum. After centuries of declining use, the Latin form was revived during the English Renaissance as a rhetorical evocation of a British national identity. Following the Acts of Union in 1707, which joined the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, the personification of the martial Britannia was used as an emblem of British maritime power and unity, most notably in "Rule, Britannia!". A British cultural icon, she was featured on all modern British coinage series until the redesign in 2008, still appears annually on the gold and silver "Britannia" bullion coin series. In 2015 a new definitive £2 coin was issued, with a new image of Britannia, she is depicted in the Brit Awards statuette, the British Phonographic Industry's annual music awards.
The first writer to use a form of the name was the Greek explorer and geographer Pytheas in the 4th century BC. Pytheas referred to Prettanike or Brettaniai, a group of islands off the coast of North-Western Europe. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus referred to Pretannia, a rendering of the indigenous name for the Pretani people whom the Greeks believed to inhabit the British Isles. Following the Greek usage, the Romans referred to the Insulae Britannicae in the plural, consisting of Albion, Hibernia and many smaller islands. Over time, Albion came to be known as Britannia, the name for the group was subsequently dropped. Although emperor Claudius is attributed with the creation and unification of the province of Britannia in 43 AD, Julius Caesar had established Roman authority over the Southern and Eastern Britain dynasties during his two expeditions to the island in 55 and 54 BC. Just as Caesar himself had been an obside in Bithynia as a youth, he had taken the King's sons as obsides or hostages, back to Rome to be educated.
The Roman conquest of the island began in AD 43, leading to the establishment of the Roman province known in Latin as Britannia. The Romans never conquered the whole island, building Hadrian's Wall as a boundary with Caledonia, which covered the territory of modern Scotland, although the whole of the boundary marked by Hadrian's Wall lies within modern-day Northern England. A southern part of what is now Scotland was occupied by the Romans for about 20 years in the mid-2nd century AD, keeping in place the Picts to the north of the Antonine Wall. People living in the Roman province of Britannia were called Britons. Ireland, inhabited by the Scoti, was called Hibernia. Thule, an island "six days' sail north of Britain, near the frozen sea" Iceland, was never invaded by the Romans; the Emperor Claudius paid a visit while Britain was being conquered and was honoured with the agnomen Britannicus as if he were the conqueror. She appeared as a more regal-looking female figure. Britannia was soon personified as a goddess, looking similar to the goddess Minerva.
Early portraits of the goddess depict Britannia as a beautiful young woman, wearing the helmet of a centurion, wrapped in a white garment with her right breast exposed. She is shown seated on a rock, holding a spear, with a spiked shield propped beside her. Sometimes she leans on the shield. On another range of coinage, she is seated on a globe above waves: Britain at the edge of the world. Similar coin types were issued under Antoninus Pius. After the Roman withdrawal, the term "Britannia" remained in use in Britain and abroad. Latin was ubiquitous amongst native Brythonic writers and the term continued in the Welsh tradition that developed from it. Writing with variations on the term Britannia appeared in many Welsh works such as the Historia Britonum, Armes Prydein and the 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae, which gained unprecedented popularity throughout western Europe during the High Middle Ages. Following the migration of Brythonic Celts, the term Britannia came to refer to the Armorican peninsula (at least f
Auchendavy was a Roman fort on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. Much of the site archeology was destroyed by the builders of the Clyde Canal. Between Bar Hill and Balmuildy the wall follows the southern bank of the River Kelvin; the site of the fort is north of Kirkintilloch's northern border. It can be seen as a mound mid-way between the road. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavation of the site, he says, "Auchendavy is distinguished for the large number of antiquities found in and about it." "About it" includes Shirva Farm in Twechar. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry. There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. A centurion called, he was a soldier with the Second Augusta Legion. A sandstone altar to Jupiter and Victory was found in a pit to the south-west of the Roman fort at Auchendavy.
There is an altar to Silvanus. A sandstone altar, dedicated to the Presiding Spirit of the Land of Britain, was found near Auchendavy fort. Again a sandstone altar to Diana and Apollo, was found near Auchendavy fort, yet another altar to Mars was discovered. It has dedications to: Minerva, parade-ground goddesses, Hercules and Victory. A distance slab by the 20th Legion Valiant was found. A fragment of a male torso was found too. Gordon and others speak of coins; the ballista bullets are said to have been upwards of fifty in number. Two iron mallets were found. Many other artefacts have been found at Shirva, near Twechar
Bishopton is a village in Renfrewshire, Scotland. It is located around 2 miles west of Erskine. There was a Roman Fort at Bishopton, discovered from aerial photographs in 1949; the fort is about 1km west of the village. It overlooked the former ford at Dumbuck, on a flat-topped hill around 60 metres above the river, allowing ready surveillance of the River Clyde; the fort at Whitemoss Farm may have been held from 140 to 155 A. D.. Pottery with Antonine era date stamps was found at the site; the pottery and many other finds were catalogued at the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow along with several coeval items like the distance slab of the Twentieth Legion from Old Kilpatrick. There was an earlier Roman fort on Barochan Hill, less than 2 miles to the south-west towards Houston. Bishopton was in the Parish of Erskine; the name of the village is reflected in a nearby house: Bishopton House. A famous family called; the house became a convent known as latterly Cora Foundation. A large explosive manufacturing factory was once sited in Bishopton.
The Royal Ordnance Factory Bishopton was opened during World War II on farm land, acquired by compulsory purchase order. It was situated on the western side of the railway line running through Bishopton. Over 2,000 acres of land from up to seven farms was used to build the factory; the land included Dargavel House. The southern end of the site included the majority of the land used by the World War I National Filling Factory, Georgetown; the ROF was privatised in 1984, being sold to British Aerospace, which has since scaled down and shut most of the site. The factory was in use from 1915 until 2002 producting amunition and propellants. After privatisation the MOD Police moved out and the former MOD Police Social Club at HolmPark, its adjoining sports field, became part of Bishopton; the former MOD Police houses at both HolmPark and Rossland Crescent were sold off to private buyers. Bishopton's Medical Centre was built opposite the shops. In 2005, BAE Systems and Redrow submitted proposals to use a large part of the site for building new housing which would, at least, double the size of Bishopton.
Local residents indicated their concern at the proposals. In December 2008 Renfrewshire Council granted outline planning consent for the development and detailed planning consent for a related motorway junction off the A8/M8. By early 2016 a significant portion of the development had been completed, with a number of the houses inhabited. Bishopton is located around 2 miles from the southern end of the Erskine Bridge, which spans the River Clyde between Renfrewshire and West Dunbartonshire. Before the bridge was built, the Erskine Ferry transported vehicles across the Clyde; the A8 road passes through Bishopton, the M8 motorway passes to the north, running parallel to the A8, with access to Bishopton from junctions 30 and 31. Bus services are provided by McGill's, with buses operating to Clydebank and Erskine. Bishopton is served by Bishopton railway station on the Inverclyde Line; the station opened in 1841. There are five services per hour: four to/from Gourock, one to/from Wemyss Bay with four per hour in the other direction to and from Glasgow Central.
Evenings and Sundays there are two trains per hour to Glasgow Central and hourly services to both Wemyss Bay and Gourock. A short branch to the former ROF factory is now disused. Bishopton is 4 miles north-west of Glasgow Airport. Bishopton is situated in the north east of Renfrewshire, it lies to the south of the River Clyde. The village borders a number of some separated by a rural hinterland, it is about 195 feet above sea level. Bishopton has no "Streets" It has Crescents, Drives, but not any "streets". Bishopton Primary school is the only school within the village although with new houses being built another has been proposed, it is a non-denominational state school. For secondary education the village falls within the catchment area of Park Mains High School in Erskine. Blantyre Monument Bishopton railway station Formakin Estate ROF Bishopton Map sources for Bishopton, RenfrewshireBishopton's Community Web Site: InBishopton.org.uk Bishopton Broncos Basketball Club: Bishoptonbroncos.com The Gazette: The-gazette.co.uk