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Wilhelm Ostwald

Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald was a Baltic German chemist and philosopher. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction velocities. Ostwald, Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Walther Nernst, Svante Arrhenius are credited with being the modern founders of the field of physical chemistry. Ostwald was born ethnically Baltic German in Riga, to master-cooper Gottfried Wilhelm Ostwald and Elisabeth Leuckel, he was the middle child of three, born before Gottfried. Ostwald graduated from the University of Dorpat, Estonia, in 1875, received his Ph. D. there in 1878 under the guidance of Carl Schmidt, taught at Co-Arc from 1875 to 1881 and at Riga Polytechnicum from 1881 to 1887. Ostwald is credited with inventing the Ostwald process, used in the manufacture of nitric acid, although the basic chemistry had been patented some 64 years earlier by Kuhlmann, when it was of only academic interest due to the lack of a significant source of ammonia; that may have still been the state of affairs in 1902, although things were due to change in the second half of the decade as a result of Haber and Bosch's work on their nitrogen fixing process.

The date 1908 is given for the invention of the Ostwald process, it may be that these developments motivated him to do additional work to commercialize the process in that time-frame. Alternatively, six years might have been the bureaucratic interval between filing the patent and the time it was granted; the combination of these two breakthroughs soon led to more economical and larger-scale production of fertilizers and explosives, of which Germany was to find itself in desperate need during World War I. Ostwald did significant work on dilution theory leading to his discovery of the law of dilution, named after him. Ostwald's rule concerns the behaviour of polymorphs; the word mole, according to Gorin, was introduced into chemistry around 1900 by Ostwald. Ostwald defined one mole as the molecular weight of a substance in mass grams; the concept was linked according to Ostwald. Ostwald's development of the mole concept was directly related to his philosophical opposition to the atomic theory, against which he was one of the last holdouts.

He explained in a conversation with Arnold Sommerfeld that he was converted by Jean Perrin's experiments on Brownian Motion. In 1906 Ostwald was elected a member of the International Committee on Atomic Weights; as a consequence of World War I this membership was not resumed after the war. The 1917 Annual report of the committee ended with the unusual note: "Because of the European war the Committee has had much difficulty in the way of correspondence; the German member, Professor Ostwald, has not been heard from in connection with this report. The censorship of letters, either in Germany or en route, has led to a miscarriage". In addition to his work in chemistry, Wilhelm Ostwald was productive in an broad range of fields, his published work, which includes numerous philosophical writings, contains about forty thousand pages. Ostwald was engaged in the peace movement of Berta von Suttner. Among his other interests, Ostwald was a passionate amateur painter who made his own pigments, who developed a strong interest in color theory in the decades of his life.

He wrote several publications in the field, such as Die Farbenfibel. His work in color theory was influenced by that of Albert Henry Munsell, in turn influenced Paul Klee and members of De Stijl, including Piet Mondrian, he was interested in the international language movement, first learning Esperanto later supporting Ido and had become member of Committee of the Delegation for the Adoption of an International Auxiliary Language. Ostwald donated half the proceedings of his 1909 Nobel prize to the Ido movement, funding the Ido magazine Progreso which he had proposed in 1908. Ostwald adopted the philosophy of Monism as advanced by Ernst Haeckel and became President of the Monistic Alliance in 1911, he used the Alliance's forum to promote Social Darwinism and euthanasia. Ostwald's Monism influenced Carl G. Jung's identification of psychological types, he was one of the directors of the Die Brücke institute in Munich. The institute was sponsored from Ostwald's Nobel Prize money. Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1909 Wilhelm Exner Medal, 1923 On 24 April 1880 Ostwald married Helene von Reyher, with whom he had five children: Grete Wolfgang Elisabeth Walter Carl Otto Ostwald was initiated to the Scottish Rite Masonry and became Grand Master of the Grand Lodge "Zur Aufgehenden Sonne" in Bayreuth.

In 1887, he moved to Leipzig. Arthur Noyes was one of his students. On his religious views, Ostwald was an atheist. Ostwald died in a hospital in Leipzig on 4 April 1932, was buried at his house in Großbothen, near Leipzig and in the Great Cemetery of Riga, he appears as a character in A Curable Romantic. Ostwald is mentioned in Italo Svevo's 1923 novel, Zeno's Conscience. Ostwald, W.. Grundriss der allgemeinen Chemie. Leipzig: Engelmann. Ostwald, W.. Process of manufacturing nitric acid. P

2016 WKU Hilltoppers football team

The 2016 WKU Hilltoppers football team represented Western Kentucky University in the 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Hilltoppers played their home games at the Houchens Industries–L. T. Smith Stadium in Bowling Green and competed in the East Division of Conference USA, they were led by third year head coach Jeff Brohm. They finished the season 11–3, 7–1 in C-USA play to win a share of the East Division title with Old Dominion. Due to their head-to-head victory over Old Dominion, WKU represented the East Division in the Conference USA Championship Game where they defeated Louisiana Tech to be crowned C-USA champions, they were invited to the Boca Raton Bowl. On December 5, head coach Jeff Brohm resigned to become the head coach at Purdue, he finished at WKU with a record of 30–10, two bowl wins, two C-USA titles. Defensive coordinator Nick Holt lead WKU in the Boca Raton Bowl. Western Kentucky announced its 2016 football schedule on February 4, 2016; the 2016 schedule consists of 6 home and away games in the regular season.

The Hilltoppers will host C–USA foes Florida International, North Texas, Old Dominion, Rice, will travel to Florida Atlantic, Louisiana Tech and Middle Tennessee. The team will play four non–conference games, two home games against Houston Baptist from the Southland Conference and Vanderbilt from the Southeastern Conference, two road games against Alabama from the SEC as well and Miami from the Mid-American Conference. Schedule Source

Charles Parnther

Charles Henry Parnther was an English civil servant and cricketer who played first-class cricket for Cambridge University, Marylebone Cricket Club, the Gentlemen and All-England teams between 1832 and 1836. He was born at Westminster and died at Walham Green in London. Parnther was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge; as a cricketer, he was an all-rounder: a middle-order batsman and a bowler, though it is not known what his batting or bowling styles were. His best bowling match was for Cambridge University against the Cambridge Town Club in 1834 when he opened the batting and top-scored for the university with 31 in the second innings, took at least seven of the 10 Town wickets, caught one of the others: the full figures for the game are not available, his best batting came in another good all-round game for him: playing for MCC against Cambridge University in 1835, he scored 17 and an unbeaten 43, took seven university wickets, with five in the second innings. He played in the Gentlemen v Players matches of 1834, 1835 and 1836 without much success, in three games for the All-England team he made only one run and took no wickets at all.

Parnther graduated from Cambridge University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1836.