Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. The play was first performed, by the King's Men, at either the Blackfriars Theatre or the Globe Theatre in around 1607; the plot is based on Thomas North's translation of Plutarch's Lives and follows the relationship between Cleopatra and Mark Antony from the time of the Sicilian revolt to Cleopatra's suicide during the Final War of the Roman Republic. The major antagonist is Octavius Caesar, one of Antony's fellow triumvirs of the Second Triumvirate and the first emperor of the Roman Empire; the tragedy is set in the Roman Republic and Ptolemaic Egypt and is characterized by swift shifts in geographical location and linguistic register as it alternates between sensual, imaginative Alexandria and a more pragmatic, austere Rome. Many consider Shakespeare's Cleopatra, whom Enobarbus describes as having "infinite variety", as one of the most complex and developed female characters in the playwright's body of work, she is vain and histrionic enough to provoke an audience to scorn.
These contradictory features have led to famously divided critical responses. It is difficult to classify Cleopatra as belonging to a single genre, it can be described as a history play, as a tragedy, as a comedy, as a romance, according to some critics, such as McCarter, a problem play. All that can be said with certainty is that it is a Roman play, even a sequel to another of Shakespeare's tragedies, Julius Caesar. Mark Antony – one of the triumvirs of the Roman Republic, along with Octavius and Lepidus – has neglected his soldierly duties after being beguiled by Egypt's Queen, Cleopatra, he ignores Rome's domestic problems, including the fact that his third wife Fulvia rebelled against Octavius and died. Octavius calls Antony back to Rome from Alexandria to help him fight against Sextus Pompey and Menas, three notorious pirates of the Mediterranean. At Alexandria, Cleopatra begs Antony not to go, though he affirms his deep passionate love for her, he leaves; the triumvirs meet in Rome, where Octavius put to rest, for now, their disagreements.
Octavius' general, suggests that Antony should marry Octavius's sister, Octavia, in order to cement the friendly bond between the two men. Antony accepts. Antony's lieutenant Enobarbus, knows that Octavia can never satisfy him after Cleopatra. In a famous passage, he describes Cleopatra's charms: "Age cannot wither her, nor custom stale / Her infinite variety: other women cloy / The appetites they feed, but she makes hungry / Where most she satisfies." A soothsayer warns Antony that he is sure to lose if he tries to fight Octavius. In Egypt, Cleopatra learns of Antony's marriage to Octavia and takes furious revenge upon the messenger who brings her the news, she grows content only when her courtiers assure her that Octavia is homely: short, low-browed, round-faced and with bad hair. Before battle, the triumvirs parley with Sextus Pompey, offer him a truce, he can retain Sicily and Sardinia, but he must help them "rid the sea of pirates" and send them tributes. After some hesitation Sextus agrees.
They engage in a drunken celebration on Sextus' galley, though the austere Octavius leaves early and sober from the party. Menas suggests to Sextus that he kill the three triumvirs and make himself ruler of the Roman Republic, but he refuses, finding it dishonourable. After Antony departs Rome for Athens and Lepidus break their truce with Sextus and war against him; this is unapproved by Antony, he is furious. Antony returns to Alexandria and crowns Cleopatra and himself as rulers of Egypt and the eastern third of the Roman Republic, he accuses Octavius of not giving him his fair share of Sextus' lands, is angry that Lepidus, whom Octavius has imprisoned, is out of the triumvirate. Octavius agrees to the former demand, but otherwise is displeased with what Antony has done. Antony prepares to battle Octavius. Enobarbus urges Antony to fight on land, where he has the advantage, instead of by sea, where the navy of Octavius is lighter, more mobile and better manned. Antony refuses. Cleopatra pledges her fleet to aid Antony.
However, during the Battle of Actium off the western coast of Greece, Cleopatra flees with her sixty ships, Antony follows her, leaving his forces to ruin. Ashamed of what he has done for the love of Cleopatra, Antony reproaches her for making him a coward, but sets this true and deep love above all else, saying "Give me a kiss. Octavius sends a messenger to ask Cleopatra to come over to his side, she hesitates, flirts with the messenger, when Antony walks in and angrily denounces her behavior. He sends the messenger to be whipped, he forgives Cleopatra and pledges to fight another battle for her, this time on land. On the eve of the battle, Antony's soldiers hear strange portents, which they interpret as the god Hercules abandoning his protection of Antony. Furthermore, Antony's long-serving lieutenant, deserts him and goes over to Octavius' side. Rather than confiscating Enobarbus' goods, which Enobarbus did not take with him when he fled, Antony orders them to be sent to Enobarbus. Enobarbus is so overwhelmed by Antony's generosity, so ashamed of his own disloyalty, that he dies from a broken heart.
Antony loses the battle as his troops desert en masse and he denounces Cleopatr
A character actor or character actress is a supporting actor who plays unusual, interesting, or eccentric characters. The term contrasted with that of leading actor, is somewhat abstract and open to interpretation. In a literal sense, all actors can be considered character actors since they all play "characters", but in the usual sense it is an actor who plays a distinctive and important supporting role. A character actor may play characters who are different from the actor's off-screen real-life personality, while in another sense a character actor may be one who specializes in minor roles. In either case, character actor roles are more substantial than non-speaking extras; the term is used to describe television and film actors. An early use of the term was in the 1883 edition of The Stage, which defined a character actor as "one who portrays individualities and eccentricities". Actors with a long career history of playing character roles may be difficult for audiences to recognize as being the same actor.
Unlike leading actors, they are seen as less glamorous. While a leading actor has physical beauty needed to play the love interest, a character actor may be short or tall, heavy or thin, older, or unconventional-looking and distinctive in some physical way. For example, the face of Chicago character actor William Schutz was disfigured in a car accident when he was five years old, but his appearance despite reconstructive surgery helped him to be memorable and distinctive to theater audiences; the names of character actors are not featured prominently in movie and television advertising on the marquee, since a character actor's name is not expected to attract film audiences. The roles that character actors play in film or television are identified by only one name, such as "Officer Fred", while roles of leading actors have a full name, such as "Captain Jack Sparrow"; some character actors have distinctive voices or accents. A character actor with a long career may not have a well-known name, yet may be recognizable.
During the course of an acting career, an actor can sometimes shift between leading roles and secondary roles. Some leading actors, as they get older, find that access to leading roles is limited by their increasing age. In the past, actors of color, who were barred from roles for which they were otherwise suited, found work performing ethnic stereotypes. Sometimes character actors have developed careers based on specific talents needed in genre films, such as dancing, acrobatics, swimming ability, or boxing. Many up-and-coming actors find themselves typecast in character roles due to an early success with a particular part or in a certain genre, such that the actor becomes so identified with a particular type of role that casting directors steer the actor to similar roles; some character actors play the same character over and over, as with Andy Devine's humorous but resourceful sidekick, while other actors, such as Sir Laurence Olivier, have the capacity of submerging themselves in any role they play.
That being said, some character actors can be known as "chameleons", actors who can play roles that vary wildly. One such example of this is Gary Oldman; some character actors develop a cult following with a particular audience, such as with the fans of Star Trek or The Rocky Horror Picture Show. Character actors tend to play the same type of role throughout their careers, including Harvey Keitel as a "tough and determined guy", Dame Maggie Smith as an "upstanding lady matriarch", Christopher Lloyd as an eccentric, Claude Rains as a "sophisticated, sometimes ambiguously moral man", Abe Vigoda as a "leathery, sunken-eyed" and tired hoodlum on the verge of retirement, Christopher Walken as a "speech maker", Vincent Schiavelli as "the confused guy", Fairuza Balk as a "moody goth girl", Steve Buscemi as "a quirky, smart guy with a mind just outside of reality" and Forest Whitaker as a "calm, composed character with an edge and potential to explode". Ed Lauter portrayed a menacing figure because of his "long, angular face", recognized in public, although audiences knew his name.
Character actors can play a variety of types, such as the femme fatale, sidekick, town drunk, whore with a heart of gold, many others. A character actor's roles are perceived as being different from their perceived real-life persona, meaning that they do not portray an extension of themselves, but rather a character different from their off-screen persona. Character actors subsume themselves into the characters they portray, such that their off-screen acting persona is unrecognizable. According to one view, great character actors are out of work, have long careers that span decades, they are often regarded by fellow actors. Commedia dell ` David. Quinlan's Illustrated Directory of Film Character Actors. USA: Batsford Press. ISBN 0713470402. Voisin, Scott. Character Kings: Hollywood's Familiar Faces Discuss the Art & Business of Acting. BearManor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-342-5
Honor Blackman is an English actress known for the roles of Cathy Gale in The Avengers, Bond girl Pussy Galore in Goldfinger, Julia Daggett in Shalako and Hera in Jason and the Argonauts. She is notable for her role as Laura West in the ITV sitcom The Upper Hand. Blackman was born in Plaistow, her father, Frederick Blackman, was a civil service statistician. She attended Ealing County Grammar School for Girls. For her 15th birthday, her parents gave her acting lessons and she started training at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in 1940. While attending the Guildhall School, Blackman worked as a clerical assistant for the Home Office. Blackman's film debut was a nonspeaking part in Fame Is the Spur. Other films include Quartet, based on short stories by W. Somerset Maugham, she played Hera in Jason and the Argonauts, well known for the stop-motion animation and effects of Ray Harryhausen. She had roles in the Curse of the Crown. Albert R. Broccoli said Blackman was cast opposite Sean Connery in the James Bond films based on her success in the British television series The Avengers.
He knew. Broccoli said, "The Brits would love her because they knew her as Mrs. Gale, the Yanks would like her because she was so good, it was a perfect combination". During the 1960s, Blackman practised judo at the famous Budokwai dojo; this helped. At 38, she was one of the oldest actresses to play a Bond girl, five years older than Sean Connery. In 1968 Blackman appeared opposite John Neville and Hylda Baker in the musical play Mr & Mrs, based on the plays of Noël Coward. In the late 1970s she toured Australia and New Zealand with Michael Craig and Colleen Clifford in the comedy play Move Over, Mrs Markham. In February 1979, she starred in Stephen Barry's production of Tom Stoppard's Night and Day at the Perth Playhouse, coinciding with Stoppard's presence as a participant in the Festival of Perth. In 1981, she appeared in the London revival of The Sound of Music opposite Petula Clark; the production opened to rave reviews and the largest advance sale in British theatre history to that time.
She spent most of 1987 at the Fortune Theatre starring as the Mother Superior in the West End production of Nunsense. Blackman returned to the theatre in 2005, touring through 2006 with a production of My Fair Lady, in which she played Mrs. Higgins, she developed a one-woman show, Word of Honor, which premiered in October 2006. In April 2007, Blackman took over the role of Fraulein Schneider in Cabaret at the Lyric Theatre in London's West End, she left the show at the end of September 2007. Blackman started acting on television in the recurring role of "Nicole", secretary/assistant to Dan Dailey's character of Tim Collier on the 1959 television series The Four Just Men. In a 1962 episode of The Saint titled "The Arrow of God", Blackman played an adulterous personal secretary named Pauline Stone, who became one of several suspects in the murder of a despised gossip columnist. In an episode of The Avengers, "Too Many Christmas Trees", John Steed received a Christmas card from Cathy Gale. Reading the envelope, he says in a puzzled voice, "Whatever can she be doing at Fort Knox...?"
It was an inside joke. In December 1969 and in February 1993 Blackman was taken by surprise as the subject of This Is Your Life. In 1972, Blackman and Richard Basehart played a married pair of Shakespearean actors who commit murder in the American crime mystery series Columbo. In 1983, she appeared in a film production of Agatha Christie's novel, The Secret Adversary, in the role of Rita Vandemeyer. In 1986, she had a role in "Terror of the Vervoids", a segment of the Doctor Who serial The Trial of a Time Lord. From 1990 to 1996, she appeared as Laura West on The Upper Hand. In 2003, Blackman took a guest role on Midsomer Murders, as ex-racing driver Isobel Hewitt in the episode "A Talent for Life". In September 2004, she joined the Coronation Street cast in a storyline about wife swapping. In 2007, she participated in The Verdict, she was one of 12 well-known figures. The series was designed to explore the jury system, she was sworn in as a juror as "Honor Kaufmann". In 2013, she guest-starred in the BBC medical drama Casualty and in By Any Means.
Blackman appeared in a number of episodes of "Never The Twain" with Donald Sinden and Windsor Davies as vet Veronica Barton. Blackman's recording with The Avengers co-star Patrick Macnee of "Kinky Boots", referring to the boots she wore in the show, was a surprise hit. In 1990 it resurfaced on the chart, peaking at No. 5 after being played incessantly by BBC Radio 1 breakfast show presenter Simon Mayo. After her appearance in Goldfinger, she recorded a full album of songs titled Everything. In 1968 Blackman released a 45 of "Before Today"/"I'll Always Be Loving You", which were featured in the musical play Mr & Mrs. In 1983 she sang as Juno in a special TV production of Jacques Offenbach's Orpheus in the Underworld. On 6 July 2009, Blackman released a new single, "The Star Who Fell from Grace", c
My Fair Lady (film)
My Fair Lady is a 1964 American musical drama film adapted from the Lerner and Loewe eponymous stage musical based on the 1913 stage play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw. With a screenplay by Alan Jay Lerner and directed by George Cukor, the film depicts a poor Cockney flower seller named Eliza Doolittle who overhears an arrogant phonetics professor, Henry Higgins, as he casually wagers that he could teach her to speak "proper" English, thereby making her presentable in the high society of Edwardian London; the film stars Audrey Hepburn as Eliza Doolittle and Rex Harrison as Henry Higgins, with Stanley Holloway, Gladys Cooper and Wilfrid Hyde-White in supporting roles. A critical and commercial success, it won eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Director. In 1998, the American Film Institute named it the 91st greatest American film of all time. In 2006 it was ranked eighth in the AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals list. In 2018, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant."
In London, Professor Henry Higgins, a scholar of phonetics, believes that the accent and tone of one's voice determines a person's prospects in society. At Covent Garden one evening, he meets Colonel Hugh Pickering, himself a phonetics expert who had come all the way from India to see him. Higgins boasts he could teach anyone to speak so well he could pass them off as a duke or duchess at an embassy ball the young woman with a strong Cockney accent named Eliza Doolittle who tries to sell them flowers. Eliza's ambition is to work in a flower shop; the following morning, Eliza shows up at Higgins' home. Pickering offers to cover all the attendant expenses if Higgins succeeds. Higgins agrees, describes how women ruin lives. Eliza's father, Alfred P. Doolittle, a dustman, learns of his daughter's new residence, he shows up at Higgins' house three days ostensibly to protect his daughter's virtue, but in reality to extract some money from Higgins, is bought off with £5. Higgins is impressed by the man's honesty, his natural gift for language, his brazen lack of morals.
Higgins recommends Alfred to a wealthy American, interested in morality. Eliza endures Higgins' demanding teaching methods and treatment of her personally, she makes little progress, but just as she and Pickering are about to give up, Eliza "gets it". As a trial run, Higgins takes her to Ascot Racecourse, where she makes a good impression only to shock everyone by a sudden lapse into vulgar Cockney while cheering on a horse. Higgins conceals a grin behind his hand. At Ascot, she meets a young, upper-class man who becomes infatuated with her. Higgins takes Eliza to an embassy ball for the final test, where she dances with a foreign prince. Zoltan Karpathy, a Hungarian phonetics expert trained by Higgins, who uses his skills to detect and blackmail imposters, dances with Eliza declares that she is not who she claims to be, but is Hungarian of royal blood, a princess. However, Eliza's hard work is acknowledged, with all the praise going to Higgins; this and his callous treatment towards her afterwards his indifference to her future, causes her to walk out on him, leaving him mystified by her ingratitude.
Outside, Freddy is still waiting, greets Eliza, irritated by him as all he does is talk. Eliza finds that she no longer fits in, she meets her father, left a large fortune by the wealthy American to whom Higgins had recommended him, is resigned to marrying Eliza's stepmother. Alfred feels that Higgins has ruined him, lamenting that he is now bound by "middle-class morality". Eliza ends up visiting Higgins' mother, outraged at her son's callous behaviour; the next day, Higgins finds Eliza gone and searches for her finding her at his mother's house. Higgins attempts to talk Eliza into coming back to him, he becomes angered when she announces that she is going to marry Freddy and become Karpathy's assistant. He makes his way home. However, he comes to the unsettling realization; as he listens to a recording of Eliza's voice, she reappears in the doorway behind him, turning off the recording and saying in her old Cockney accent, "I washed my hands and face before I come, I did." Higgins looks surprised pleased, before asking where his slippers are.
Audrey Hepburn as Eliza Doolittle Rex Harrison as Professor Henry Higgins Stanley Holloway as Alfred P. Doolittle Wilfrid Hyde-White as Colonel Hugh Pickering Gladys Cooper as Mrs. Higgins Jeremy Brett as Freddy Eynsford-Hill Theodore Bikel as Zoltan Karpathy Mona Washbourne as Mrs. Pearce, Higgins' housekeeper Isobel Elsom as Mrs. Eynsford-Hill John Holland as the ButlerUncredited: Henry Daniell as the British Ambassador Charles Fredericks as the King in Eliza's fantasy Lillian Kemble-Cooper as Female Ambassador at the ball Queenie Leonard as Cockney bystander Moyna Macgill as Lady Boxington Alan Napier as Gentleman es
Danny Kaye was an American actor, dancer, comedian and philanthropist. His performances featured physical comedy, idiosyncratic pantomimes, rapid-fire novelty songs. Kaye starred in 17 movies, notably Wonder Man, The Kid from Brooklyn, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, The Inspector General, Hans Christian Andersen, White Christmas, The Court Jester, his films were popular his performances of patter songs and favorites such as "Inchworm" and "The Ugly Duckling." He was the first ambassador-at-large of UNICEF in 1954 and received the French Legion of Honour in 1986 for his years of work with the organization. David Daniel Kaminsky was born in Brooklyn, New York, on January 18, 1911, to Ukrainian Jewish immigrants Jacob and Clara Kaminsky, he was the youngest of three sons. Jacob and Clara and their older sons Larry and Mac left Dnipropetrovsk two years before Danny's birth, he attended Public School 149 in Brooklyn. He attended Thomas Jefferson High School in Brooklyn but he did not graduate, his mother died.
Not long after his mother's death and his friend Louis ran away to Florida. Kaye sang while Louis played the pair eked out a living for a while; when Kaye returned to New York, his father did not pressure him to return to school or work, giving his son the chance to mature and discover his own abilities. Kaye said that as a young boy he had wanted to be a surgeon, but the family could not afford a medical school education, he held a succession of jobs after leaving school: as a soda jerk, insurance investigator, office clerk. Most ended with his being fired, he lost the insurance job when he made an error that cost the insurance company $40,000. The dentist who hired him to look after his office at lunch hour did the same when he found Kaye using his drill on the office woodwork. Years Kaye married the dentist's daughter, Sylvia, he learned his trade in his teenage years in the Catskills as a tummler in the Borscht Belt. Kaye's first break came in 1933 when he joined the "Three Terpsichoreans," a vaudeville dance act.
They opened in New York, where he used the name Danny Kaye for the first time. The act toured the United States performed in Asia with the show La Vie Paree; the troupe left for a six-month tour of the Far East on February 8, 1934. While they were in Osaka, Japan, a typhoon hit the city; the hotel where Kaye and his colleagues stayed suffered heavy damage. The strong wind hurled a piece of the hotel's cornice into Kaye's room. By performance time that evening the city was in the grip of the storm. There was no power and the audience was restless and nervous. To calm them Kaye went on stage holding a flashlight to illuminate his face and sang every song he could recall as loudly as he was able; the experience of trying to entertain audiences who did not speak English inspired him to the pantomime, gestures and facial expressions that made his reputation. Sometimes he found pantomime necessary. Kaye's daughter, tells a story her father related about being in a restaurant in China and trying to order chicken.
Kaye clucked, giving the waiter an imitation of a chicken. The waiter nodded in understanding, his interest in cooking began on the tour. Jobs were in short supply when Kaye returned to the United States, he struggled for bookings. One job was working in a burlesque revue with fan dancer Sally Rand. After the dancer dropped a fan while trying to chase away a fly, Kaye was hired to watch the fans so they were always held in front of her. Danny Kaye made his film debut in a 1935 comedy short Moon Over Manhattan. In 1937 he signed with New York–based Educational Pictures for a series of two-reel comedies, he played a manic, dark-haired, fast-talking Russian in these low-budget shorts, opposite young hopefuls June Allyson and Imogene Coca. The Kaye series ended abruptly when the studio shut down in 1938, he was working in the Catskills in 1937 under the name Danny Kolbin. His next venture was a short-lived Broadway show with Sylvia Fine as the pianist and composer; the Straw Hat Revue opened on September 29, 1939, closed after 10 weeks, but critics took notice of Kaye's work.
The reviews brought an offer for both Kaye and his bride Sylvia to work at La Martinique, a New York City nightclub. Kaye performed with Sylvia as his accompanist. At La Martinique playwright Moss Hart saw Danny perform, that led to Hart's casting him in his hit Broadway comedy Lady in the Dark. Kaye scored a triumph at age 30 in 1941 playing Russell Paxton in Lady in the Dark, starring Gertrude Lawrence, his show-stopping number was "Tchaikovsky" by Kurt Weill and Ira Gershwin in which he sang the names of a string of Russian composers at breakneck speed without taking a breath. In the next Broadway season he was the star of a show about a young man, drafted called Let's Face It!. His feature-film debut was in producer Samuel Goldwyn's Technicolor 1944 comedy Up in Arms, a remake of Goldwyn's Eddie Cantor comedy Whoopee!. Rival producer Robert M. Savini cashed in by compiling three of Kaye's Educational Pictures shorts into a patchwork feature entitled The Birth of a Star. Studio mogul Goldwyn wanted Kaye's prominent nose fixed to look less Jewish, Kaye refused, but he did allow his red hair to be dyed blond because it loo
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
A canon is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule. A canon was a cleric living with others in a clergy house or in one of the houses within the precinct of or close to a cathedral and conducting his life according to the orders or rules of the church; this way of life grew common in the eighth century. In the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth; those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, whilst those who did not were known as secular canons. In the Roman Catholic Church, the members of the chapter of a cathedral or of a collegiate church are canons. Depending on the title of the church, several languages use specific titles, e.g. in German Domherr or Domkapitular in a Dom, Stiftsherr in a prelature that has the status of a Stift. One of the functions of the cathedral chapter in the Roman Catholic Church was to elect a vicar capitular to serve during a sede vacante period of the diocese.
Since the 1983 revision of the Code of Canon Law, this responsibility belongs to the college of consultors, unless the national bishops conference decides that the functions that canon law ascribes to the college of consultors, including this one, are to be entrusted to the cathedral chapter. All canons of the Church of England have been secular since the Reformation, although an individual canon may be a member of a religious order. However, they are ordained, that is, priests or other clergy. Today, the system of canons is retained exclusively in connection with cathedral churches. A canon is a member of the chapter of priests, headed by a dean, responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other churches that are styled collegiate churches; the dean and chapter are the formal body which has legal responsibility for the cathedral and for electing the bishop. The title of Canon is not a permanent title and when no longer in a position entitling preferment, it is dropped from a cleric's title nomenclature.
However, it is still given in many dioceses to senior parish priests as a honorary title. It is awarded in recognition of long and dedicated service to the diocese. Honorary canons are members of the chapter in name but are non-residential and receive no emoluments, they are entitled to call themselves canon and may have a role in the administration of the cathedral. Speaking, canons in the Anglican Communion are of this sort, thus are equivalent to a monsignor in the Roman Catholic Church wearing the violet or violet-trimmed cassock, associated with that rank. In some Church of England dioceses, the title Prebendary is used instead of canon when the cleric is involved administratively with a cathedral. Honorary canons within the Roman Catholic Church may still be nominated after the Second Vatican Council. Priests of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre are, in fact, titular or honorary canons of these respective Orders and have the right to the honorific title of "Canon" and "Monsignor" in addition to the choir dress of a canon, which includes the mozetta (black with purple piping for Malta and white with a red Jerusalem cross for Holy Sepulchre.
Since the reign of King Henry IV, the heads of state of France have been granted by the pope the title of sole honorary canon of Saint John Lateran and Saint Peter's. On the demise of the Kingdom of France this honour became transferred to the Presidents of the Republic, hence is held by Emmanuel Macron; this applies when the French President is not a Catholic or is an atheist. The proto-canon of the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major is the King of Spain Felipe VI. Before the Reformation, the King of England was a canon of the basilica of Saint Paul outside the Walls. In addition to canons who are clerics in holy orders, cathedrals in the Anglican Communion may appoint lay persons as canons; the rank of "lay canon" is conferred upon diocesan chancellors. It has traditionally been said that the King of England is a canon or prebendary of St David's Cathedral, Wales. However, this is based on a misconception; the canonry of St Mary’s College, St David's became the property of the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries.
The Sovereign was never a canon of St David’s as a layman, though he or she may occupy the first prebendal stall, assigned for the monarch's use. A canon professor is a canon at an Anglican cathedral who holds a university professorship. There are four canon professorships in the University of Oxford in conjunction with Christ Church Cathedral and two in Durham University in conjunction with Durham Cathedral, although academics titled "canon professor" may be found at other universities where the appointments as canon and professor have been made independently. Section 2 of the Church of England Measure 1995 was passed for the express purpose of enabling Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, to appoint not more than two