A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes and variation of organisms. A geneticist can be employed as a lecturer. Geneticists perform general research on genetic processes as well as development of genetic technologies to aid in the medicine and agriculture industries; some geneticists perform experiments in model organisms such as Drosophila, C. elegans, rodents or Humans and analyze data to interpret the inheritance of biological traits. A geneticist can be a scientist who has earned a Ph. D in Genetics or a physician, trained in genetics as a specialization, they evaluate and manage patients with hereditary conditions or congenital malformations, genetic risk calculations, mutation analysis as well as refer patients to other medical specialties. The geneticist carries out studies and counsels patients with genetic disorders. Geneticists participate in courses from many areas, such as biology, physics, cell biology and mathematics, they participate in more specific genetics courses such as molecular genetics, transmission genetics, population genetics, quantitative genetics, ecological genetics, genomics.
Geneticists can work in many different fields, doing a variety of jobs. There are many careers for geneticists in medicine, wildlife, general sciences, or many other fields. Listed below are a few examples of careers a geneticist may pursue
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem. Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short shoots, or may have the potential for general shoot development; the term bud is used in zoology, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual. The buds of many woody plants in temperate or cold climates, are protected by a covering of modified leaves called scales which enclose the more delicate parts of the bud. Many bud scales are covered by a gummy substance; when the bud develops, the scales may enlarge somewhat but just drop off, leaving a series of horizontally-elongated scars on the surface of the growing stem. By means of these scars one can determine the age of any young branch, since each year's growth ends in the formation of a bud, the formation of which produces an additional group of bud scale scars.
Continued growth of the branch causes these scars to be obliterated after a few years so that the total age of older branches cannot be determined by this means. In many plants scales do not form over the bud, the bud is called a naked bud; the minute underdeveloped leaves in such buds are excessively hairy. Naked buds are found in some shrubs, like some species of the Sumac and Viburnums and in herbaceous plants. In many of the latter, buds are more reduced consisting of undifferentiated masses of cells in the axils of leaves. A terminal bud occurs on the end of a stem and lateral buds are found on the side. A head of cabbage is an exceptionally large terminal bud, while Brussels sprouts are large lateral buds. Since buds are formed in the axils of leaves, their distribution on the stem is the same as that of leaves. There are alternate and whorled buds, as well as the terminal bud at the tip of the stem. In many plants buds appear in unexpected places: these are known as adventitious buds, it is possible to find a bud in a remarkable series of gradations of bud scales.
In the buckeye, for example, one may see a complete gradation from the small brown outer scale through larger scales which on unfolding become somewhat green to the inner scales of the bud, which are remarkably leaf-like. Such a series suggests that the scales of the bud are in truth leaves, modified to protect the more delicate parts of the plant during unfavorable periods. Buds are useful in the identification of plants for woody plants in winter when leaves have fallen. Buds may be classified and described according to different criteria: location, status and function. Botanists use the following terms: for location: terminal, when located at the tip of a stem; the term is usable as a synonym of resting, but is better employed for buds waiting undeveloped for years, for example epicormic buds. Buds The term bud is used by analogy within zoology as well, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which develops into a new individual, it is a form of asexual reproduction limited to animals or plants of simple structure.
In this process a portion of the wall of the parent cell pushes out. The protuberance thus formed enlarges while at this time the nucleus of the parent cell divides. One of the resulting nuclei passes into the bud, the bud is cut off from its parent cell and the process is repeated; the daughter cell will begin to bud before it becomes separated from the parent, so that whole colonies of adhering cells may be formed. Cross walls cut off the bud from the original cell
An anesthetic or anaesthetic is a drug used to induce anesthesia - in other words, to result in a temporary loss of sensation or awareness. They may be divided into two broad classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body without affecting consciousness. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. Many are used outside anesthesiology, but others are used in various fields of healthcare. Combinations of anesthetics are sometimes used for their synergistic and additive therapeutic effects. Adverse effects, may be increased. Anesthetics are distinct from analgesics. Local anesthetic agents prevent transmission of nerve impulses without causing unconsciousness, they act by reversibly binding to fast sodium channels from within nerve fibers, thereby preventing sodium from entering the fibres, stabilising the cell membrane and preventing action potential propagation.
Each of the local anesthetics have the suffix "-caine" in their names. Local anesthetics can be either ester- or amide-based. Ester local anesthetics are unstable in solution and fast-acting, are metabolised by cholinesterases in the blood plasma and liver, more induce allergic reactions. Amide local anesthetics are heat-stable, with a long shelf life. Amides have a slower onset and longer half-life than ester anesthetics, are racemic mixtures, with the exception of levobupivacaine and ropivacaine. Amides are used within regional and epidural or spinal techniques, due to their longer duration of action, which provides adequate analgesia for surgery and symptomatic relief. Only preservative-free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally. Pethidine has local anesthetic properties, in addition to its opioid effects. Desflurane Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Sevoflurane Xenon Volatile agents are specially formulated organic liquids that evaporate into vapors, are given by inhalation for induction or maintenance of general anesthesia.
Nitrous oxide and xenon are gases at room temperature rather than liquids, so they are not considered volatile agents. The ideal anesthetic vapor or gas should be non-flammable, non-explosive, lipid-soluble, it should possess low blood gas solubility, have no end-organ toxicity or side-effects, should not be metabolized, should not be an irritant to the respiratory pathways of the patient. No anaesthetic agent in use meets all these requirements, nor can any anaesthetic agent be considered safe. There are inherent risks and drug interactions that are specific to every patient; the agents in widespread current use are isoflurane, desflurane and nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is a common adjuvant gas, making it one of the most long-lived drugs still in current use; because of its low potency, it cannot produce anesthesia on its own but is combined with other agents. Halothane, an agent introduced in the 1950s, has been completely replaced in modern anesthesia practice by newer agents because of its shortcomings.
Because of its side effects, enflurane never gained widespread popularity. In theory, any inhaled anesthetic agent can be used for induction of general anesthesia. However, most of the halogenated anesthetics are irritating to the airway leading to coughing and overall difficult inductions. For this reason, the most used agent for inhalational induction is sevoflurane. All of the volatile agents can be used alone or in combination with other medications to maintain anesthesia. Volatile agents are compared in terms of potency, inversely proportional to the minimum alveolar concentration. Potency is directly related to lipid solubility; this is known as the Meyer-Overton hypothesis. However, certain pharmacokinetic properties of volatile agents have become another point of comparison. Most important of those properties is known as the blood/gas partition coefficient; this concept refers to the relative solubility of a given agent in blood. Those agents with a lower blood solubility give the anesthesia provider greater rapidity in titrating the depth of anesthesia, permit a more rapid emergence from the anesthetic state upon discontinuing their administration.
In fact, newer volatile agents have been popular not due to their potency, but due to their versatility for a faster emergence from anesthesia, thanks to their lower blood–gas partition coefficient. While there are many drugs that can be used intravenously to produce anesthesia or sedation, the most common are: Barbiturates Amobarbital Methohexital Thiamylal Thiopental Benzodiazepines Diazepam Lorazepam Midazolam Etomidate Ketamine PropofolThe two barbiturates mentioned above and methohexital, are ultra-short-acting, are used to induce and maintain anesthesia. However, though they produce unconsciousness, they provide no analgesia and must be used with other agents. Benzodiazepines
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth and physical activity are temporarily stopped. This therefore helps an organism to conserve energy. Dormancy tends to be associated with environmental conditions. Organisms can synchronize entry to a dormant phase with their environment through predictive or consequential means. Predictive dormancy occurs when an organism enters a dormant phase before the onset of adverse conditions. For example and decreasing temperature are used by many plants to predict the onset of winter. Consequential dormancy occurs when organisms enter a dormant phase after adverse conditions have arisen; this is found in areas with an unpredictable climate. While sudden changes in conditions may lead to a high mortality rate among animals relying on consequential dormancy, its use can be advantageous, as organisms remain active longer and are therefore able to make greater use of available resources. Hibernation is a mechanism used by many mammals to reduce energy expenditure and survive food shortage over the winter.
Hibernation may be consequential. An animal prepares for hibernation by building up a thick layer of body fat during late summer and autumn that will provide it with energy during the dormant period. During hibernation, the animal undergoes many physiological changes, including decreased heart rate and decreased body temperature. In addition to shivering, some hibernating animals produce body heat by non-shivering thermogenesis to avoid freezing. Non-shivering thermogenesis is a regulated process in which the proton gradient generated by electron transport in mitochondria is used to produce heat instead of ATP in brown adipose tissue. Animals that hibernate include bats, ground squirrels and other rodents, mouse lemurs, the European hedgehog and other insectivores and marsupials. Although hibernation is exclusively seen in mammals, some birds, such as the common poorwill, may hibernate. Diapause is a predictive strategy, predetermined by an animal's genotype. Diapause is common in insects, allowing them to suspend development between autumn and spring, in mammals such as the roe deer, in which a delay in attachment of the embryo to the uterine lining ensures that offspring are born in spring, when conditions are most favorable.
Aestivation spelled estivation, is an example of consequential dormancy in response to hot or dry conditions. It is common in invertebrates such as the garden snail and worm but occurs in other animals such as lungfish, desert tortoises, crocodiles. Brumation is an example of dormancy in reptiles, similar to hibernation, it differs from hibernation in the metabolic processes involved. Reptiles begin brumation in late autumn, they wake up to drink water and return to "sleep". They can go for months without food. Reptiles may eat more than usual before the brumation time but eat less or refuse food as the temperature drops. However, they do; the brumation period is anywhere from one to eight months depending on the air temperature and the size and health of the reptile. During the first year of life, many small reptiles do not brumate, but rather slow down and eat less often. Brumation is triggered by lack of heat and the decrease in the hours of daylight in winter, similar to hibernation. In plant physiology, dormancy is a period of arrested plant growth.
It is a survival strategy exhibited by many plant species, which enables them to survive in climates where part of the year is unsuitable for growth, such as winter or dry seasons. Many plant species that exhibit dormancy have a biological clock that tells them when to slow activity and to prepare soft tissues for a period of freezing temperatures or water shortage. On the other hand, dormancy can be triggered after a normal growing season by decreasing temperatures, shortened day length, and/or a reduction in rainfall. Chemical treatment on dormant plants has been proven to be an effective method to break dormancy in woody plants such as grapes, apples and kiwis. Hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. Slight injury of cells may play a role in the mechanism of action; the injury is thought to result in increased permeability of cellular membranes. The injury is associated with the inhibition of catalase, which in turn stimulates the pentose phosphate cycle.
Hydrogen cyanamide interacts with the cytokinin metabolic cycle, which results in triggering a new growth cycle. The images below show two widespread dormancy patterns amongst sympodially growing orchids: When a mature and viable seed under a favorable condition fails to germinate, it is said to be dormant. Seed dormancy is referred to as embryo dormancy or internal dormancy and is caused by endogenous characteristics of the embryo that prevent germination. Dormancy should not be confused with seed coat dormancy, external dormancy, or hardseededness, caused by the presence of a hard seed covering or seed coat that prevents water and oxygen from reaching and activating the embryo, it is a physical barrier to germination, not a true form of dormancy. Temperate woody perennial plants require chilling temperatures to overcome winter dormancy; the effect of chilling temperatures depends on species and growth stage. In some species, rest can be broken within hours at
Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University
The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University was a veterinary and agricultural science university in Denmark. It was operated until 2007, when it became a part of Copenhagen University, it had its headquarters in Copenhagen. The university was founded in 1856, its main building was inaugurated in 1858. The Royal Veterinarian School moved from Sankt Annæ Gade into the main building after its inauguration. On January 1st, 2007, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University was merged into the University of Copenhagen and was renamed as the Faculty of Life Sciences; this was split up, with the veterinary part merging into the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences and the rest merging into the Faculty of Science. The original three-winged main building on Bülowsvej 17 was built between 1856 and 1858 and was designed by Gottlieb Bindesbøll, he designed two detached wings that were built on Grønnegårdsvej. In 1895, the main building was expanded with a central courtyard; as of January 2007, the area is part of the University of Copenhagen's Frederiksberg Campus.
The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University established the Hørsholm Arboretum in 1936 as an off-site expansion of the Forestry Botanical Garden in Charlottenlund. Werner Hosewinckel Christie Svend O. Heiberg Johannes Larsen Flatla Steen Willadsen Gábor Vajta Mette Gjerskov Johan Lange Niels Fjord Emil Rostrup Bernhard Bang Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint Wilhelm Johannsen August Mentz Carl Hansen Ostenfeld Niels Bjerrum Øjvind Winge Jakob Nielsen Jens Clausen Thorvald Sørensen Buildings
A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae, or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally for human consumption, for livestock forage and silage, as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, peas, lentils, lupin bean, carob, soybeans and tamarind. Legumes produce a botanically unique type of fruit – a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and dehisces on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is applied to a number of other fruit types, such as that of vanilla and of the radish. Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that reason, they play a key role in crop rotation; the term pulse, as used by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, is reserved for crops harvested for the dry seed. This excludes green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Excluded are seeds that are grown for oil extraction, seeds which are used for sowing forage.
However, in common usage, these distinctions are not always made, many of the varieties used for dried pulses are used for green vegetables, with their beans in pods while young. Some Fabaceae, such as Scotch broom and other Genisteae, are leguminous but are not called legumes by farmers, who tend to restrict that term to food crops. Farmed legumes can belong to many agricultural classes, including forage, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure, timber species. Most commercially farmed species fill two or more roles depending upon their degree of maturity when harvested. Grain legumes known as pulses, are cultivated for their seeds; the seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include beans, lupins and peanuts. Legumes are a significant source of protein, dietary fiber and dietary minerals. Like other plant-based foods, pulses contain little fat or sodium. Legumes are an excellent source of resistant starch, broken down by bacteria in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids used by intestinal cells for food energy.
Preliminary studies in humans include the potential for regular consumption of legumes in a plant-based diet to reduce the prevalence or risk of developing metabolic syndrome. There is evidence that a portion of pulses in a diet may help lower blood pressure and reduce LDL cholesterol levels, though there is a concern about the quality of the supporting data. FAO recognizes 11 primary pulses. Dry beans Kidney bean, navy bean, pinto bean, haricot bean Lima bean, butter bean Adzuki bean, azuki bean Mung bean, golden gram, green gram Black gram, urad Scarlet runner bean Ricebean Moth bean Tepary bean Dry broad beans Horse bean Broad bean Field bean Dry peas Garden pea Protein pea Chickpea, Bengal gram Dry cowpea, black-eyed pea, blackeye bean Pigeon pea, Arhar/Toor, cajan pea, Congo bean, gandules Lentil Bambara groundnut, earth pea Vetch, common vetch Lupins Pulses NES, Minor pulses, including: Lablab, hyacinth bean Jack bean, sword bean Winged bean Velvet bean, cowitch Yam bean Forage legumes are of two broad types.
Some, like alfalfa, vetch, stylo, or Arachis, are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as Leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or cut by humans to provide livestock feed. Legumes base feed fed to animals improves animal performance compared to diets of perennial grass diet. Factors that attribute towards such result: larger consumption, quicker rate of digestion and feed conversion rate efficiency. Legume species grown for their flowers include lupins, which are farmed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens worldwide. Industrially farmed legumes include Indigofera and Acacia species, which are cultivated for dye and natural gum production, respectively. Fallow/green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil in order to exploit the high levels of captured atmospheric nitrogen found in the roots of most legumes. Numerous legumes farmed for this purpose include Leucaena and Sesbania species.
Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide, including numerous Acacia species and Castanospermum australe. Legume trees like the locust trees or the Kentucky coffeetree can be used in permaculture food forests. Other legume tre