1998 Belizean general election
General elections were held in Belize on 27 August 1998. The result was a victory for the People's United Party, which won 26 of the 29 seats and Said Musa was elected as Prime Minister for the first time. Voter turnout was the highest since independence; the ruling United Democratic Party was perceived as incompetent, incapable of governing and riddled with corruption. Crime and unemployment rose. After winning nationwide municipal elections in 1994, they had lost two other municipal votes in 1996 and 1997; the PUP capitalized on the people's anger to present a manifesto of far-reaching proposals which they claimed would "Set Belize Free". Prime Minister Manuel Esquivel advised Governor General Sir Colville Young to dissolve the House of Representatives on 13 July 1998; the House stood dissolved with effect from 15 July 1998. Election day was set for 27 August 1998. Nomination day was 11 August 1998. One controversy as the election date drew near was Attorney General Dean Barrow's rushed appointment of Manuel Sosa to the position of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on 19 August to replace the ailing George Singh, just days before the election.
Then-opposition leader Said Musa objected to this last minute appointment, after his party took power was able to have it overturned on the grounds that he had not been properly consulted on the appointment as required by the constitution. The National Alliance for Belizean Rights, which had run in coalition with the UDP in the previous election, chose to run on its own despite its sole member in the House, Philip Goldson, standing down; the party was not a factor in the election. The PUP won 26 of the most lopsided general election win since independence. Several high-ranking UDP members went down to defeat, most notably Esquivel himself in Caribbean Shores. Only Barrow in Queen's Square and Michael Finnegan in Mesopotamia retained their seats for the UDP, while Erwin Contreras narrowly defeated the PUP's Amin Hegar in Cayo West for the UDP's third seat. Barrow became UDP leader shortly after the election
Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens and received an economics degree from the Wharton School, he was appointed president of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels and golf courses. Trump started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products, he managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal, he owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, he produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion. Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries.
His campaign received extensive free media coverage. Commentators described his political positions as populist and nationalist. Trump has made many misleading statements during his campaign and presidency; the statements have been documented by fact-checkers, the media have described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, he became the oldest and wealthiest person to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, the fifth to have won the election despite having lost the popular vote. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Many of his comments and actions have been perceived as racially charged or racist. During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns, he enacted a tax cut package for individuals and businesses, which rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge.
He repealed the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He has pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U. S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China, negotiated with North Korea seeking denuclearization, he nominated two justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. The Justice Department investigated links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government regarding its election interference; when Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, in charge of the investigation, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel to proceed with the probe. The Special Counsel investigation led to guilty pleas by five Trump associates to criminal charges including lying to investigators, campaign finance violations, tax fraud.
Trump denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt". Attorney General William Barr wrote that the special counsel's final report did not find that Trump or his campaign had "conspired or coordinated" with Russia during the 2016 election, but did not reach a conclusion regarding obstruction of justice, neither implicating him regarding obstruction of justice nor exonerating him. Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City, his parents were Frederick Christ Trump, a real estate developer, Mary Anne MacLeod. Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission. In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University.
After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. While at Wharton, he worked at Elizabeth Trump & Son, he graduated in May 1968 with a B. S. in economics. When Trump was in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student draft deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination and in July 1968, a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve. In October 1968, he was given a medical deferment that he attributed to spurs in the heels of both feet, which resulted in a 1-Y classification: "Unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency." In the December 1969 draft lottery, Trump's birthday, June 14, received a high number that would have given him a low probability to be called to military service without the 1-Y. In 1972, he was reclassified as 4-F. In 1973 and 1976, The New York Times reported that Trump had graduated first in his class at Wharton. However, a 1984 Times profile of Trump noted.
In 1988, New York magazine reported Trump conceding, "Okay, maybe not'first,' as myth has it, but he had'the highest grades possible.'" Michael Cohen, Trump's former attorney, testified to the House Oversight Committee in February 2019 that Trump "directed me to threaten his high school, his colleges and the College Board to never release his grades or SAT scores." Days after Trump stated in 2011, "I heard [Barack O
1993 Belizean general election
General elections were held in Belize on 30 June 1993. Although the People's United Party received the most votes, the United Democratic Party-National Alliance for Belizean Rights alliance won more seats. Voter turnout was 72.1%. British forces, kept in Belize by agreement of its government since independence in 1981, were scheduled to leave in 1993 or 1994. There was widespread belief that Belize would fall prey to Guatemalan incursions if the British left; the PUP won the previous election with a two-seat majority. However, by early 1993 its majority had increased to six thanks to newly elected UDP Area Rep. William Usher of Toledo West crossing the floor to the PUP days after the 1989 election, a January 1993 by-election win in Freetown after the UDP's Derek Aikman was forced to resign due to bankruptcy. Success in the subsequent March municipal elections gave the PUP added confidence. Meanwhile, the UDP had been in apparent disarray since 1991, when a group led by longtime Area Rep. Philip Goldson broke with the party to form the National Alliance for Belizean Rights over disagreements on how to handle the longstanding Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute.
This all compelled Prime Minister George Price to call elections nearly 18 months early. With Price's move the UDP and NABR promptly sought a coalition to achieve victory at the polls. However, Goldson was the NABR's only successful candidate. Although the PUP won a majority of votes nationwide, the UDP/NABR coalition won a slim majority of seats and therefore formed the next government; the election would be Price's last as PUP leader after over 35 years. He was succeeded as party leader in 1996 by Said Musa; this was an close election in several constituencies: Caribbean Shores, in the Belize City area, Stann Creek West, had margins of only 40 and 34 votes with the UDP-NABR winner less than two percent over the PUP runner-up in two-way races. Voter turnout was 67% and 77%, respectively. Belize Rural North, with a turnout of 70.6%, chose its PUP winner with 943 votes, to 939 for the UDP-NABR runner-up. There were 23 rejected ballots, more than enough to sway the result if their invalidity was challenged.
Collet, with a turnout of only 59.8%, chose its UDP-NABR winner with 951 votes, to 950 for the PUP runner-up and 10 votes for an independent candidate. There were three rejected ballots. Cayo North, with a turnout of 76.5%, chose its UDP-NABR winner with 1,890 votes, to 1,872 for the PUP runner-up. There were 35 rejected ballots, more than enough to sway the result. Corozal Southwest, with a turnout of 80.6%, chose its PUP winner with 1,464 votes, to 1,461 for the UDP-NABR runner-up. There were 13 rejected ballots, more than enough to sway the result. Orange Walk North, with a turnout of 85.0%, chose its UDP-NABR winner with 1,426 votes, to 1,421 for the PUP runner-up. There were 12 rejected ballots, more than enough to sway the result. Toledo East, with a turnout of 75.2%, chose its UDP-NABR winner with 1,552 votes, to 1,548 for the PUP runner-up. There were 11 rejected ballots, more than enough to sway the result
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Sandra Erica Jovel Polanco is a Guatemalan diplomat and government official, serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Guatemala since 27 August 2017, succeeding to Carlos Raúl Morales. In 2016, she was accused due to anomalies in adoption processes. Since 2014, Jovel has been Guatemala's Vice-Minister of international affairs in charge of trade, investments and cooperation. In May 2016, Jovel authorized the exportation from Chile to Guatemala of the Chilean mangos. On 27 August 2017, president Morales named Jovel as successor to Carlos Raúl Morales and ordered her to comply with the requirements to initiate the expulsion of the Colombian commissioner for UN's CICIG, Iván Velásquez. On 1 February 2018, she met with Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres in New York City. A leaked document revealed. List of foreign ministers in 2017
Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute
The Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute is an unresolved binational territorial dispute between the states of Belize and Guatemala, neighbours in Central America. The territory of Belize has been claimed in whole or in part by Guatemala since 1821; the present dispute originates with imperial Spain's claim to all New World territories west of the line established in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. England, like other powers of the late 15th century, did not recognize the treaty that divided the world between Spain and Portugal. After Mayan Indian tribes had massacred Spanish conquistadors and missionaries in Tipu and surrounding areas, shipwrecked English seamen English and Scottish Baymen, settled by 1638, making their presence permanent by 1779, with a short military alliance with Amerindians from the Mosquito Coast south of Belize, welcoming former British privateers. In the Godolphin Treaty of 1670, Spain confirmed England was to hold all territories in the Western Hemisphere that it had settled.
Meanwhile, by the 18th century, the Baymen and Mayans became enemies, as the Mayans reverted to their traditional hostility to foreign settlers, although they continued to sell slaves to the Baymen. Without recognition of either the British or Spanish governments, the Baymen in Belize started electing magistrates as early as 1738. After the Treaty of Paris and with the following conditions re-affirmed in the 1783 Treaty of Versailles, Britain agreed to abandon British forts in Belize that protected the Baymen and give Spain sovereignty over the soil, while Spain agreed the Baymen could continue logging wood in present-day Belize. However, the Baymen agreed to none of this, after the 1783 Treaty of Versailles, the governor of British-controlled Jamaica sent a superintendent to control the settlers, but had his authority denied by the farmers and loggers; when Spain attempted to eject them and seize their land and wealth, the Baymen revolted. Spain's last military attempt to dislodge the rebellious settlers was the 1798 Battle of St. George's Caye, which ended with Spain failing to re-take the territory.
The Baymen never asked for nor received a formal treaty with Spain after this, the UK was only able to gain partial control of the settlers by 1816. This lasted until they joined the British Empire in 1862; the territorial dispute's origins lay in the 18th-century treaties in which Great Britain acceded to Spain's assertion of sovereignty while British settlers continued to occupy the sparsely settled and ill-defined area. The 1786 Convention of London, which affirmed Spanish sovereignty was never renegotiated, but Spain never attempted to reclaim the area after 1798. Subsequent treaties between Britain and Spain failed to mention the British settlement. By the time Spain lost control of Mexico and Central America in 1821, Britain had extended its control over the area, albeit informally and unsystematically. By the 1830s, Britain regarded the entire territory between the Hondo River and Sarstoon River as British; the independent republics that emerged from the disintegrating Spanish Empire in the 1820s claimed that they had inherited Spain's sovereign rights in the area.
The UK, never accepted such a doctrine. Based on this doctrine of inheritance and Guatemala asserted claims to Belize. Mexico once claimed the portion of British Honduras north of the Sibun River but dropped the claim in a treaty with Britain in 1893. Since Mexico has stated that it would revive the claim only if Guatemala were successful in obtaining all or part of the nation. Still, Mexico was the first nation to recognise Belize as an independent country. Guatemala declared its independence from Spain in 1821, Great Britain did not accept the Baymen of what is now Belize as a crown colony until 1862, 64 years after the Baymen's last hostilities with Spain; this crown colony became known as "British Honduras". Under the terms of the Wyke–Aycinena Treaty of 1859, Guatemala agreed to recognize British Honduras, Great Britain promised to build a road from Guatemala to the nearby Baymen town of Punta Gorda; this treaty was approved by General Rafael Carrera, Queen Victoria of Great Britain without regard to the Maya peoples living there.
In 1940, Guatemala claimed that the 1859 treaty was void because the British failed to comply with economic assistance provisions found in Clause VII of the Treaty. Belize, once independent, claimed this was not a treaty they were bound by since they did not sign it. Belize further argued that International Court of Justice rulings and principles of international law, such as uti possidetis juris and the right of nations to self-determination, demand that Guatemala honour the boundaries in the 1859 treaty if Great Britain never built the road as promised. At the centre of Guatemala's oldest claim was the 1859 treaty between the United Kingdom and Guatemala. From Britain's viewpoint, this treaty settled the boundaries of an area under British dominion. Today's independent Belize government holds the viewpoint that treaties signed by the UK are not binding on them, that the International Court of Justice's precedent is that the 1859 treaty is binding on Guatemala unless Guatemala can prove the 1859 treaty was forced upon them by the UK, that international law says any breaches in the 1859 treaty by the UK would not excuse Guatemala's breaches a
Amandala is a Belizean tabloid newspaper. It was established on 13 August 1969 as the print organ of the now-defunct United Black Association for Development, but has been politically independent since the mid-1970s, its offices are located at 3304 Partridge Street in Belize City. As of 2017, it has published over 3000 issues; the name "Amandala" is adapted from the Xhosa/Zulu word "amandla", which means "power". Editors felt that Belizeans might mispronounce the word, so they added an extra "a" after the "d". Amandala editors like to say the word means "power to the people", although the correct term for, "Amandla, Ngawethu"; the phrase occurs in English throughout the newspaper, most in the Editorial and in publisher Evan X Hyde's column. Publisher: Evan X Hyde Editor in Chief: Russell Vellos Assistant Editor: Adele Ramos Lithographer: Cassian Glenn, Roy Lord Layout/Design: Victoria Tun, Deshawn Swasey Business Manager: Jacinta Hyde Compositor: Office Secretary/Receptionist: Odessa Robinson Collation Manager: Jason Barrera Midweek edition: BZ $1.00 Weekend edition: BZ $1.35 Headlines Top national news stories Editorial, letters to editor featured articles international news stories classifieds social registry sports Amandala began as a stenciled spreadsheet given out by members and supporters of UBAD in the streets of Belize City.
After the third issue was published, UBAD officials decided to begin selling the paper for five cents a copy. The newspaper was dated and sold on Fridays; the first publisher and editor of the newspaper was Ismail Shabazz, a Muslim and member of UBAD. Many of the newspaper's first issues were dedicated to promoting the affairs of its parent organization, advertising meetings and protests, containing articles on topics considered important to Belizeans as well as criticism of the ruling People's United Party and its leader, George Price; the first issue claimed of the new newspaper's intentions: "We don't know too much about this newspaper thing... We'll do the jerk, we'll do the fly... bex. Who bex fus, lose." In October 1969, UBAD merged forces with a similar movement, the People's Action Committee chaired by Assad Shoman and Said Musa. Their newspaper, FIRE, joined Amandala to create "Amandala with FIRE", this was the newspaper's masthead for the rest of 1969 and into January 1970, when RAM dissolved.
Thereafter, Amandala reverted to its original name. In the Amandala of February 20, 1970, the newspaper ran an article slandering an election petition heard and dismissed in the Supreme Court after General Elections on December 5, 1969, won by the PUP; the full text of the article follows here: "Games Old People Play" Election Petition Starring: Clifford De Lisle Innis D. B. Courtenay Edward Laing Theodore Warrior Agapito Hassock, other famous lip professors and cast of yeri-so PUP and NIP fanatics. See: The rats of Charley Cadle Price See: The bald white dome of S. Hulse Thrill to the Dramatic Ending: Dismissal of the Case. UBADRAM advice to the cast of children: After this, let's play Mommy and Daddy: Hee, Hee. A none too pleased PUP administration accused UBAD president Hyde and publisher Shabazz with sedition for the text of the article, which they claimed "meant that the administration of justice was a farce and that... who participated in it were participants in a childish game of amusements".
The case went to trial in June 1970, with former colleagues Shoman and Musa representing Hyde and Shabazz. For the next month, the fate of Amandala and UBAD hung in the balance as Attorney General V. H. Courtenay tried to prove that the Amandala had in fact committed sedition by lampooning the event and the defendants tried to exonerate themselves and improve the credibility of the fledgling newspaper. Shoman showing some partiality, calls it the "most exciting trial in Belizean history", right down to the verdict, delivered on July 7, 1970 and clearing Hyde and Shabazz. A relieved Amandala staff began making moves to develop the newspaper's technology. First, in 1971, Amandala purchased a Chandler and Price letter press to replace the Gestetner stencils used on the paper to that point; this technology lasted, with many trials and errors, to 1977, when it was shelved in favor of modern offset technology being favoured by competitors such as The Reporter and The Belize Times. Despite ravages from Hurricane Greta-Olivia, Amandala became the nation's leading newspaper by 1981 due in part to using offset printing.
Parent organization UBAD soon crumbled around Amandala as faithful members went their own way: some to the U. S. some to England, some to the newly formed UDP and some elsewhere. It remained for UBAD to be permanently dissolved, the occasion came after Evan X Hyde's loss at the polls in elections of October 30, 1974. In the Amandala of November 8, 1974, Hyde formally ended UBAD, quoting Frank Sinatra and explaining why the time had come for the Association to be shut down, but Amandala, he said, would move in the direction of being a "community newspaper" rather than a political one. For the remainder of the 1970s, Amandala tried to avoid controversy. Indeed, editor Hyde ran unsuccessfully for the PUP in City Council elections of 1977, the paper toed the line with government policy, although reser