X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects. X-radiation is absorbed by the Earths atmosphere, so instruments to detect X-rays must be taken to high altitude by balloons, sounding rockets, and satellites. X-ray astronomy is the science related to a type of space telescope that can see farther than standard light-absorption telescopes, such as the Mauna Kea Observatories. X-ray emission is expected from astronomical objects that contain extremely hot gasses at temperatures from about a million kelvin to hundreds of millions of kelvin. Although X-rays have been observed emanating from the Sun since the 1940s and this source is called Scorpius X-1, the first X-ray source found in the constellation Scorpius. The X-ray emission of Scorpius X-1 is 10,000 times greater than its visual emission, in addition, the energy output in X-rays is 100,000 times greater than the total emission of the Sun in all wavelengths.
Based on discoveries in this new field of X-ray astronomy, starting with Scorpius X-1 and it is now known that such X-ray sources as Sco X-1 are compact stars, such as neutron stars or black holes. Material falling into a hole may emit X-rays, but the black hole itself does not. The energy source for the X-ray emission is gravity, infalling gas and dust is heated by the strong gravitational fields of these and other celestial objects. Many thousands of X-ray sources are known, in addition, the space between galaxies in galaxy clusters is filled with a very hot, but very dilute gas at a temperature between 10 and 100 megakelvins. The total amount of hot gas is five to ten times the mass in the visible galaxies. The first sounding rocket flights for X-ray research were accomplished at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico with a V-2 rocket on January 28,1949. A detector was placed in the nose section and the rocket was launched in a suborbital flight to an altitude just above the atmosphere.
X-rays from the Sun were detected by the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Blossom experiment on board, an Aerobee 150 rocket was launched on June 12,1962 and it detected the first X-rays from other celestial sources. The largest drawback to rocket flights is their short duration. A rocket launched from the United States will not be able to see sources in the southern sky, in astronomy, the interstellar medium is the gas and cosmic dust that pervade interstellar space, the matter that exists between the star systems within a galaxy. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the intergalactic medium. The interstellar medium consists of an extremely dilute mixture of ions, molecules, larger dust grains, cosmic rays, the energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is the interstellar radiation field
A chemical element or element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei. There are 118 elements that have identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radioactive isotopes, iron is the most abundant element making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earths crust. Chemical elements constitute all of the matter of the universe. The two lightest elements and helium, were formed in the Big Bang and are the most common elements in the universe. The next three elements were formed mostly by cosmic ray spallation, and are rarer than those that follow. Formation of elements with from 6 to 26 protons occurred and continues to occur in main sequence stars via stellar nucleosynthesis, the high abundance of oxygen and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars. The term element is used for atoms with a number of protons as well as for a pure chemical substance consisting of a single element. A single element can form multiple substances differing in their structure, when different elements are chemically combined, with the atoms held together by chemical bonds, they form chemical compounds.
Only a minority of elements are found uncombined as relatively pure minerals, among the more common of such native elements are copper, gold and sulfur. All but a few of the most inert elements, such as gases and noble metals, are usually found on Earth in chemically combined form. While about 32 of the elements occur on Earth in native uncombined forms. For example, atmospheric air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen and argon, the history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that found native elements like carbon, sulfur and gold. Later civilizations extracted elemental copper, tin and iron from their ores by smelting, using charcoal and chemists subsequently identified many more, almost all of the naturally occurring elements were known by 1900. Save for unstable radioactive elements with short half-lives, all of the elements are available industrially, almost all other elements found in nature were made by various natural methods of nucleosynthesis.
On Earth, small amounts of new atoms are produced in nucleogenic reactions, or in cosmogenic processes. Of the 94 naturally occurring elements, those with atomic numbers 1 through 82 each have at least one stable isotope, Isotopes considered stable are those for which no radioactive decay has yet been observed. Elements with atomic numbers 83 through 94 are unstable to the point that radioactive decay of all isotopes can be detected, the very heaviest elements undergo radioactive decay with half-lives so short that they are not found in nature and must be synthesized
Abram Fedorovich Ioffe was a prominent Russian/Soviet physicist. He received the Stalin Prize, the Lenin Prize, and the Hero of Socialist Labor, Ioffe was an expert in electromagnetism, crystals, high-impact physics, thermoelectricity and photoelectricity. He established research laboratories for radioactivity, superconductivity, and nuclear physics, Ioffe was born into a middle-class Jewish family in small town of Romny, Russian Empire. After graduating from Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology in 1902, Ioffe completed his Ph. D. at Munich University in 1905. After 1906, Ioffe worked in the Saint Petersburg Polytechnical Institute where he became a professor. In 1911 he determined the electron charge, using charged microparticles of metals balanced in electric field against gravity, in 1911 Ioffe converted to Lutheranism and married a non-Jewish woman. In 1913 he attained the title of Magister of Philosophy, in 1915 – Doctor of Physics, in 1918 he became a head of Physics and Technology division in State Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology.
This division became the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute in 1917, in the early 1930s, there was a critical need in the Air Defense Forces of the Red Army for means of detecting invading aircraft. A number of research institutes were involved with radiolokatory techniques, the Russian Academy of Sciences called a conference in January 1934 to assess this technology. Ioffe organized this conference, published a report, disclosing to researchers throughout the world the science. When the Soviet atomic bomb began in 1942, Ioffe was asked to lead the technical effort. He saw great promise in the young Igor Kurchatov, and placed him in charge of the first nuclear laboratory, during Joseph Stalins campaign against the so-called rootless cosmopolitans, in 1950 Ioffe was made redundant from his position of the Director of LPTI and from the Board of Directors. In 1952–1954 he headed the Laboratory of Semiconductors of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, following Ioffes death, in 1960 the LPTI was renamed the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute and remains one of Russias leading research centers.
Ioffes students include Aleksandr Aleksandrov, Pyotr Kapitsa, Isaak Kikoin, Igor Kurchatov, Yakov Frenkel, Nikolay Semyonov, Léon Theremin, Boris Davydov, the crater Ioffe on the Moon is named after him. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute carries his name The Russian oceanographic and Polar research vessel Akademik Ioffe is named after him, annotated bibliography for Abram Ioffe from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues Short biography by the Russian Ioffe institute
Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. One of the most fundamental disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy, Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics. Physics makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs, the United Nations named 2005 the World Year of Physics. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, the stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. While the explanations for these phenomena were often unscientific and lacking in evidence, according to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy.
The most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn Al-Haitham, in which he was not only the first to disprove the ancient Greek idea about vision, but came up with a new theory. In the book, he was the first to study the phenomenon of the pinhole camera, many European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt. Indeed, the influence of Ibn al-Haythams Optics ranks alongside that of Newtons work of the same title, the translation of The Book of Optics had a huge impact on Europe. From it, European scholars were able to build the devices as what Ibn al-Haytham did. From this, such important things as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, Physics became a separate science when early modern Europeans used experimental and quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics.
Newton developed calculus, the study of change, which provided new mathematical methods for solving physical problems. The discovery of new laws in thermodynamics and electromagnetics resulted from greater research efforts during the Industrial Revolution as energy needs increased, inaccuracies in classical mechanics for very small objects and very high velocities led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century. Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory, both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Quantum mechanics would come to be pioneered by Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, from this early work, and work in related fields, the Standard Model of particle physics was derived. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities, in many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy
Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. It collapsed due to the rivalry between Prussia and Austria, the 1848 revolution, and the inability of the members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were an attempt to establish a unified German state. Talks between the German states failed in 1848, and the Confederation briefly dissolved, but was re-established shortly after and it decidedly fell apart only after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks War of 1866. This led to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867, a number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, which was renamed the German Empire. The War of the Third Coalition lasted from about 1803 to 1806, following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, and the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806.
The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806, after the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia, joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Danish Holstein, Swedish Pomerania and the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine and these nations would join in the War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to 1814. The German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition. The Confederation was formally created by a treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820, States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty.
The German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. In the Prague peace treaty, on 23 August 1866, Austria had to accept that the Confederation was considered to be dissolved, the following day, the remaining member states confirmed the dissolution. The treaty allowed Prussia to create a new Bundesverhältnis in the North of Germany, the South German states were proposed to create a South German Confederation but this did not come into existence. Prussia and its allies created the North German Confederation in 1867, because of French intervention it had to exclude, besides Austria, the South German states Bavaria, Württemberg and Hesse-Darmstadt. During November 1870 the four states joined the North German Confederation by treaty. The North German Confederation Reichstag and Bundesrat accepted to rename the North German Confederation as the German Empire, the new constitution of the state, the Constitution of the German Confederation, introduced the new name and title on 1 January 1871.
The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly
Utrecht University is a university in Utrecht, the Netherlands. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands, established March 26,1636, it had an enrollment of 30,449 students in 2012, and employed 5,295 faculty and staff. In 2011,485 PhD degrees were awarded and 7,773 scientific articles were published, the 2013 budget of the university was €765 million. The universitys motto is Sol Iustitiae Illustra Nos, which means Sun of Justice and this motto was gleaned from a literal Latin Bible translation of Malachi 4,2. Utrecht University is led by the University Board, consisting of prof. dr, bert van der Zwaan and Hans Amman. This section incorporates text translated from the Dutch Wikipedia article Utrecht University was founded on March 26,1636, the influential professor of theology Gisbertus Voetius delivered the inaugural speech, and Bernardus Schotanus became the universitys first rector magnificus. Initially, only a few dozen students attended classes at the university, seven professors worked in four faculties, which offered all students an introductory education, and three higher-level faculties.
Utrecht University flourished in the century, despite competition with the older universities of Leiden and Groningen. Leiden, in particular, proved a strong competitor and made further improvement necessary, a botanical garden was built on the grounds of the present Sonnenborgh Observatory, and three years the Smeetoren added an astronomical observatory. The university attracted students from abroad. They witnessed the intellectual and theological battle the proponents of the new philosophy fought with the proponents of the strict Reformed theologian Voetius, Louvain, Groningen and Ghent were the five universities of the new state, and Leiden received the title of eerste hoge school. Two of the universities became part of the new Belgian state after it separated from the northern Netherlands in 1830 and this left Utrecht one of only three Dutch universities. Utrecht played a prominent role in the age of Dutch science. Around 1850 the Utrechtian School of science formed, with Pieter Harting, Gerardus J.
Mulder, buys Ballot and Franciscus Donders among the leading scientists. They introduced the educational laboratory as a learning place for their students. The University is represented in the Stichting Academisch Erfgoed, a foundation with the goal of preserving university collections, the other five faculties and most of the administrative services are located in De Uithof, a campus area on the outskirts of the city. University College Utrecht is situated in the former Kromhout Kazerne, which used to be a Dutch military base, University College Roosevelt is located off-campus in the city of Middelburg in the south-west of the Netherlands. Utrecht University counts a number of distinguished scholars among its alumni and faculty, on the 2015 Academic Ranking of World Universities list, the University of Utrecht was ranked 56th in the world and the highest in the Netherlands
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. It was established in 1754 as Kings College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain, after the American Revolutionary War, Kings College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university has global research outposts in Amman, Istanbul, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Asunción, Columbia administers annually the Pulitzer Prize. Additionally,100 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Columbia as students, faculty, Columbia is second only to Harvard University in the number of Nobel Prize-winning affiliates, with over 100 recipients of the award as of 2016. In 1746 an act was passed by the assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the colleges first president, Dr.
Johnson was the only instructor of the colleges first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan, in 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queens College, and an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777. The suspension continued through the occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The colleges library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a hospital first by American. Loyalists were forced to abandon their Kings College in New York, the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded Kings Collegiate School. After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, the Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1,1784, it passed an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called Kings College.
The Regents finally became aware of the colleges defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, in April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees. On May 21,1787, William Samuel Johnson, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College, prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. The colleges enrollment and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In 1857, the college moved from the Kings College campus at Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue, during the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F. A. P. Barnard, the institution assumed the shape of a modern university
Roentgenium is a chemical element with symbol Rg and atomic number 111. Roentgenium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near Darmstadt and it is named after the physicist Wilhelm Röntgen. In the periodic table, it is a transactinide element. Roentgenium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, silver, Roentgenium was first synthesized by an international team led by Sigurd Hofmann at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany, on December 8,1994. In 2001, the IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party concluded that there was insufficient evidence for the discovery at that time, the GSI team repeated their experiment in 2002 and detected three more atoms. In their 2003 report, the JWP decided that the GSI team should be acknowledged for the discovery of this element, using Mendeleevs nomenclature for unnamed and undiscovered elements, roentgenium should be known as eka-gold. The name roentgenium was suggested by the GSI team in 2004, to honor the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and this name was accepted by IUPAC on November 1,2004.
Roentgenium has no stable or naturally occurring isotopes, several radioactive isotopes have been synthesized in the laboratory, either by fusion of the nuclei of lighter elements or as intermediate decay products of heavier elements. All of these decay through alpha decay or spontaneous fission, all roentgenium isotopes are extremely unstable and radioactive, in general, the heavier isotopes are more stable than the lighter. The most stable known isotope, 282Rg, is the heaviest known roentgenium isotope. The isotopes 280Rg and 281Rg have reported to have half-lives over a second. The remaining isotopes have half-lives in the millisecond range, the undiscovered isotope 287Rg has been predicted to be the most stable towards beta decay, however, no known roentgenium isotope has been observed to undergo beta decay. The unknown isotopes 277Rg and 283Rg are expected to have long half-lives of 1 second and 10 minutes respectively.2 milliseconds,17 seconds, Roentgenium is the ninth member of the 6d series of transition metals.
Since copernicium has been shown to be a metal, it is expected that all the elements from 104 to 112 would form a fourth transition metal series. Roentgenium is predicted to be a noble metal, based on the most stable oxidation states of the lighter group 11 elements, roentgenium is predicted to show stable +5, +3, and −1 oxidation states, with a less stable +1 state. The +3 state is predicted to be the most stable, Roentgenium is expected to be of comparable reactivity to gold, but should be more stable and form a larger variety of compounds. Roentgenium is expected to be difficult to obtain, calculations on the molecular compound RgH show that relativistic effects double the strength of the roentgenium–hydrogen bond, even though spin–orbit interactions weaken it by 0.7 eV. The compounds AuX and RgX, where X = F, Cl, Br, O, Au, Rg+ is predicted to be the softest metal ion, even softer than Au+, although there is disagreement on whether it would behave as an acid or a base
Remscheid is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is, after Wuppertal and Solingen, the third largest municipality in Bergisches Land, Remscheid has about 109,000 inhabitants in 2015. Its highest point is the Brodtberg, Remscheid was founded in the 12th century, but remained a small village until the 19th century. Early spellings for the city included Remissgeid, Reymscheyd, the economic growth of the entire Rhine-Ruhr region led to an increase of the population of Remscheid. Mechanical engineering and toolmaking were the main industries practised within the town and this is carried on today with the Hazet tool company which has two factories in Remscheid. Remscheid was part of the Prussian Rhine Province from 1822–1945, on 31 July 1943, during the second World War, Remscheid was almost completely destroyed during a British bombing raid which caused a firestorm. An A-10 Thunderbolt II crashed in the city on 8 December 1988, Remscheid comprises four boroughs, Alt-Remscheid, Remscheid-Süd, and Lüttringhausen.
The Müngstener Brücke is a bridge crossing a valley and connecting Remscheid with the neighbouring town of Solingen. It is 107 m above the ground, making it the highest railway bridge in Germany and it was constructed in 1897 and originally named the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Brücke after Wilhelm I. The Eschbachtalsperre, the first dam built in Germany for the supply of drinking water is located here, the old city of the borough Lennep consists of 116 houses from 1756. Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt, world-famous scientist, there is a museum in Remscheid commemorating Röntgens life and discoveries. Johann Vaillant, founded the famous heating company Vaillant in Remscheid in the late 19th century, otto Kuhler and designer of locomotives, born in Remscheid in 1894. Hans Stammreich, Raman spectroscopist living in Brazil, was born in Remscheid, armin Mersmann, German Artist, born in Remscheid. Wolfgang Tillmans, a photographer, was born in Remscheid in 1968, Georg Wurth, CEO and owner of the Deutscher Hanf Verband, the largest organization of the hemp movement in Germany was born in Remscheid in 1972.
Christel Frese, athlete and 1972 olympian Harry Luck and journalist Christiane Soeder, German-Austrian cyclist Prešov, Slovakia Quimper, France Kirsehir, Turkey Lennep
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies the principles of engineering and materials science for the design, analysis and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production and it is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines. The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century, Mechanical engineering science emerged in the 19th century as a result of developments in the field of physics. The field has evolved to incorporate advancements in technology, and mechanical engineers today are pursuing developments in such fields as composites, mechatronics. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology. Mechanical engineering finds its application in the archives of various ancient, in ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes deeply influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine.
In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, during the 7th to 15th century, the era called the Islamic Golden Age, there were remarkable contributions from Muslim inventors in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and he is considered to be the inventor of such mechanical devices which now form the very basic of mechanisms, such as the crankshaft and camshaft. Newton was reluctant to publish his methods and laws for years, gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during the same time frame. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science. Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at universities worldwide. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B.
Tech, programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is Mechanical Engineer, and the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, and training, in Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a Diploma Thesis, which upon completion a Diploma is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In Australia, mechanical engineering degrees are awarded as Bachelor of Engineering or similar nomenclature although there are a number of specialisations. The degree takes four years of study to achieve. To ensure quality in engineering degrees, Engineers Australia accredits engineering degrees awarded by Australian universities in accordance with the global Washington Accord, before the degree can be awarded, the student must complete at least 3 months of on the job work experience in an engineering firm. Similar systems are present in South Africa and are overseen by the Engineering Council of South Africa
Weimar Republic is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place, the official name of the state was still Deutsches Reich, it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written, in its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. The people of Germany blamed the Weimar Republic rather than their leaders for the countrys defeat. However, the Weimar Republic government successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies, Weimar Germany eliminated most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, it never completely met its disarmament requirements, and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations.
Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the borders of the republic. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen, the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brünings policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government, the Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the éminence grise who would keep Hitler under control, within months the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency, it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitlers seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation and these events brought the republic to an end, as democracy collapsed, a single-party state founded the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, Germany from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model, the Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellors SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany, after the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes. The Weimar Republic retained the Reichsadler, but without the symbols of the former Monarchy and this left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. If the Reichs Eagle is shown without a frame, the charge and colors as those of the eagle of the Reichs coat of arms are to be used. The patterns kept by the Federal Ministry of the Interior are decisive for the heraldic design, the artistic design may be varied for each special purpose. The achievements and signs of movement were mostly done away with after its downfall