Gieves & Hawkes
Gieves & Hawkes is a bespoke men's tailor and menswear retailer located at №1 Savile Row, founded in 1771 and now owned by the Hong Kong conglomerate Trinity Ltd. Gieves and Hawkes is one of the oldest continual bespoke tailoring companies in the world; the company holds a number of Royal Warrants, provides ready-to-wear as well as bespoke and military tailoring. The current creative director is Jason Basmajian of Brioni. Gieves & Hawkes' business was based on catering to the needs of the British Army and the Royal Navy, hence by association the British Royal family. After coming to London in 1760, Thomas Hawkes set up his first shop in 1771 in Brewer Street, selling to gentlemen, his main clients were commanders of the British Army, through which King George III became a customer. He expanded his retail operation by moving to No.17 Piccadilly in 1793, where he gained the first of many Royal Warrants in 1809. In 1835, James Watson Gieve was employed by'Old Mel' Meredith, a Portsmouth-based tailor by appointment to the Royal Navy.
In 1852, Gieve partnered with Joseph Galt, in 1887, Gieve purchased the remaining shares to form Gieves & Co. He died in 1888. On 23 December 1912, Hawkes & Co. bought №1 Savile Row from the Royal Geographical Society for £38,000, in part because the firm had dressed so many explorers. In 1974, Gieves Ltd acquired the freehold of 1 Savile Row; the company was renamed Hawkes. In 2009, Kathryn Sargent of Gieves and Hawkes became the first female head cutter in Savile Row; the company produces the uniforms for the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms. The company was bought by Hong Kong-based property developer and garment manufacturer USL Holdings Ltd in 2002, having listed unsuccessfully as a Plc. In May 2012, Gieves & Hawkes was acquired by Trinity Limited, the distribution of Gieves & Hawkes continues to expand with over 100 stores and concessions around the UK and in Hong Kong and Taiwan. In June 2009, Gieves & Hawkes began a new partnership with British Formula One team Brawn GP, providing the team with their official attire, a grey, single-breasted, two-button, mohair suit, white shirt, distinctive team-coloured tie.
The Savile Row flagship store was renovated in 2011 and transformed into a menswear emporium, which includes concessions for Carreducker. In October 2011, Gieves & Hawkes sponsored the Scott-Amundsen Centenary Race conducted by six serving soldiers of the British Army, with all proceeds going to the Royal British Legion. Birmingham Gieves & Hawkes have a strong history of both service to the military, hence to the British royal family. Hawkes & Co. were granted their first Royal Warrant in 1809, during the reign of King George III. Gieves & Hawkes presently have all three main Royal Warrants, appointed to HM The Queen, HRH The Duke of Edinburgh and HRH The Prince of Wales. 1732 - Number One Savile Row constructed as town house of the Fairfax family. 1760 - Thomas Hawkes comes to London, is employed as a journeyman for Mr Moy, a velvet cap-maker on Swallow Street. Heavy drinking Moy leaves the aware Hawkes to cultivate his royal clientele. 1771 - With Moy dead, Hawkes sets up a hatter and tailor shop in Brewer Street.
His top client was King George III, who ordered several thousand scarlet uniforms for the British army, his son the Prince Regent. 1793 - Hawkes has established his expanded shop at No.17 Piccadilly, described as "Helmet and Cap-maker to the King." 1809 - Thomas Hawkes receives his first Royal Warrant, based on his work for George III 1818 - Burlington Arcade, a glassed-over esplanade of shops adjacent to Burlington House is constructed under the patronage of Lord George Cavendish who resides at No 1 Savile Row, where Beau Brummell was a guest before his fall and exile in 1814 1822 - James Watson Gieve is born in Chulmleigh, Devon 1850 - Having handed his business over to his nephews, by 1850 Hawkes & Co is being run by H. T. White; as the personal tailor of Sir Garnet Wolseley, he develops a special form of the pith helmet known as the Wolseley pattern, which has an extended brim at the rear for better sun protection for the neck. It is still worn today by the Royal Marines as formal dress.
1835 - James Watson Gieve is employed by'Old Mel' Meredith, a Portsmouth-based tailor by appointment to the Royal Navy. Meredith tailors the uniform Admiral Lord Nelson is wearing when killed in action aboard HMS Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar 1852 - James Gieve acquires a partnership with Joseph Galt. 1871 - Ownership of №1 passed to the Royal Geographical Society, which added the magnificent Map Room and galleried Library which remain the focal point of the fine interiors today. Henry Morton Stanley, sent to search for David Livingstone by the New York Herald newspaper in 1869, finds him in the town of Ujiji on the shores of Lake Tanganyika on 27 October 1871, clad in Hawkes & Co. dress from head to toe. 1873 - the body of explorer David Livingstone lies in state at 1 Savile Row, before burial at Westminster Abbey. 1887 - James Gieve becomes sole owner of Galt & Gieves, renaming it Gieves & Co. 1888 - James Gieve dies 1912 - On 23 December, №1 Savile Row is purchased from the Royal Geographical Society by Hawkes & Co. for £38,000, in part because the firm has dressed so many explorers.
This was at a time when the international reputation of Savile Row, the famous street and centre for fine craft tailoring was growing. Another £10,000 is spent on converting the premises to suit the business. Hawkes & Co. is appointed to dress the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, the British Monarch's nearest bodyguard 1920s - becomes the first Savile Row
Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, London to the south-west; the county town is the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region. Essex occupies the eastern part of the ancient Kingdom of Essex, which united with the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms to make England a single nation state; as well as rural areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea. The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon name Ēastseaxe, the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain during the Heptarchy. Recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and most of what became Hertfordshire.
Its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. Colchester in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested; the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Hatfield and Waltham. Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However, County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities.
12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, as shown in the map on the right. A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk. Part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; the boundary with Greater London was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Dagenham, Ilford, Romford and Wanstead and Woodford districts were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Newham and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having been part of the South East England region.
In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the two unitary authorities; the county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county, it has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100; the County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet; the ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by its estuary.
The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow developed to resettle Londoners after the destruction of London housing in the Second World War, since which they have been developed and expanded. Epping Forest prevents the further spread of the Greater London Urban Area; as it is not far from London with its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families. Part of the s
Writtle University College
Writtle University College is one of the largest land-based university colleges in the UK. Set in the Essex countryside on a 220 hectare estate, Writtle known as Writtle College provides FE and HE programmes, it offers apprenticeships and short courses. Writtle was awarded University College status in May 2016; the University College is specialist and offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, as well as research for a number of subject areas. Writtle was granted Taught Degree Awarding Powers in March 2015 and will offer its own degrees, instead of University of Essex, from September 2017. There has been major investment in science facilities; the University College has a Lecture Theatre complex, numerous halls of residence and newly refurbished its Recreation Centre, including its student venue, The Baa and Chef. Doctor Stephen Waite was appointed as the new Principal in Spring 2013 and changed his job title to Vice-Chancellor upon the college obtaining University status, he was succeeded by Professor Tim Middleton.
Writtle has undergone significant growth in its research areas, such as the Postharvest Technology unit which carries out trails on fruit and vegetables for major supermarkets. The University College is committed to using a significant proportion of teaching staff who are engaged in research and/or professional practice; the report of the 2011 QAA audit again identified this aspect of Writtle provision for praise, noting as best practice "the way in which the curriculum is designed and delivered to take advantage of staff research and professional practice." In July 2013, the University College made its debut on national BBC television programme Countryfile. The focus for this episode was on the University College's research which included a piece with presenter Matt Baker carrying out an experiment on the contents of a pig's stomach with Writtle Student Francine Gilman, one of only five recipients nationally of the National Farmers Union of England and Wales Centenary Award. Writtle University College was granted Taught Degree Awarding Powers by the Privy Council in March 2015.
This is a significant milestone in the University College's history as it has ambitious plans to grow as an institution. The Guardian University League Tables ranked Writtle College 14th out of 69 for Sports Science in 2015. Established in 1893, the College was known as County Laboratories, teaching agriculture and horticulture and becoming the County Technical Laboratories in 1903. In 1912 a further name change occurred. In 1935 it was proposed that it move to the Writtle Estate and the building was completed in 1940, having become the Essex Institute of Agriculture, Writtle in 1939 and Writtle Agricultural College in 1969. In 1989 Writtle Agricultural College became Writtle College, before becoming Writtle University College in 2016. WUC specialises in areas such as landscape and garden design, landscape architecture and contemporary art and design; the landscape based courses offered are accredited by the Landscape Institute. WUC designed a temporary radio structure at the University College and transmitted a set of live art broadcasts.
Annually, WUC holds an end of year exhibition that celebrates the final pieces of third year undergraduate students. Students present their pieces of art to potential employers and friends; this event takes place in May. Writtle University College has design courses such as landscape architecture, voted 4th in the country by the Guardian League Table in 2012; the university college has extensive facilities considering its small size. It has an on-campus library, science building and is based on a large and landscaped 550 acre estate; these facilities include 2 indoor riding schools - one brand new, an equine Hydrotherapy unit and a therapy barn. The Animal unit – now named the Titchmarsh Centre for Animal Studies after the College Patron - includes various designed areas such as the reptile house and the state of the art Dog Grooming room; the campus farm has received a new herd of cattle as well are planning for the arrival of sheep. Lordship Stud has many technologies that are essential to the equine Breeding industry including -'Brenda' the semen collection dummy mare and a new ultrasound scanner with the employees qualified to make sure that students get access to watching the various tasks.
Furthermore the college has a Mechanical horse which allows students the ability to perform rider position research and allows for the teaching and lecturing of students on various hands on tasks. The College has SpermVision; this sperm analyser is used in research. There is a second animal therapy centre, due to open in September 2015; this is located next to the Titchmarsh Centre for Animal Studies. The college has an active Students' Union; the SU provides a varied social scene. In 2011 the summer ball features DJ's Chase & Status and was so loud that some local residents complained about the noise levels; the 2012 ball was re-located to an alternative indoor venue on campus as a result. The Students' Union organise the'Writtle RAG' a long held tradition at the College, the students pick good causes to support, raise as much money as possible; this involves themed party nights, a BBQ and Moulsham 11. The SU has a number of sports teams in
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
The garden strawberry is a grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries. It is cultivated worldwide for its fruit; the fruit is appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, pies, ice creams and chocolates. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are widely used in many products like lip gloss, hand sanitizers and many others; the garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in the 1750s via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America and Fragaria chiloensis, brought from Chile by Amédée-François Frézier in 1714. Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry, the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century; the strawberry is not, from a botanical point of view, a berry. Technically, it is an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries.
Each apparent "seed" on the outside of the fruit is one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it. In 2016, world production of strawberries was 9.2 million tonnes, led by China with 41% of the total. The first garden strawberry was grown in Brittany, during the late 18th century. Prior to this, wild strawberries and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source of the fruit; the strawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to its medicinal use. The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to their gardens for harvest in the 14th century. Charles V, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 15th century western European monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts; the strawberry is found in Italian and German art, in English miniatures. The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses. By the 16th century, references of cultivation of the strawberry became more common.
People began using it for its supposed medicinal properties and botanists began naming the different species. In England the demand for regular strawberry farming had increased by the mid-16th century; the combination of strawberries and cream was created by Thomas Wolsey in the court of King Henry VIII. Instructions for growing and harvesting strawberries showed up in writing in 1578. By the end of the 16th century three European species had been cited: F. vesca, F. moschata, F. viridis. The garden strawberry was transplanted from the forests and the plants would be propagated asexually by cutting off the runners. Two subspecies of F. vesca were identified: F. sylvestris alba and F. sylvestris semperflorens. The introduction of F. virginiana from Eastern North America to Europe in the 17th century is an important part of history because this species gave rise to the modern strawberry. The new species spread through the continent and did not become appreciated until the end of the 18th century.
When a French excursion journeyed to Chile in 1712, it introduced the North American strawberry plant with female flowers that resulted in the common strawberry that we have today. The Mapuche and Huilliche Indians of Chile cultivated the female strawberry species until 1551, when the Spanish came to conquer the land. In 1765, a European explorer recorded the cultivation of the Chilean strawberry. At first introduction to Europe, the plants produced no fruit, it was discovered in 1766 that the female plants could only be pollinated by plants that produced large fruit: F. moschata, F. virginiana, F. ananassa. This is when the Europeans became aware that plants had the ability to produce male-only or female-only flowers; as more large-fruit producing plants were cultivated the Chilean strawberry decreased in population in Europe, except for around Brest where the Chilean strawberry thrived. The decline of the Chilean strawberry was caused by F. ananassa. Strawberry cultivars vary in size, flavor, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.
On average, a strawberry has about 200 seeds on its external membrane. Some vary in foliage, some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases, the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but function as either male or female. For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners and, in general, distributed as either bare root plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models—annual plasticulture, or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds. Greenhouses produce a small amount of strawberries during the off season; the bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants obtained from northern nurseries, are planted through holes punched in this covering, irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, in order to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development.
At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed into the ground. Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plants each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings. However, because it requires a longer growing season to allow for estab
The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation. The organisation reports a worldwide membership of over 1.7 million, consisting of soldiers and adherents collectively known as Salvationists. Its founders sought to bring salvation to the poor and hungry by meeting both their "physical and spiritual needs", it is present in 131 countries, running charity shops, operating shelters for the homeless and disaster relief and humanitarian aid to developing countries. The theology of the Salvation Army is derived from that of Methodism, although it is distinctive in institution and practice. A peculiarity of the Army is that it gives its clergy titles of military ranks, such as "lieutenant" or "major", it does not celebrate the rite of Holy Communion. However, the Army's doctrine is otherwise typical of holiness churches in the Wesleyan-Arminian tradition; the Army's purposes are "the advancement of the Christian religion... of education, the relief of poverty, other charitable objects beneficial to society or the community of mankind as a whole".
The Army was founded in 1865 in London by one-time Methodist circuit-preacher William Booth and his wife Catherine as the East London Christian Mission, can trace its origins to the Blind Beggar tavern. In 1878 Booth reorganised the mission, becoming its first General and introducing the military structure, retained as a matter of tradition, its highest priority is its Christian principles. The current international leader of The Salvation Army and chief executive officer is General Brian Peddle, elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army on 3 August 2018; the Salvation Army refers to its ministers as "officers". When acting in their official duties, they can be recognized by the colour-coded epaulettes on their white uniform dress shirts; the epaulettes has the letters. Officers ranks include lieutenant, major and the general. Promotion in rank up to the rank from lieutenant to major depends on years of service; the ordination of women is permitted in the Salvation Army. Salvation Army officers were allowed to marry only other officers.
Husbands and wives share the same rank and have the same or similar assignments. Such officer-couples are assigned together to act as co-pastors and administer corps, Adult Rehabilitation Centers and such; as of 2016 the organisation will not appoint homosexual people to posts as ministers, preferring individuals "whose values are consistent with the church's philosophy". See LGBT clergy in Christianity; the Army has churches located throughout the world. They are known as Salvation Army corps, they may be implemented as part of a larger community center. Traditionally many corps buildings are alternatively called citadels; the Salvation Army is well known for its network of thrift stores or charity shops, colloquially referred to as "the Sally Ann" in Canada and "Salvos Stores" in Australia, which raise money for its rehabilitation programs by selling donated used items such as clothing and toys. Clothing collected by Salvation Army stores that are not sold on location are sold wholesale on the global second hand clothing market.
The Salvation Army's fundraising shops in the United Kingdom participate in the UK government's Work Programme, a workfare programme where benefit claimants must work for no compensation for 20 to 40 hours per week over periods that can be as long as 6 months. When items are bought at the Salvation Army thrift stores, part of the proceeds go towards The Salvation Army's emergency reliefs efforts and programs. Items not sold are recycled and turned into other items such as carpets and rugs, instead of being thrown away in landfills; the Salvation Army helps their employees by hiring ex-felons depending on the circumstances because they believe in giving people second chances. There are many job opportunities available for them nationwide and are able to move their way up to become a manager or work in one of their corporate offices; some shops are associated with an Adult Rehabilitation Centers where men and women make a 6-month rehabilitation commitment to live and work at the ARC residence.
They are unpaid. Many ARCs are male-only; the program is to combat addiction. They work at the store or residence; this is referred to as "work therapy". They attend twelve-step programs and chapel services as a part of their rehabilitation; the Army advertises these programs on their collection trucks with the slogan "Doing the Most Good". The general design pattern is that an ARC is associated with warehouse. Donations are consolidated from other stores and donation sites and sorted and priced and distributed back out to the branch stores. Low-quality donated items are sold at the warehouse dock in a "dock sale". Farmland at Hadleigh in Essex was acquired in 1891 to provide training for men referred from Salvation Army shelters, it featured market gardens and two brickfields. It was mentioned in the Royal Commission report of 1909 appointed to consider Poor Laws. 7,000 trainees had passed through its doors by 1912 with more than 60% subsequently finding employment. It has a Twitter feed @SalArmyHFE and website.
The Salvation Army operates summer camps for children, Silvercrest Residences, adult day care centers. It has headquarter offices internationally and for each territory and division; some of the other facilities include: Homele