Wilhelm von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt was a Prussian philosopher, government functionary and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, named after him in 1949. He is remembered as a linguist who made important contributions to the philosophy of language, ethnolinguistics and to the theory and practice of education. In particular, he is recognized as having been the architect of the Humboldtian education ideal, used from the beginning in Prussia as a model for its system of education and in countries such as the US and Japan. Humboldt was born in Potsdam, Margraviate of Brandenburg, died in Tegel, Province of Brandenburg. In June 1791, he married Caroline von Dacheröden, they had eight children. Humboldt was a philosopher, it influenced John Stuart Mill's essay On Liberty through which von Humboldt's ideas became known in the English-speaking world. Humboldt outlined an early version of what Mill would call the "harm principle", his house in Rome became a cultural hub, run by Caroline von Humboldt.

The section dealing with education was published in the December 1792 issue of the Berlinische Monatsschrift under the title "On public state education". With this publication, Humboldt took part in the philosophical debate regarding the direction of national education, in progress in Germany, as elsewhere, after the French Revolution. Humboldt had been home schooled and never finished his comparably short university studies at the universities of Frankfurt and Göttingen, he became one of the most influential officials in German education. Humboldt had intended to become Minister of education, but failed to attain that position; the Prussian King asked him to leave Rome in 1809 and to lead the directorate of education under Friedrich Ferdinand Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten. Humboldt did not reply to the appointment for several weeks and would have preferred to stay on at the embassy in Rome, his wife did not return with him to Prussia. Humboldt installed a standardized system of public instruction, from basic schools till secondary education, founded Berlin University.

He imposed a standardization of state examinations and inspections and created a special department within the ministry to oversee and design curricula and learning aids. Humboldt educational model went beyond vocational training. In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: "There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life." The philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt.

As a successful diplomat between 1802 and 1819, Humboldt was plenipotentiary Prussian minister at Rome from 1802, ambassador at Vienna from 1812 during the closing struggles of the Napoleonic Wars, at the congress of Prague where he was instrumental in drawing Austria to ally with Prussia and Russia against France, a signer of the peace treaty at Paris and the treaty between Prussia and defeated Saxony, at Frankfurt settling post-Napoleonic Germany, at the congress at Aachen in 1818. However, the reactionary policy of the Prussian government made him give up political life in 1819. Wilhelm von Humboldt studied the Basque language, he translated Aeschylus into German. Humboldt's work as a philologist in Basque has had more extensive impact than his other work, his visit to the Basque country resulted in Researches into the Early Inhabitants of Spain by the help of the Basque language. In this work, Humboldt endeavored to show by examining geographical placenames that at one time a race or races speaking dialects allied to modern Basque extended throughout Spain, southern France and the Balearic Islands.

Humboldt's pioneering work has been superseded in its details by modern linguistics and archaeology, but is sometimes still uncritically followed today. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1820, a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1822. Humboldt died while preparing his greatest work, on the ancient Kawi language of Java, but its introduction was published in 1836 as The Heterogeneity of Language and its Influence on the Intellectual Development of Mankind, his essay on the philosophy of speech... first laid down that the character and structur

2019 CONCACAF Gold Cup Final

The 2019 CONCACAF Gold Cup Final was a football match which determined the winners of the 2019 CONCACAF Gold Cup. The match was held at Soldier Field in Chicago, United States, on July 7, 2019, was contested by Mexico and the United States, it was the sixth Gold Cup final to be contested by Mexico and the United States, the first since 2011. Mexico had won the modern Gold Cup seven times. Mexico won the final 1–0, the lone goal scored by Jonathan dos Santos in the second half, for their eighth Gold Cup title. Mexico, nicknamed El Tri, are the most successful team in the history of the Gold Cup, having won the tournament seven times since 1993, most in 2015; the team qualified automatically for the 2019 Gold Cup because of their participation in the final round of regional qualification for the 2018 World Cup. The tournament would be the first for the team under Gerardo "Tata" Martino, who took over as head coach in January 2019 after leaving Atlanta United FC of Major League Soccer. Martino named his preliminary roster in May, leaving out regular starters like Carlos Vela, Javier Hernández, Giovani dos Santos, Hirving Lozano, Jesus Manuel Corona, Héctor Herrera due to requests for personal or recovery time from the players.

El Tri were drawn into Group A alongside Canada and Martinique—all of whom qualified through the Nations League preliminary rounds. In their opening match against Cuba at the Rose Bowl, Mexico won 7–0 with a hat-trick for Uriel Antuna of the local LA Galaxy, a late addition to the roster to replace the injured Jorge Eduardo Sánchez, two goals by Raúl Jiménez; the team secured its quarter-final berth by defeating Canada 3–1 in Denver, with a first-half goal from midfielder Roberto Alvarado and a pair of second-half goals by substitute Andrés Guardado. Martino opted to rest several starting players in the final group stage match against Martinique, which saw El Tri take the lead in the first half through a goal by Antuna but concede an equalizer to Martiniquais forward Kévin Parsemain's free kick in the 56th minute. Jiménez and defender Fernando Navarro added a pair of goals to win the match 3–2 for Mexico after Jordy Delem was able to score a consolation goal in the 84th minute for Martinique.

In the quarterfinals, Mexico played Group B runners-up Costa Rica in Houston. They took the lead before halftime with a goal by Jiménez, but conceded a penalty in the 52nd minute after a controversial foul on Joel Campbell. Both teams had chances to score in regulation and extra time, including a shot by Jonathan McDonald, saved by Mexican goalkeeper Guillermo Ochoa, but the score remained 1–1 and triggered a penalty shootout. Jiménez, the first kick-taker, had his shot stopped by Leonel Moreira, but a miss by Randall Leal kept the shootout through five rounds. Mexico advanced to the semifinals against Group B winners Haiti, who had upset Canada with a 3–2 comeback victory in the quarterfinals. Martino was suspended from the match due to yellow card accumulation; the match was scoreless at the end of regulation time despite several chances for Mexico, including two saves for goalkeeper Johny Placide. Jiménez was fouled in the penalty area and was awarded a penalty kick for Mexico, which he took and scored in the 93rd minute.

The United States, the primary host of the tournament, were the defending champions of the Gold Cup and are the second most successful, with six titles in ten appearances in the final. They have a major rivalry with Mexico, who they met in five previous Gold Cup finals, winning only once; the U. S. qualified as another participant in the final round of World Cup qualification, where they missed the World Cup for the first time since 1986. Following a year with an interim manager, Gregg Berhalter of the Columbus Crew was hired as the team's head coach in December 2018. S. were unbeaten while playing against opponents from Central and South America with experimental lineups. Berhalter's preliminary Gold Cup roster excluded several holdover veterans, including defenders DeAndre Yedlin and John Brooks, goalkeeper Bill Hamid. S. after switching allegiances from New Zealand. The Americans were placed in Group D, playing against Gold Cup debutants Guyana, who qualified for the World Cup ahead of the U.

S. and Trinidad and Tobago, who had defeated the U. S. in the final game of qualification and prevented them from participating in the World Cup. The United States opened against Guyana at Allianz Field in Minnesota, winning 4–0 with a first-half goal by Paul Arriola, two from Tyler Boyd in his second match for the team, another by Gyasi Zardes, scored with a deflection off his eye; the Americans won 6–0 in their match against Trinidad and Tobago in Cleveland, clinching them a place in the quarterfinals with two goals each from Zardes and Aaron Long, one each from Christian Pulisic and Paul Arriola. A rotated U. S. squad closed out the group by defeating Panama 1–0 in Kansas City to finish at the top of the standings. The U. S. faced Caribbean sid


Montgeron is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 18.5 km from the center of Paris. Inhabitants of Montgeron are known as Montgeronnais; the café Au Reveil Matin at 22 Avenue Jean Jaurès was the departure point of the first Tour de France in 1903. Montgeron is served by Montgeron – Crosne station on Paris RER line D; the local school was decorated by painter Maurice Boitel. The engraver Paul-Marcel Dammann was died in Montgeron. INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Media related to Montgeron at Wikimedia Commons Official website Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use