Elgin is a city in Cook and Kane counties in the northern part of the U. S. state of Illinois. Located 35 mi northwest of Chicago, it lies along the Fox River; as of 2017, the city had an estimated population of 112,456, making it the eighth-largest city in Illinois. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 and the Black Hawk Indian War of 1832 led to the expulsion of the Native Americans who had settlements and burial mounds in the area, set the stage for the founding of Elgin. Thousands of militiamen and soldiers of Gen. Winfield Scott's army marched through the Fox River valley during the war, accounts of the area's fertile soils and flowing springs soon filtered east. In New York, James T. Gifford and his brother Hezekiah Gifford heard tales of this area ripe for settlement, travelled west. Looking for a site on the stagecoach route from Chicago to Galena, they settled on a spot where the Fox River could be bridged. In April 1835, they established the city, naming it after the Scottish tune "Elgin".
Early Elgin achieved fame for the butter and dairy goods it sold to the city of Chicago. Gail Borden established a condensed milk factory here in 1866, the local library was named in his honor; the dairy industry became less important with the arrival of the Elgin Watch Company. The watch factory employed three generations of Elginites from the late 19th to the mid 20th century, when it was the largest producer of fine watches in the United States and the operator of the largest watchmaking complex in the world. Today, the clocks at Chicago's Union Station still bear the Elgin name. Elgin has a long tradition of invention. Elgin is home to the Elgin Academy, the oldest coeducational, non-sectarian college preparatory school west of the Allegheny Mountains. Elgin High School boasts five Navy admirals, a Nobel Prize winner, a Pulitzer Prize winner, a Tony Award winner, two Academy Award–winning producers, Olympic athletes and a General Motors CEO among its alumni. Elgin resident John Murphy invented the motorized streetsweeper in 1914 and formed the Elgin Sweeper Corporation.
Pioneering African-American chemist Lloyd Hall was an Elgin native, as was the legendary marketer and car stereo pioneer Earl "Madman" Muntz and Max Adler, founder of the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, America's first planetarium. Local historian E. C. Alft has written an ongoing newspaper column about Elgin's history. Elgin is located at 42°2′18″N 88°19′22″W. According to the 2010 census, Elgin has a total area of 37.704 square miles, of which 37.16 square miles is land and 0.544 square miles is water. On March 28, 1920, Elgin was struck by several tornadoes along the Fox River that caused significant damage to Chicago and several western suburbs. Four people were killed and several businesses and homes were destroyed, including the Opera House and Grant Theater; as of the census of 2010, there were 108,188 people, 37,848 households. The population density was 2,911.2 people per square mile. There were 37,848 housing units at an average density of 1,306.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 65.9% White, 7.4% African American, 1.40% Native American, 5.4% Asian, 16.3% from other races, 3.6% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 43.6% of the population. A significant portion of Elgin's Asian population was of Laotian origin. There were 35,094 households out of which 38% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.0% were non-families. 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals 65 years and older, 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.56. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.5 years. 50.2% of the population was female. The median income for a household in the city was $56,337, the median income for a family was $68,740. Males had a median income of $39,581 versus $28,488 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,478.
About 6.4% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over. In 2013, Elgin ranked number one in the Chicago metropolitan area in new home starts, while ranking second in new home closings. Elgin's downtown has been the center of city renovations and new developments. New townhouses, condo towers, loft spaces, art galleries have opened in the last decade. In October 2003 the Gail Borden Public Library moved into a new $30 million, 139,980 square foot, 460,000 volume-capacity building. In August 2009 the city opened the first satellite branch; the 10,000 square foot Rakow Branch, situated on Elgin's West Side, was LEED registered, was designed to be expandable up to 30,000 square feet. Elgin opened the 185,000 sq. ft. Centre of Elgin recreation facility across the street from the library. In 2009, Gail Borden was one of five libraries to receive the National Medal for Museum and Library Service issued by the Institute of Museum and Library Service in Washington DC.
In 2014, Elgin completed the Central Business District Streetscape Improvement Project and the Riverside Drive Promenade. In the 1990s, Elgin became one of the few cities in northern Illinois to host a riverboat casino; the Grand Victoria Casino generated controversy, but went on to be a significant source of income for the city
Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal
The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal known as the Chicago Drainage Canal, is a 28-mile-long canal system that connects the Chicago River to the Des Plaines River. It reverses the direction of the Main Stem and the South Branch of the Chicago River, which now flows out of Lake Michigan rather than into it; the related Calumet-Saganashkee Channel does the same for the Calumet River a short distance to the south, joining the Chicago canal about halfway along its route to the Des Plaines. The two provide the only navigation for ships between the Great Lakes Waterway and the Mississippi River system; the canal was built as a sewage treatment scheme. Prior to its opening in 1900, sewage from the city of Chicago was dumped into the Chicago River and flowed into Lake Michigan; the city's drinking water supply was located offshore, there were fears that the sewage could reach the intake and cause serious disease outbreaks. Since the sewer systems were flowing into the river, the decision was made to dam the river and reverse its flow, thereby sending all the sewage inland where it could be treated before emptying it into the Des Plaines.
A secondary goal was to replace the shallow and narrow Illinois and Michigan Canal, which had connected Lake Michigan with the Mississippi starting in 1848. As part of the construction of the new canal, the entire route was built to allow much larger ships to navigate it, it is 202 feet wide and 24 feet deep, over three times the size of the I&M. The I&M became a secondary route with the new canal's opening and was shut down with the creation of the Illinois Waterway network in 1933; the building of the Chicago canal served as intensive and practical training for engineers who built the Panama Canal. The canal is operated by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. In 1999, the system was named a Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium by the American Society of Civil Engineers; the Canal was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 20, 2011. Early Chicago sewage systems discharged directly into Lake Michigan or into the Chicago River, which itself flowed into the lake.
The city's water supply came from the lake, through water intake cribs located two miles offshore. There were fears that sewage could infiltrate the water supply, leading to typhoid fever and dysentery. During a tremendous storm in 1885, the rainfall washed refuse from the river far out into the lake, spurring a panic that a future similar storm would cause a huge epidemic in Chicago; the only reason for the storm not causing such a catastrophic event was that the weather was cooler than normal. The Sanitary District of Chicago was created by the Illinois legislature in 1889 in response to this close call. In addition, the canal was built to supplement and replace the older and smaller Illinois and Michigan Canal as a conduit to the Mississippi River system. In 1871, the old canal had been deepened in an attempt to reverse the river and improve shipping but the reversal of the river only lasted one season; the I&M canal was badly polluted as a result of unrestricted dumping from city sewers and industries, such as the Union Stock Yards.
By 1887, it was decided to reverse the flow of the Chicago River through civil engineering. Engineer Isham Randolph noted that a ridge about 12 miles from the lakeshore divided the Mississippi River drainage system from the Great Lakes drainage system; this low divide had been known since pre-Columbian time by the Native Americans, who used it as the Chicago Portage to cross from the Chicago River drainage to the Des Plaines River basin drainage. The Illinois and Michigan Canal was cut across that divide in the 1840s. In an attempt to better drain sewage and pollution in the Chicago River, the flow of the river had been reversed in 1871 when the Illinois and Michigan Canal was deepened enough to reverse the river's flow for one season. A plan soon emerged to cut through that ridge and carry wastewater away from the lake, through the Des Plaines and Illinois rivers, to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. In 1889, the Illinois General Assembly created the Sanitary District of Chicago to carry out the plan.
After four years of turmoil during construction, Isham Randolph was appointed Chief Engineer for the newly formed Sanitary District of Chicago and resolved many issues circulating around the project. While the canal was being built, permanent reversal of the Chicago River was attained in 1892, when the Army Corps of Engineers further deepened the Illinois and Michigan Canal. One of the issues for Randolph to resolve was a strike of about 2000 union workers, centered in Lemont and Joliet. On June 1, 1893, quarrymen went out to protest a wage cut, an action that drew in 1200 canal workers. Reports describe 400 quarrymen marching along the length of the canal project on June 2, between Lemont and Romeo, conducting a "reign of terror" at worksites, "armed with clubs and revolvers", "almost crazed with liquor". On the 9th strikers clashed with replacement workers and local law enforcement, Governor Altgeld called out the First and Second Regiments of the Illinois National Guard. Dozens were wounded and at least five killed: strikers Gregor Kilka, Jacob Ast, Thomas Moorski, Mike Berger, 17-year-old bystander John Kluga.
The strike was settled by the 15th. The new Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, linking the south branch of the Chicago River to the Des Plaines River at Lockport, in advance of an application by the Missouri Attorney General for an injunction against the opening, opened on January 2, 1900. However, it
Illinois and Michigan Canal
The Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. In Illinois, it ran 96 miles from the Chicago River in Bridgeport, Chicago to the Illinois River at LaSalle-Peru; the canal crossed the Chicago Portage, helped establish Chicago as the transportation hub of the United States, before the railroad era. It was opened in 1848, its function was replaced by the wider and shorter Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal in 1900, it ceased transportation operations with the completion of the Illinois Waterway in 1933. Illinois and Michigan Canal Locks and Towpath, a collection of eight engineering structures and segments of the canal between Lockport and LaSalle-Peru, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964. Portions of the canal have been filled in. Much of the former canal, near the Heritage Corridor transit line, has been preserved as part of the Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor. Canals, in the 1800s, were important modes of transportation.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the Mississippi Basin to the Great Lakes Basin. The canal influenced Illinois's north border; the Erie Canal and the Illinois and Michigan Canal cemented cultural and trade ties to the Northeast rather than the South. Before the canal, farming in the region was limited to subsistence farming; the canal made agriculture in northern Illinois profitable, opening up connections to eastern markets. With the expansion of agriculture, the canal created the city of Chicago. Without the initial stimulus of the canal, Chicago would not have attracted the populations and the industry that it did; the first known Europeans to travel the area, Father Marquette and Louis Joliet went through the Chicago Portage on their return trip. Joliet remarked that with a canal they could remove the need to portage and the French could create an empire spanning the continent; the first quantitative survey of the portage was performed in 1816 by Stephen H. Long, it was on the basis of these measurements.
With several slave states admitted to the Union, Nathaniel Pope and Ninian Edwards saw the opportunity to make Illinois a state. They proposed moving the border northward from the southern tip of Lake Michigan to allow the canal to be within a single state, they believed that the canal would align Illinois with the free states and so Congress granted them statehood though Illinois did not meet the population requirements. In 1824, Samuel D. Lockwood, one of the first commissioners of the canal, was given the authorization to hire contractors to survey a route for the canal to follow. Construction on the canal began in 1836, although it was stopped for several years due to an Illinois state financial crisis related to the Panic of 1837; the Canal Commission had a grant of 284,000 acres of federal land which it sold at $1.25 per acre to finance the construction. Still, money had to be borrowed from eastern U. S. and British investors to finish the canal. Most of the canal work was done by Irish immigrants who worked on the Erie Canal.
The work was considered dangerous and many workers died, although no official records exist to indicate how many. The Irish immigrants who toiled to build the canal were derided as a sub-class and were treated poorly by other citizens of the city; the canal was finished in 1848 at a total cost of $6,170,226. Chicago Mayor James Hutchinson Woodworth presided over the opening ceremony. Pumps were used to draw water to fill the canal near Chicago, soon supplemented by water from the Calumet Feeder Canal; the feeder was originated in Blue Island, Il. The DuPage River provided water farther south. In 1871 the canal was deepened to improve sewage disposal; the canal was 60 feet wide and 6 feet deep, with towpaths constructed along each edge to permit mules to be harnessed to tow barges along the canal. Towns were planned out along the path of the canal spaced at intervals corresponding to the length that the mules could haul the barges, it had seventeen locks and four aqueducts to cover the 140-foot height difference between Lake Michigan and the Illinois River.
From 1848 to 1852 the canal was a popular passenger route, but passenger service ended in 1853 with the opening of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad that ran parallel to the canal. The canal had its peak shipping year in 1882 and remained in use until 1933. Experiencing a remarkable recovery from the devastating Great Chicago Fire of 1871, Chicago rebuilt along the shores of the Chicago River; the river was important to the development of the city since all wastes from houses, the stockyards, other industries could be dumped into the river and carried out into Lake Michigan. The lake, was the source of drinking water. During a tremendous storm in 1885, the rainfall washed refuse from the river from the polluted Bubbly Creek, far out into the lake. Although no epidemics occurred, the Chicago Sanitary District was created by the Illinois legislature in 1889 in response to this close call; this new agency devised a plan to construct channels and canals to reverse the flow of the rivers away from Lake Michigan and divert the contaminated water downstream where it could be diluted as it flowed into the Des Plaines River and the Mississippi.
In 1892, the direction of part of the Chicago River was reversed by the Army Corps of Engineers with the result that the river and much of Chicago's sewage flowed into the canal instead
The Kankakee River is a tributary of the Illinois River 133 miles long, in northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois in the United States. At one time, the river drained one of the largest wetlands in North America and furnished a significant portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. Altered from its original channel, it flows through a rural farming region of reclaimed cropland, south of Lake Michigan; the Kankakee rises in northwestern Indiana five miles southwest of South Bend, Indiana. It flows in a straight channelized course southwestward through rural northwestern Indiana, collecting the Yellow River from the south in Starke County, passing the communities of South Center and English Lake, it forms the border between LaPorte and Lake counties on the north and Starke and Newton counties on the south. The river curves westward and ceases to be channelized as it enters Kankakee County in northeastern Illinois. Three miles southeast of the city of Kankakee, it receives the Iroquois River from the south and turns to the northwest for its lower 35 miles.
It joins the Des Plaines River from the south to form the Illinois River 50 miles southwest of Chicago. The Kankakee River Basin drains 2,989 square miles in northwest Indiana, 2,169 square miles in northeast Illinois, about seven square miles in southwest Lower Michigan; the Kankakee River heads near South Bend flows westward into Illinois, where it joins with the Des Plaines River to form the Illinois. The area of Lake County which drained to Lake Michigan but now drains by means of artificial diversion to the Illinois River is not considered to be part of the Kankakee River Basin study region. Although the Kankakee River basin includes portions of Indiana and Michigan, the discussion below will focus on the Indiana portion of the basin; the Kankakee Outwash and Lacustrine Plain, a large and poorly drained plain, comprises the southern quarter of both Lake and Porter counties. It is the most recent of the three landscape regions to face the pressures of impending urbanization. Large portions of the area were once marshland associated with the meandering Kankakee River, for eight or nine months of the year, was flanked on both sides by wetlands.
The marsh area was three to four miles wide and contained water one to four feet deep. The low marshland was broken by infrequent islands of sand blown into dunes; the sand islands were the sites of Indian encampments and of pioneer homes. The Kankakee marsh was an effective barrier to early southerly exploration of both counties, but the area has been progressively drained by ditches constructed during the past 60 years; the Kankakee River Basin is a product of the Wisconsin Glacial Episode. It is a remnant of the glacial lakes. Landscape elements include 1) the nearly level plains of a ground moraine, 2) eolian plains, 3) outwash deposits, 4) the central river basin and 5) end moraines forming the north and southern borders. Local relief varies from 60 feet along the Iroquois Moraine, up to 100 feet on the Valparaiso Moraine. Deposits range from 50 to 100 feet in the lower basin; the deepest deposits of 100 to 250 feet are in the upper basin. Along the Valparaiso Moraine, deposits can reach 350 feet thick.
Outwash deposits occur along the northern border of the basin. The southern half of the Kankakee Basin, south of the main river channel, is characterized by the fine-grained sediments that are wind driven, forming a series of broad eolian sand dunes and ridges; these are of moderate height. Lacustrine silts and clays are mixed with the various waterborne and wind driven deposits throughout the basin; the bedrock underlying the Kankakee Basin is of Silurian age. There are strata from the Devonian, Mississippian periods; the Silurian rocks are dolomite and limestone. A major subterranean feature is the Kankakee Arch. North of the arch, the strata dip towards Lake Michigan and the Michigan Basin. To the south, the strata dips southwest toward the Illinois Basin. Within the Kankakee Basin, the rock strata are nearly flat; the Advanced Hydrological Prediction Service contains current data for river depths. Contrary to what may be shown in online mapping sites or GPS software, the bridge over the Kankakee River on State Line Road near the public ramp at the Indiana–Illinois state line is closed and dismantled.
Some fishing maps and websites about the river may include road directions to the public ramp at the state line, with outdated information. The public ramp is located on the north side of the river, with the bridge out, it is not accessible from the south side, from Illinois Route 114/Indiana State Road 10; as of September 7, 2008, the old iron bridge at the Indiana–Illinois state line had been removed from its concrete supports and was set on the ground, clearing the water by only 3 feet, making it possible to pass beneath only in small boats, etc. The Kankakee River was formed around 16,000 years ago by an event known as the Kankakee Torrent. A glacial lake resulting from meltwater from the Wisconsin glaciation breached the moraines holding it in; the resultant flood created the bed of the Kankakee River and had greater impact in what is today the state of Illinois. Up
Kane County, Illinois
Kane County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 515,269, making it the fifth-most populous county in Illinois, its county seat is Geneva, its largest city is Aurora. Kane County has been one of the collar counties of the metropolitan statistical area designated "Chicago–Naperville–Elgin, IL–IN–WI" by the US Census. Kane County was formed out of LaSalle County in 1836; the county was named in honor of Elias Kane, United States Senator from Illinois, the first Secretary of State of Illinois. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county's area was 524 square miles, of which 520 square miles is land and 4.1 square miles is water. Its largest cities are along the Fox River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Geneva have ranged from a low of 10 °F in January to a high of 84 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 111 °F was recorded in July 1936; the average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.52 inches in February to 4.39 inches in July.
McHenry County Cook County DuPage County Will County Kendall County DeKalb County Fox River Trail Great Western Trail Illinois Prairie Path James "Pate" Philip State Park Kane County has an extensive forest preserve program, with numerous nature preserves, historic sites, trails. As of the 2010 census, there were 515,269 people, 170,479 households, 128,323 families residing in the county; the population density was 990.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 182,047 housing units at an average density of 350.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 74.6% white, 5.7% black or African American, 3.5% Asian, 0.6% American Indian, 13.0% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 30.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 24.3% were German, 13.0% were Irish, 7.9% were Polish, 7.4% were Italian, 7.1% were English, 2.4% were American. Of the 170,479 households, 42.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.2% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.7% were non-families, 19.8% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.45. The median age was 34.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $67,767 and the median income for a family was $77,998. Males had a median income of $53,833 versus $39,206 for females; the per capita income for the county was $29,480. About 7.0% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. Aurora University Elgin Community College Judson University Waubonsee Community College There are several hospitals serving the county: Advocate Sherman Hospital, Elgin Delnor Hospital, Geneva Presence Mercy Medical Center, Aurora Presence Saint Joseph Hospital, Elgin Rush-Copley Medical Center, Aurora Metra Pace Aurora Municipal Airport Interstate 88 Interstate 90 U. S. Highway 20 U. S. Highway 30 U. S. Highway 34 Illinois Route 19 Illinois Route 25 Illinois Route 31 Illinois Route 38 Illinois Route 47 Illinois Route 56 Illinois Route 58 Illinois Route 62 Illinois Route 64 Illinois Route 68 Illinois Route 72 Illinois Route 110 Aurora Batavia Elgin Geneva St. Charles Yorkville Prestbury As one of the Yankee-settled and prosperous suburban “collar counties”, Kane County was a stronghold of the Free Soil Party in its first few elections, being one of nine Illinois counties to give a plurality to Martin van Buren in 1848.
Kane County unsurprisingly became solidly Republican for the century and a half following that party’s formation. It voted for the GOP Presidential nominee in every election between 1856 and 2004 except that of 1912 when the Republican Party was mortally divided and Progressive Theodore Roosevelt carried the county with a majority of the vote over conservative incumbent William Howard Taft; the gradual shift of the GOP towards white Southern Evangelicals, has led the moderate electorate of Kane and the other “collar counties” to trend towards the Democratic Party. In 2008, Illinois-bred Barack Obama became the first Democrat to carry Kane County since Franklin Pierce in 1852, the first to win an absolute majority of the county’s vote. Obama won a plurality in 2012, Hillary Clinton improved upon Obama’s showing to become the second Democrat to win a majority in 2016. Dundee Township Park District Fermilab Fox River Golden Corridor Illinois Technology and Research Corridor Kane-DuPage Regional Museum Association National Register of Historic Places listings in Kane County, Illinois Tri-Cities, Illinois Patricia Golden Frank D.
Weir GeneralForstall, Richard L.. Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790 to 1990: From the Twenty-One Decennial Censuses. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Population Division. ISBN 0-934213-48-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Kane County official government website
Chicago metropolitan area
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area that includes the city of Chicago and its suburbs. With an estimated CSA population of 9.9 million people and an MSA population of 9.5 million people, it is the third largest metropolitan area in the United States. The Chicago metropolitan area is one of the world's largest and most diversified economies, with more than four million employees and generating an annual gross regional product of $680 billion in 2017; the region is home to more than 400 major corporate headquarters, including 31 in the Fortune 500. There are several definitions of the area, including the area defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Chicago–Joliet–Naperville-Aurora, IL–IN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, the area under the jurisdiction of the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning; the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area was designated by the United States Census Bureau in 1950. It comprised the Illinois counties of Cook, DuPage, Kane and Will, along with Lake County in Indiana.
As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Cook County, they met Census criteria to be added to the MSA. The Chicago MSA, now defined as the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the third largest MSA by population in the United States; the 2015 census estimate for the MSA was 9,532,569, a decline from 9,543,893 in the 2014 census estimate. This loss of population has been attributed to taxes, political issues and other factors; the Chicago MSA is further subdivided by state boundaries into the Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL Metropolitan Division, corresponding to the CMAP region. A breakdown of the 2009 estimated populations of the three Metropolitan Divisions of the MSA are as follows: The OMB defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area; the Chicago–Naperville, IL–IN–WI Combined Statistical Area combines the metropolitan areas of Chicago, Michigan City, Kankakee. This area represents the extent of the labor market pool for the entire region.
The CSA has a population of 9,928,312. The Chicago urban agglomeration, according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report, lists a population of 9,545,000; the term "urban agglomeration" refers to the population contained within the contours of a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels. It incorporates the population in a city plus that in the surrounding area. Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area; the term Chicagoland has no official definition, the region is considered to include areas beyond the corresponding MSA, as well as portions of the greater CSA. Colonel Robert R. McCormick and publisher of the Chicago Tribune gets credit for placing the term in common use. McCormick's conception of Chicagoland stretched all the way to nearby parts of four states; the first usage was in the Tribune's July 27, 1926 front page headline, "Chicagoland's Shrines: A Tour of Discoveries", for an article by reporter James O'Donnell Bennett. He stated that Chicagoland comprised everything in a 200-mile radius in every direction and reported on many different places in the area.
The Tribune was the dominant newspaper in a vast area stretching to the west of the city, that hinterland was tied to the metropolis by rail lines and commercial links. Today, the Chicago Tribune's usage includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties, the two Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Illinois Department of Tourism literature uses Chicagoland for suburbs in Cook, Lake, DuPage and Will counties, treating the city separately; the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry, Will counties. In addition, company marketing programs such as Construction Data Company's "Chicago and Vicinity" region and the Chicago Automobile Trade Association's "Chicagoland and Northwest Indiana" advertising campaign are directed at the MSA itself, as well as LaSalle, Winnebago and Ogle counties in Illinois, in addition to Jasper, La Porte counties in Indiana and Kenosha and Walworth counties in Wisconsin, as far northeast as Berrien County, Michigan.
The region is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis. Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning is an Illinois state agency responsible for transportation infrastructure, land use, long term economic development planning for the areas under its jurisdiction within Illinois; the planning area has a population of over 8 million, which includes the following locations in Illinois: The city of Chicago lies in the Chicago Plain, a flat and broad area characterized by little topographical relief. The few low hills are sand ridges. North of the Chicago Plain, steep bluffs and ravines run alongside Lake Michigan. Along the southern shore of the Chicago Plain, sand dunes run alongside the lake; the tallest dunes are found in Indiana Dunes National Park. Surrounding the low plain are bands of moraines in the south and west suburbs; these areas are hillier than the Chicago Plain. A continental divide, separating the Mississippi River watershed from that of
Illinois's 1st congressional district
Illinois's first congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Illinois. Based in Cook County, the district includes much of the South Side of Chicago, continues southwest to Joliet. From 2003 to early 2013 it extended into the city's southwest suburbs until reaching the border of Will County, covered 97.84 square miles, making it one of the 40 smallest districts in the U. S.. The district had a population, 65% African American, the highest percentage of any congressional district in the nation, it includes the home of former President Barack Obama. The 1st is a majority-minority district, has been since at least the 1920s. Since redistricting by the state legislature after the 2010 census, it is 51.3% African American, 40.6% white, 9.8% Hispanic population. The district is represented by Democrat Bobby Rush, re-elected in 2016, has been elected continuously in the 1st district since 1992. In 2011, following the 2010 census, the state legislature redistricted, it expanded the district to cover parts of Will Counties.
After redistricting, all or parts of Alsip, Blue Island, Calumet Park, Country Club Hills, Dixmoor, Evergreen Park, Frankfort Square, Manhattan, Merrionette Park, Mokena, New Lenox, Oak Forest, Oak Lawn, Orland Hills, Orland Park, Palos Heights, Riverdale, Tinley Park, Worth are included. The representative for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 3, 2013; the district was adjacent to the 2nd District to the east and south, the 7th District to the north, the 3rd and 13th Districts to the west, bordered the 11th District at its southwest corner. The district's northeast border followed Lake Michigan's shoreline for a mile; the district was created following the 1830 U. S. Census and came into existence in 1833. S. House of Representatives with representative elected on an at-large basis; the district included Southwestern Illinois until 1853. It included the state's northern edge until 1863. Since that time, the district has included all or part of Cook County.
Historical populations reflected waves of immigration into the area: previous majority populations were ethnic Irish and east European. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Irish were the first to establish their physical and political control of the area within the city's South Side; the current 1st district has a minority-majority population: 51.3% of the residents are African-American. It has been represented in Congress by African Americans since 1929. Tens of thousands of African Americans moved to Chicago from the rural South in the Great Migration, they were confined by discrimination to the South Side of Chicago and replaced ethnic whites who moved out to suburbs. This has been one of the most reliably Democratic districts in the country, although not to the extent that it was during the 1980s, when more than 90% of the district's residents were black; the district has not elected a Republican to the U. S. House of Representatives since 1932. After the civil rights movement gained support from national Democratic Party for major legislation to restore constitutional rights, including the franchise in the South, most African Americans shifted to support the Democratic Party.
Democratic congressional candidates receive over 80% of the vote here. Based in Chicago, the district includes the neighborhoods of Auburn Gresham, Burnside and Greater Grand Crossing; the district's area south of 95th Street is entirely west of Interstate 57. The district includes the municipalities of Crestwood, Evergreen Park, Midlothian and Robbins, nearly all of Alsip, Blue Island and Oak Forest, parts of Calumet Park, Markham, Orland Hills, Orland Park, Palos Heights, Tinley Park and Worth, some small sections of Country Club Hills and Riverdale. In the twentieth century after the Great Migration from the South and concentration of blacks on the South Side due to de facto residential segregation, the district became the nation's first with a black-majority population. Since the 1920s, it has included the central area of Chicago's South Side African-American community. Over 85% of the district's residents were black during the period from the 1950s through the 1980s, but redistricting since that time – which redrew the district lines with the goal of maintaining three Chicago districts with black populations exceeding 60% – has reduced the percentage of black residents in the district to 70% in the 1990s.
The current figure is 65%. Outward migration has caused the South Side's population to decrease over the years, the district was expanded geographically to the southwest to gain residents as the state's congressional delegation has been reduced in numbers due to population changes and reapportio