Red River of the North
The Red River is a North American river. Originating at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers between the U. S. states of Minnesota and North Dakota, it flows northward through the Red River Valley, forming most of the border of Minnesota and North Dakota and continuing into Manitoba. It empties into Lake Winnipeg, whose waters join the Nelson River and flow into Hudson Bay. Several urban areas have developed on both sides of the Red River, including those of Fargo-Moorhead and Grand Forks-East Grand Forks in states of North Dakota and Minnesota in the United States and Winnipeg in Canada; the Red is about 885 kilometres long, of which about 635 kilometres are in the United States and about 255 kilometres are in Canada. The river falls 70 metres on its trip to Lake Winnipeg, where it spreads into the vast deltaic wetland known as Netley Marsh. In the United States, the Red River is sometimes called the Red River of the North; this distinguishes it from the so-called Red River of the South, a tributary of the Atchafalaya River that forms part of the border between Texas and Arkansas.
Long a highway for trade, the Red has been designated as a Canadian Heritage River. The watershed of the Red River was part of Rupert's Land, the concession established by the British Hudson's Bay Company in north central North America; the Red was a key trade route for the company, contributed to the settlement of British North America. The river was long used by fur traders, including the French and the Métis people, who established a community in this area before the British defeated France in the Seven Years' War. Following that, they took over French territory in Canada. Settlers of the Red River Colony established farming along the river, their primary settlement developed as Winnipeg, Manitoba. What became known as the Red River Trails, nineteenth-century oxcart trails developed by the Métis, supported the fur trade and these settlements, they contributed to further development of the region on both sides of the international border. The Red River begins at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers, on the border of Wahpeton, North Dakota and Breckenridge, Minnesota.
Downstream, it is bordered by the twin cities of Fargo, North Dakota – Moorhead and Grand Forks, North Dakota – East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It continues north to the province of Manitoba in Canada. Manitoba's capital, Winnipeg, is at the Red's confluence with the Assiniboine River, at a point called The Forks. Together with the Assiniboine, the Red River encloses the endorheic basin of Devils' Lake and Stump Lake; the Red flows further north before draining into Lake Winnipeg which drains through the Nelson River into Hudsons Bay, both part of the Hudson Bay watershed. The mouth of the Red River forms; the Netley Marsh is west of the Red and the Libau Marsh is east, forming a 26,000-hectare wetland. Southern Manitoba has a comparatively long frost-free season, between 120 and 140 days in the Red River Valley; the Red River flows across the flat lake bed of the ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, an enormous glacial lake created at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation from meltwaters of the Laurentide ice sheet.
As this continental glacier decayed, its meltwaters formed the lake. Over thousands of years, sediments precipitated to the bottom of the lakebed; these lacustrine soils are the parent soils of today's Red River Valley. The river is young; the word "valley" is a misnomer. While the Red River drains the region, it did not create a valley wider than a few hundred feet; the much wider floodplain is the lake bed of the ancient glacial lake. It is remarkably flat; the river and small in most seasons, does not have the energy to cut a gorge. Instead it meanders across the silty bottomlands in its progress north. In consequence, high water has nowhere to go, except to spread across the old lakebed in "overland flooding". Heavy snows or rains on saturated or frozen soil, have caused a number of catastrophic floods, which are made worse by the fact that snowmelt starts in the warmer south, waters flowing northward are dammed or slowed by ice; these periodic floods have the effect of refilling, in the ancient lake.
Major floods in historic times include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, 2009, 2011, there has been significant flooding many years in between. Geologists have found evidence of many other floods in prehistoric times of equal or greater size; these "paleofloods" are known from their effects on local landforms, have been the subject of scholarly studies. After the disastrous 1950 flood, which resulted in extensive property damage and losses in Winnipeg, Manitoba Province undertook flood prevention by constructing the Red River Floodway. Completed in 1968, it diverts floodwaters around the city to less settled areas further up the river. Grand Forks, North Dakota, East Grand Forks, suffered widespread destruction in the flood of 1997. 75% of the population in the former city was evacuated, all of the latter. Many of the residential areas along the rivers were inundated and all the homes had to be destroyed. Afterward a massive flood protection project was undertaken to protect both cities. On May 8, 1950 the Red River reached its highest level at Winnipeg since 1861.
Eight dikes protecting Winnipeg g
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Minnesota State Highway 55
Minnesota State Highway 55 is a highway in west-central and east-central Minnesota, which runs from the North Dakota state line near Tenney and continues east and southeast to its eastern terminus at its intersection with U. S. Highway 61 in Hastings; this route, signed east–west, runs diagonally across the central part of Minnesota. Highway 55 is 221 miles in length. Highway 55 serves as a northwest–southeast route between Elbow Lake, Paynesville, Buffalo, Minneapolis, Mendota Heights, Hastings. Highway 55 begins at the Bois de Sioux River, at the Minnesota — North Dakota state line near Tenney. North Dakota Highway 11 is its counterpoint upon crossing the state line. Highway 55 continues east to Tenney and Wendell; the route has a junction with U. S. Highway 59 before entering the city of Elbow Lake. Highways 55 and 59 run concurrently for 11 miles until reaching Barrett. Highway 55 continues independently again to Hoffman, Kensington and Lowry before reaching the city of Glenwood. At Glenwood, Highway 55 has an intersection with State Highway 29 and an interchange with State Highway 28.
The route continues southeast to Sedan and Brooten before reaching its junction with U. S. Highway 71 in Belgrade. Highway 55 passes through Regal before reaching its junction with State Highways 4 and 23 at the city of Paynesville. Highway 55 continues east to Eden Valley and Watkins before reaching its junction with State Highway 15 at Kimball; the route has a junction with State Highway 24 in Annandale. Highway 55 continues to Maple Lake and Buffalo, where it has a junction with State Highway 25. Highway 55 enters the Twin Cities area at Rockford and Greenfield, continuing east to Medina and Plymouth. Highway 55 has a junction with I-494 in Plymouth. Highway 55 continues east and has a junction with U. S. Highway 169 at the Plymouth / Golden Valley boundary line. Highway 55 continues through Golden Valley to its junction with State Highway 100; the route continues east and enters the city of Minneapolis. The highway has been designated Olson Memorial Highway, named for Floyd B. Olson, a popular Minnesota governor of Norwegian ancestry.
Olson grew up near where the highway runs. While the entire route is designated as the Olson Memorial Highway, it is only signed as such between Interstate 494 and N 7th Street in Minneapolis; the part of Highway 55 southeast of downtown is known as Hiawatha Avenue. Light rail trains on the Blue Line run parallel to the highway for much of the Hiawatha Avenue stretch. In July 2005, the section of Highway 55 that runs through downtown Minneapolis was turned back to local maintenance. To fill the gap, Highway 55 was rerouted along Interstate 94. Westbound, 55 now exits just before downtown at the westbound I-94 exit, leaves the concurrency at the exit for the Olson Highway, marked with the Highway 55 shield. Eastbound, 55 leaves the Olson Highway at the interchange for I-94 eastbound, leaves the freeway at the exit for Hiawatha Avenue, marked with the Highway 55 shield. There has been some controversy with expansion of the highway. An area known as Camp Coldwater, considered by some as the "birthplace of Minnesota," was dug up during some construction.
Highway 55 has a junction with State Highway 62 at this point. Fort Snelling State Park is located near the junction of Highway 55 and State Highway 5; the park entrance is located on Highway 5 at Post Road. Highway 55 crosses the Minnesota River via the Mendota Bridge, the longest continuous bridge made of poured concrete when it was completed in 1926, it is 4,119 feet in length. The route enters Mendota Heights and has a junction with State Highways 13 and 110. Highway 55 continues southeast through Eagan, joining with State Highway 149; the route has a junction with State Highway 3 in Inver Grove Heights. Highway 55 runs concurrent with U. S. Highway 52 through Inver Grove Heights and into Rosemount. At Rosemount, Highway 55 leaves U. S. 52. Highway 55 continues independently again to its eastern terminus at its intersection with U. S. Highway 61 in the city of Hastings. Highway 55 was authorized in 1933; the original alignment for this highway in Minneapolis was along old U. S. Highway 52 to Rockford Road Rockford Road to MN 55's present-day alignment.
The present-day alignment was constructed in the early 1950s
Clay County, Minnesota
Clay County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 58,999, its county seat is Moorhead. Clay County is part of ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was formed on March 1862, although its government was not organized at that time. In 1872 the organization was effected, it was named for nineteenth-century political figure Henry Clay, member of the United States Senate from Kentucky, US Secretary of State. The county was called Breckenridge, but soon was changed to Clay. Clay County lies on the west side of Minnesota, its west boundary line abuts the east boundary line of the state of North Dakota. The Red River flows northward along the west boundary line of the county, on its way to the Hudson Bay in Canada; the Buffalo River flows west-northwesterly through the center of the county, joined by the South Branch Buffalo River west of Glyndon, before discharging into the Red on the county's west border near Georgetown. The terrain consists of rolling hills, dotted with ponds in its eastern portion.
The terrain slopes to the west and north, with its highest point near the SE corner, at 1,430' ASL. The county has a total area of 1,053 square miles, of which 1,045 square miles are land and 7.3 square miles are covered by water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Moorhead have ranged from a low of 0 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July, although a record low of −48 °F was recorded in January 1887 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.64 inches in February to 3.90 inches in June. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 51,229 people, 18,670 households, 12,340 families in the county; the population density was 49.0/sqmi. There were 19,746 housing units at an average density of 18.9/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 93.99% White, 0.52% Black or African American, 1.44% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.67% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. 3.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
40.4 % were of 26.8 % German ancestry. There were 18,670 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.90% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.90% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.07. The county population contained 25.00% under the age of 18, 17.10% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 19.30% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,889, the median income for a family was $49,192. Males had a median income of $34,176 versus $23,149 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,557. About 7.40% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.30% of those under age 18 and 7.50% of those age 65 or over.
Clay County is governed by a board of five commissioners. Jim Haney 1st District Frank Gross 2nd District Jenny L. Mongeau 3rd District Kevin Campbell 4th District Grant Weyland 5th DistrictIn national elections, Clay County has been a swing district for several decades. Since 1968 both Democratic and Republican Party candidates have carried the county vote an equal number of times. Baker Oakport National Register of Historic Places listings in Clay County, Minnesota Clay County official website
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Breckenridge is a city and county seat of Wilkin County, United States. The population was 3,386 at the 2010 census. Breckenridge's twin city is North Dakota, it is part of the ND -- MN Micropolitan Statistical Area. The Bois de Sioux River and the Otter Tail River join at Breckenridge and Wahpeton to form the Red River of the North. Breckenridge was platted in 1857, named for John C. Breckinridge, a U. S. senator from Kentucky, fourteenth Vice President of the United States. A post office has been in operation at Breckenridge since 1857. Breckenridge was incorporated in 1908; the city contains one property listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the 1928 Wilkin County Courthouse. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.46 square miles, all of it land. U. S. Route 75 and Minnesota State Highways 9 and 210 are three of the main routes in the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,386 people, 1,445 households, 861 families residing in the city, it is 108 years old.
The population density was 1,376.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,635 housing units at an average density of 664.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 0.2% African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.5% of the population. There were 1,445 households of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.4% were non-families. 36.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the city was 43.3 years. 23.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,559 people, 1,438 households, 911 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,516.4 people per square mile. There were 1,582 housing units at an average density of 674.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.61% White, 0.14% African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.71% of the population. There were 1,438 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,054, the median income for a family was $47,500. Males had a median income of $31,869 versus $21,328 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,059. About 7.3% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.5% of those under age 18 and 11.5% of those age 65 or over. Dick Enderle, professional football player Heidi Heitkamp, US Senator from North Dakota Chuck Klosterman and novelist Errol Mann, professional football player, member of the Oakland Raiders Super Bowl XI team George Putnam, radio newsman Fritz Scholder, Native American artist Gerry Sikorski, politician Cheryl Tiegs, professional model Adrian P. Winkel, High Commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Media related to Breckenridge, Minnesota at Wikimedia Commons City of Breckenridge